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Records of Early English Drama 

Editorial Apparatus 



Records of Early English Drama 



Editorial Apparatus 




Overview 703 
Town and Gown 705 
Drama in the Colleges 710 
Entertainment in the Town 
Ceremony 729 
Cambridge Musicians 738 
Institutions and Documents 
Editorial Procedures 810 
Notes 818 




MAPS 833 

1 Undated Documents 841 
2 Post-1642 Documents 844 
3 Reminiscences and Allusions 845 
4 Allusions to Ignoramus 861 
5 Topical Poems 865 
6 Cambridge Play Bibliography 886 
7 Casts 942 
8 Chronological List of 
College Performances 963 
9 College Plays by 
Non-Cambridge Authors 977 
10 Town Plays by Non-Cambridge 
Authors 984 

11 Cambridge Ghosts 987 
12 Saltings 996 
13 Musicians 1002 
14 Joseph Mead's Tutorial 
Notebooks 1012 
15 Music in Cambridge Plays 1024 
16 Cambridge Playwrights 1028 
17 Synopsis of February 1611 
Riot 1030 
18 Saints" Days and Festivals 1035 
19 Published Illustrations 1038 



Introduction 1295 
Latin Glossary 1300 
English Glossary 1330 
Index of Members of Cambridge 
University Named in the 
Records 1391 
Index 1437 


Figure 1 Trinity College hall, looking toward the upper end (John Bethell Photography, 
St Albans) 


The modern reputation of Cambridge as a breeding ground for musicians and for 
dramatists, especially satirists, has a remarkable parallel in Cambridge before the civil 
war. The purpose of this collection is to make available records through which the 
nature and scope of drama and secular music in Cambridge before 1642 may be 
understood and appreciated. One of the earliest records, from 1314-15, concerns 
Robert Pipere, possibly a town wait (Appendix 13). The terminal date, as for all RED 
volumes, is 1642, the year theatres were closed in London. Though private Cambridge 
performances were not proscribed by the act which closed professional theatres, this 
year nevertheless marked the last performance of a college play before the civil war, 
Abraham Cowley's Tioe Guardian, staged in Trinity College hall for the future 
Charles !1. 
Evidence gathered in this collection permits the identification of more than 400 in- 
dividual college performances between 1456-7 and 1641-2 (Appendix 8). Dramatists 
identifiable by name include Aristophanes, Euripides, Plautus, Seneca, Sophocles, and 
Terence from the ancient world; Sixt Birck, George Buchanan, John Foxe, Willelm 
Gnapheus, Thomas Kirchmayer, George Macropedius, Claude Roillet, Johannes 
Ravisius, Nicholas Udall, and Hieronymus Ziegler from contemporary Europe and 
Britain (Appendix 9); and numerous university authors. Some sixty original 
Cambridge dramatic texts survive (Appendix 6). The most famous today is Gammer 
Gurton's Needle (c 1550-1). The most famous in their time were Thomas Legge's 
Richardus Tertius (1578-9), which was probably known to Shakespeare; Edward 
Forcett's Pedantius (1580-1); and George Ruggle's Ignoramus (1614-15). 
Cambridge plays attracted visits by royalty, including Elizabeth 1, James I, his son 
Charles both as prince and as Charles , and Prince Charles, the future Charles n. The 
plays were also noticed by political correspondents, including Guzmn de Silva, am- 
bassador from Spain in 1563-4, and John Chamberlain, the famous letter-writer who 
is an important source for the history of England in the first half of the seventeenth 
century. In 1575 William Soone composed a description of Cambridge and its college 
plays which was printed on the back of the Braun and Hogenberg map of Cambridge 
in the Latin, French, and German editions, thus spreading the fame of the town and 
its drama throughout Europe (Appendix 3). Cambridge plays attracted national 


attention and aroused controversy on several occasions, never more than in 1614-15, 
in response to George Ruggle's satirical attack on common lawyers in Ignoramus: 
repercussions from the performance lasted for decades, and the word 'ignoramus' 
gained a permanent foothold in the English language (Appendixes 4, 5). 
Although the London professional stage is not a focus of this volume, it is well to 
keep in mind that Cambridge nourished Thomas Preston, the apparent author of 
Cambyses, as well as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nash, Robert Greene, and a host 
of minor playwrights (Appendix 16). Cambridge records and texts include allusions 
to William Shakespeare and Ben Jonson (Appendix 3, 1598; p 535), and to several com- 
panies of professional actors (list of Patrons and Travelling Companies). Writers from 
the London literary scene who allude to Cambridge plays include John Harington, 
Thomas Nash, Francis Meres, Thomas Heywood, and John Milton (Appendix 3). 
Despite the flourishing dramatic activity in its colleges, and despite its record of 
supplying London with major and minor playwrights, Cambridge ultimately proved 
an inhospitable venue for professional actors. Travelling companies visited frequently 
under the earlier Tudor monarchs, but beginning about 1570, with support from 
Elizabeth through her privy council, and later from James I and Charles I in person, 
the university grew increasingly hostile to professional entertainment. From 1579-80 
onward visiting troupes were often sent away, with or without payment from the uni- 
versity. No visiting troupe is known to have performed in Cambridge after 1596-7. 
Musicians, however, escaped the university's opprobrium. Cambridge had its own 
company of town waits from the fourteenth century (though the licensing of the waits 
was eventually co-opted by the university), and many civic and academic occasions 
were celebrated with their music. Travelling companies of waits from other towns 
visited Cambridge throughout the period covered by the Records. 
The colleges often made arrangements with local musicians to supply instrumental 
music for their plays. The musicians most called upon were the town waits. In 1622-3 
students of Trinity College drew on the talents of their chapel musicians under the 
direction of Robert Ramsey to provide vocal and perhaps instrumental music as well 
for Loiola (Appendix 7). Another Cambridge musician of subsequent fame was 
Thomas Mudd, who, however, was involved with plays as a playwright rather than 
as a composer. Many of the more famous composers who became involved with the 
plays were non-Cambridge men: William Byrd, Thomas Holmes, GeorgeJeffreys, 
Robert Johnson, and John Wilbye (Appendixes 13, 15). William Gibbons, town wait 
for much of the last third of the sixteenth century, was the father of Edward, Fer- 
dinando, and the incomparable Orlando. But while Orlando Gibbons received his 
musical education at King's College, he apparently made no contribution to the efforts 
of either Cambridge playwrights or Cambridge waits. 

Town and Gown 

Cambridge may serve as a perpetual challenge to the biblical maxim that a house 
divided cannot stand. The river Cam, which curves through the city, formed an im- 
pediment to land transportation until its banks were joined, prior to the earliest written 
record of the area, by the bridge which gives the town its name. Despite the bridge, 
the castle and two wards on the west bank have always been somewhat isolated from 
the market, the colleges, and the eight wards on the east bank. Although several of 
the colleges which backed on the river constructed bridges to the opposite bank, only 
one small college, Magdalene, was actually situated on the west bank, 'alone," in the 
words of university historian Thomas Fuller, 'cut of from the Continent of 
Cambridge.' Few important college or university buildings were erected across the 
river before the nineteenth century. ! Even the river is divided into an upper stretch, 
called the Granta, effectively closed to navigation by mill dams, and a lower stretch, 
called the Cam, leading to the sea at King's Lynn, which served until the coming of 
the railroad as the port of Cambridge. 
Social divisions have proved even more notable and enduring than geographical di- 
visions, for the residents of Cambridge have long been split into factions of town and 
gown. In day-to-day life the division is not always apparent, but when the two com- 
munities have come into direct conflict, behaviour on both sides has often been petty 
and self-righteous at best, violent and even murderous at worst. 
Cambridge has always been a town of the second rank, never approaching the size 
or importance of a York or a Norwich, but still counting for much as the chief borough 
in the county and a centre of commerce for the eastern region of England. A social 
history of the town may safely begin in 1279, the year of a census which listed every 
house, shop, and void place in the town. Some 535 households are enumerated in the 
census, and the name of each householder is recorded. Subsequent lists and censuses 
reveal a pattern of relative prosperity to the middle of the fourteenth century, stag- 
nation for a century and a half beginning with the plague of 1349, and then a generally 
steady increase in population from about 2,600 in 1524-5, to 5,000 in 1587, and 7, 750 
in the 1620s. 2 (These figures do not include members of the university.) 
Population increase in Cambridge depended largely upon immigration, mostly 
from the countryside. Lying at the edge of the fens, with a reputation for dampness 


especially before local drainage projects had a chance to do their work, Cambridge 
might have been a relatively safe and healthy place for the well-to-do, but was a 
dangerous place for the poor: when the plague struck, as it did frequently from 1349 
until well past 1642, it caused fearful depredations in the parishes inhabited by those 
of lesser means. 3 
The prosperity of fourteenth-century Cambridge, especially before the advent of 
the plague, depended largely on the Cam, which gave access to the sea for agricultural 
exports and ingress to boats which supplied goods to the town and to the university. 
The town's economy became increasingly tied to the growing university, whose in- 
dividual members, hostels, and colleges required servants, victuallers, stationers, 
bookbinders, tailors - suppliers of a wide range of goods and services. 
The favourable location of Cambridge for transportation by land and by water led 
directly to the success of Sturbridge Fair, approximately two miles down river from 
the town centre on the east bank of the Cam. Founded in the twelfth century, the 
fair grew so immense by 1516 that it lasted five weeks, from 24 August to 29 Sep- 
tember. Sturbridge Fair was described in 1589 as 'by far the largest and most famous 
fair in all England,' and Daniel Defoe characterized the fair in A Tour Thro'the Whole 
Island of Great Britain as the greatest in the world, surpassing those at Augsburg, 
Frankfurt, Leipzig, and Nuremberg. 4 
For the residents of Cambridge, to whom freedom of the town guaranteed a toll-free 
booth, the fair meant at the very least a large annual infusion of goods and capital. 
For the gownsmen the fair provided a convenient opportunity to stock up on supplies 
for the coming academic year, which began on 29 September, the closing day of the 
fair. On the negative side, the fair offered an occasion for the gathering of crowds 
and hence for the spread of plague; it also posed a threat to morals, for the traffic of 
men and women of doubtful virtue was notorious, and entertainers attracted to the 
fair by the hope of profit might distract students from their studies, which were sup- 
posed to continue even out of term. Records of attempts by the university to protect 
its students from disruptive influences date from as early as 1234; in 1591-2 the uni- 
versity successfully urged a precedent in a royal prohibition of tournaments dated 
1270. s 
Though the University of Cambridge antedated the 1279 census by as much as half 
a century, the first college, Peterhouse, was not founded until 1284. Other colleges 
and halls were founded in a fairly steady succession through the next three centuries: 
King's Hall, Michaelhouse, Clare, Pembroke, Gonville, Trinity Hall, and Corpus 
Christi in the fourteenth; Christ's (originally God's House), King's College, Queens', 
St Catharine's, and Jesus in the fifteenth; St John's, Magdalene, Trinity College, 
Emmanuel, and Sidney Sussex in the sixteenth. Then no more colleges were estab- 
lished until the very beginning of the nineteenth century. 
During medieval times students of the university were chiefly young men from 
poorer economic classes who were encouraged by the church to secure an education 
in preparation for serving local parishes as competent priests. The majority of these 


students lived in hostels, which were modest unendowed residence halls. As residents 
of hostels the students paid for their food and lodging, often with the assistance of 
the church. Colleges, by contrast, were endowed, quasi-independent corporations 
composed of a head, fellows, and scholars. Though most colleges were ostensibly 
founded for the benefit of poor students and made some provision for the admission 
and sustenance of students of small means, from the earliest times colleges tended to 
function in practice as societies of privileged graduates. 6 Wealthier students came to 
outnumber poorer students and required more comfortable quarters in socially struc- 
tured and formally regulated households. Though students rich and poor continued 
to attend the university as preparation for the ministry, many students of greater 
means came with the expectation that an academic education would help them to high 
places in the secular order. 
The colleges owed their survival through the difficult economic times of the fifteenth 
and early sixteenth centuries both to their endowments and to the practice of admitting 
paying members in excess of the number provided for by their charters or, in some 
cases, in complete contravention of their charters. (Ordinary fee-paying under- 
graduates were called pensioners; wealthier ones, who paid for the privilege of eating 
better fare at the fellows' table, were called fellow-commoners.) With their double 
advantage of large endowments and additional income from wealthy supernumeraries, 
the colleges flourished as the hostels foundered. So total was the domination of the 
university by the colleges that admission to the university became conditional upon 
prior admission to a college; from 1586 onwards, moreover, vice-chancellors of the 
university were always drawn from among the heads of colleges.7 
The development of the colleges paralleled an increase in the population of the uni- 
versity. Significantly smaller than Oxford University in the fourteenth century, Cam- 
bridge University probably drew about even by the start of the sixteenth century with 
a population approaching 1,000. A university census of 1564 put the number at 1,267; 
by 1570 the population had increased to 1,630, and by 1622, to 3,050. s Comparison 
with the population of the town suggests that at any given time the total population 
of Cambridge was approximately two-thirds townspeople and one-third gownsmen. 
Considering that many townsfolk owed an allegiance to the university as their em- 
ployer, and that others were domestic servants, minors, impoverished, or in other 
respects without significant social standing, the division must have seemed on both 
sides closer to fifty-fifty. 
The foundation of Corpus Christi College in 1352 by the united town guild of Cor- 
pus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary marks a high point in the relations between 
university and town. In 1381, however, less than thirty years after the foundation of 
the college, the townspeople, spurred by the hostilities which gave rise to the Peasants' 
Revolt, attacked the house of William Wigmore, esquire bedeii . the university, 
raided Corpus Christi College itself, set fire to its muniments, and burnt university 
charters and deeds, to the cries of an old woman who exclaimed in simple eloquence: 
'Away with the learning of the clerks, away with it! '9 


The town of Cambridge paid a bitter price for the violence of 1381, not so much 
in immediate punishments meted out to instigators of the attack as in royal mandates 
which, in long succession, gave the university increasing powers over broad areas of 
commercial and moral behaviour. From the fifteenth century onward the town 
repeatedly sought the privileges routinely enjoyed by communities of equivalent size 
and importance, but its petitions were routinely and effectively opposed by the uni- 
versity. Indeed, Cambridge did not win the right to be called a city until 1951.10 The 
strain between the town and the university was frequently acute, and ceremonial 
occasions were sometimes marred by intemperate disputes over precedence between 
the mayor and the vice-chancellor.l 
The Elizabethan statutes of 1570 gave the university virtually every power it had 
ever sought in its struggle for ascendancy over the town. The university's power was 
usually confirmed in subsequent disputes, although the town never gave up its 
demands and did regain some control over commercial activities. But the university 
managed to increase its jurisdiction until almost anyone whose life touched that 
of the university could claim exemption both from town law and from lay subsidy 
assessments. 1-, The university also opposed the invasion of its precinct by professional 
players. Since the university precinct was defined as extending first one mile and, after 
1570, five miles from the town centre, this meant that no outside players whatsoever 
were to be permitted in the town or even nearby. 
It might be thought that if town and gown could not see eye to eye on the matter 
of ceremony or entertainment, they might do so with respect to religion. Cambridge, 
after all, was an important breeding ground of the English Reformation during the 
1520s and 1530s. Leading academics, who reputedly gathered at the White Horse Inn 
to discuss theology and reform, disseminated their new doctrines from the pulpits of 
the local parish churches, and the town remained staunchly protestant ever after. 3 
The town's protestantism, however, did not generally embrace radical puritan stric- 
tures against worldly pleasures, nor did the local population give up its desire for sec- 
ular entertainment. Thus the mayor might approve secular performances, as in 
1605-6, which the vice-chancellor would subsequently suppress. On the academic 
side, not all colleges embraced the cause of moral reform with equal fervour. Christ's, 
the college of Milton, was famous for its puritanism; one of the more active partici- 
pants in drama during the middle third of the sixteenth century, it produced no more 
plays after 1567-8. Sidney Sussex, the college of Oliver Cromwell, and Emmanuel 
were also puritan strongholds. But other colleges remained staunchly Anglican and 
royalist, especially the three royal foundations, King's, Queens', and Trinity. 
Neither religion nor moral sensibility nor allegiance to higher political authority 
could unite town and gown in Cambridge. In general, the university remained high 
church and royalist, the town moderately puritan and parliamentary: indeed, 'ill- 
feeling between town and gown was to take on a fresh colour in the seventeenth 
century and to be absorbed into the national conflict. '4 


The divisions between town and gown may seem to be belied by some of the evi- 
dence in the Records. Colleges made contributions to parish dancers and players, 
allowed parish lords and players into their halls on festive occasions, joined in pro- 
cessions about the town, and co-operated in the reception of royal visitors. Students 
attended the public performances of visiting players, and Trinity College made con- 
tributions to professional players, even as late as 1592-3; conversely, townspeople 
assisted with the production of college plays, not only as musicians, carpenters, and 
tailors, but possibly even as stage keepers, and townspeople were occasionally invited 
into college halls to watch the academic plays. 
Nevertheless, the broad picture reveals more division than co-operation. From the 
late 1560s the university mounted an intense campaign to rid the town of all secular 
performances. By 1603-4 prohibited activities included bull-baiting, bear-baiting, 
common plays, public shows, interludes, comedies and tragedies in the English 
tongue, the game of loggats and the game of nine-holes, and 'all other sportes and 
games.' In sum, apart from pure music, no traditional secular entertainment of any 
description was officially permitted to the townspeople by the university. 
In the colleges, on the other hand, entertainment was not only permitted, but en- 
couraged. Comedies, tragedies, and shows were staged for the amusement of members 
of the colleges and their visitors, whether fellow academics, visiting dignitaries, or 
monarchs. Even if the occasional mayor or other local dignitary was allowed to witness 
a college play, the use of Latin in most plays divided the academics who could follow 
the plot and enjoy the wordplay from the townsmen who could merely witness the 
spectacle. When the students did compose in English, the visiting townsfolk might 
discover that instead of being treated as respected guests, they were the targets of bitter 
satire, as Fuller reports for the performance of Club Law in 1599-1600. Thus sobriety 
and self-denial were enjoined upon the townspeople, even while gownsmen sat in their 
college halls enjoying plays on dark winter afternoons and evenings, warmed by blaz- 
ing fires, good cheer, royal approbation, and doubtless by a deep sense that all was 
right with the world. 

Drama in the Colleges 

History of College Drama 

Since the distinctive character of entertainment at Cambridge was established by the 
tastes and activities of the colleges, it is fitting that the colleges come first both in this 
discursive survey and elsewhere in the collection. On the evidence provided by the 
Records, it seems reasonable to divide the history of Cambridge college drama into 
five periods, plus 'Antecedents' and 'Aftermath." (The documentation, of course, is 
incomplete, especially before 1520; moreover, customs of one period usually held 
over into the next.) 


This period is covered principally by the account books of King's Hall and, from 
1388-9, by the Peterhouse computus rolls, along with two chance survivals from Cor- 
pus Christi College (1380-1, 1398-9). The Peterhouse and Corpus Christi documen- 
tation reveals little more than routine payments to musicians and parish dancers, but 
the King's Hall accounts vary the terminology enticingly: 'tripudiantes,' 'ministralli,' 
'histriones,' 'ioculatores,' 'mimi,' 'lusores,' 'ludentes,' 'ape Ward Regis,'' fistulatores'; 
in subsequent years, 'buccinatores,' 'prestigiator,' 'waytes," and 'pleyars.' Although 
the 'ministralli,' 'histriones,' and 'mimi' were probably musicians, along with the 
'fistulatores,' "buccinatores,' and 'waytes,' the'lusores' and 'ludentes,' like the later 
players, may have engaged in mimetic activity. In the absence of more specific evi- 
dence, however, it is perhaps best not to speculate about the exact nature of the per- 
formances on the basis of professional names alone. 


The bulk of the evidence for dramatic activity in this period comes from King's College 
(founded 1441). Three kinds of dramatic activity may be distinguished: 

1 / King's College offered gratuities to visiting players both from Cambridge parishes 


and from nearby towns or counties. Local parish players are associated with St Cle- 
ment's and Little St Mary's (1488-9), and with Great St Mary's (1499-1500, 1500-1). 
Beginning in 1467-8, external players visited from Saffron Walden, Ramsey, Bury 
St Edmunds, Madingley, Fulbourn (players of interludes), and Gamlingay. In 1456-7 
the college rewarded the jester ('Burderio') of the duke of York; in 1503-4 the college 
rewarded the interlude players ('lnterlusoribus') of Prince Henry. 
In 1461-2 King's Hall paid both 'mimi' and 'lusores' for performances on Holy 
Innocents' Day: the 'lusores' may well have been play-actors. Similarly, in 1468-9 
King's College paid 'lusores' on Holy Innocents' Day for an entertainment attended 
by the mayor, the twelve (members of the town council), and other distinguished 
guests. Such payments continued at King's Hall into the sixteenth century; the last 
payment apparently occurred in 1520-1. At King's College performances of plays by 
outsiders are last recorded in 1508-9. 

2/ King's College produced disguisings regularly from 1456-7 to 1489-90. These 
were put on for the college's own entertainment and for the benefit of academic guests 
(1467-8). Although nothing is known of the subject matter of the disguisings, they 
involved music, costumes, painted fabrics, and an otherwise undefined 'apparatus' 
(1473-4). Perhaps the college imitated conventions and standards for disguisings set 
by royal and noble households. IS 

3/ Beginning in 1465-6, members of King's College were sometimes responsible for 
plays ('ludi'). Since these references are usually distinct from references to disguisings, 
it is possible that the 'ludi' may have been plays in the usual sense of the term. 
Undefined 'ludi' are also recorded at King's Hall in 1503-4, 1507-8, and 1508-9. 


In 1510-11 King's Hall staged a comedy of Terence, the first known play by a classical 
author performed by any college in either Cambridge or Oxford. (This, however, was 
not necessarily the first such play.) In 1516-17 Master Thrope of King's Hall directed 
another play by Terence, performed by the boys under his tutelage. 
John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, may have supplied a play of his own to St John's 
College in 1521-2. Thomas Arthur of St John's wrote two plays, Mundus Plurnbeus 
and Microcosrnus; Arthur's name also occurs on a bill of expenses for a play from the 
early 1520s (Appendix 1 ). Clearly dated evidence of performances at St John's begins 
in 1524-5. 
Queens' College staged an unnamed comedy of Plautus in 1522-3. About the same 
time three members of Trinity Hall, including Stephen Gardiner, took part in a per- 
formance of Plautus" Miles Gloriosus. Whether these were two separate productions, 
or a play at Queens' assisted by performers from outside the college, is unclear. 
Christ's College, which performed plays annually from at least 1530-1, stirred up a 


wasp's nest of bad feeling in 1544-5 with its performance of Kirchmayer's Pam- 
machius. Meanwhile, King's College maintained its schedule of plays at Christmas 
without apparent incident. 
By 1534-5 St John's was performing several plays annually. In this year Richard 
Wade put on a comedy, John Hatcher a dialogue, John Cheke a play by Terence, and 
John Redman 'dyuerse playes.' Later, possibly the following year, Thomas Smith of 
Queens' organized a production of Aristophanes' Plutus at St John's in the original 
Greek, pronounced according to rules which Smith had devised in collaboration with 
John Cheke. In 1537-8 St John's produced 'vii comedes' and one 'diolog in greke.' 
Thomas Watson of St John's wrote his Absalom c 1539-40; it is the earliest surviving 
play text composed at Cambridge. By 1544-5 play-acting had become such an estab- 
lished part of St John's College life that it was institutionalized in the college statutes. 


More than a third of all known performances of Cambridge college plays occurred 
in this eighteen-year period (Appendix 8). The new statutes of St John's required the 
performance of 'at least six dialogues, or festival or literary spectacles' each year 
between Christmas and Epiphany, and other comedies or tragedies from Epiphany 
to Lent. In 1546-7 Queens' College followed suit by requiring students to participate 
in comedies and tragedies, two per year as dictated in the fully revised statutes of 
1558-9. In 1559-60 Trinity College formalized its practice of performing five plays 
annually. Christ's College often produced two plays each year, while King's and Cor- 
pus might perform one play apiece. 
The majority of college plays in this period were still classical, but many were the 
work of contemporary playwrights, whether continental authors (eg, Gnapheus' 
Hypocrisis, 1548-9), or native British authors (eg, Nicholas Udall's Ezechias, 1563-4). 
The vast majority of plays were in Latin, while a few were in English (eg, Gammer 
Gurton's Needle at Christ's College, c 1550-1, apparently by William Stevenson), 
with an occasional play in Greek (eg, Aristophanes' Peace, produced by John Dee 
at Trinity College c 1547-8). Shows, which apparently consisted more of martial spec- 
tacle than literary text, were another important part of college entertainment in these 
Cambridge academic drama may be said to have achieved its acme with the visit 
of Queen Elizabeth in August 1564. On three successive nights students performed 
for royalty and nobility on a stage constructed in King's College chapel. A fourth play 
was prepared but not performed because the queen had reached a state of exhaustion. 
On the evening of the day she left Cambridge, Elizabeth agreed to watch a masque 
at Hinchingbrooke, whither eager students had followed her importunately. That this 
irregular performance did not please the queen does not diminish the fact that 
authorized college drama had won royal approval. 
The events of August 1564 may be taken as a fair representation of Cambridge 



college drama to that date. The plays included a Latin comedy by an admired classical 
author (Plautus' Aulularia), a play by a member of the university written in imitation 
of a classical model (Haliwell's Dido), a play in English (Udall's Ezechias), a Latin 
translation of a Greek play (Sophocles' Ajax), and a raucous masque in English, 
perhaps a remnant of the old-style disguising. 


The intense dramatic activity of the 1550s and 1560s was not sustained indefinitely. 
Though Jesus College produced a succession of plays beginning in 1561-2, and 
Peterhouse produced several plays from 1562-3 to 1575-6, Christ's College, a puritan 
stronghold, performed no plays after 1567-8. About 1587-8 dissidents at St John's 
complained that the master 'hath inhibited all manner of playes.' Trinity College pro- 
duced fewer plays, as did Queens', and other colleges apparently ceased regular annual 
performances even if they did not stop play production altogether. 
The drama that remained tended toward the historical, the satirical, and the roman- 
tic. Thomas Legge's Richardus Tertius at St John's in 1578-9 and his Destruction of 
Jerusalem, which was not performed, were serious though perhaps misjudged at- 
tempts to turn Cambridge into a new Athens. Legge succeeded in establishing a con- 
temporary reputation as a tragedian of stature; he is remembered by Francis Meres, 
who put him in the same company as Shakespeare (Appendix 3, 1598), and by Thomas 
Fuller, the seventeenth-century historian of the university (1578-9). 
Thomas Nash describes a virtual war of the theatres in Cambridge of the 1580s and 
1590s (Appendix 3, 1596). Topical satire surfaced in attacks on the mayor by Thomas 
Mudd in 1582-3, and in attacks on townspeople in Club Law at the turn of the cen- 
tury. Pedantius, a satire on the pedant Gabriel Harvey by Edward Forcett of Trinity 
College in 1580-1, gained a national reputation (Appendix 3). The Parnassus plays 
performed at St John's College from 1598-9 to c 1602-3 also belong to the satiric tra- 
dition. Finally, Cambridge embraced the growing interest in romantic and pastoral 
drama, exemplified by Laelia, which was performed for the earl of Essex at Queens' 
in 1594-5, and by Pastor Fidus, which may have been performed at King's c 1604-5 
(Appendix 6:1). 
The rowdiness of dramatic satire was matched during this period by the actions of 
students, who engaged in stone throwing, glass breaking, and general misbehaviour 
at the plays, all of which culminated in the great play riot of 1610-11. 


Royal and national interest in Cambridge plays was revived in 1612-13 when Prince 
Charles and the elector palatine witnessed Samuel Brooke's Adelphe and Scyros in the 
magnificent new Trinity College hall. In 1614-15 King James himself was offered five 
plays, and actually witnessed four in as many days. He returned several months later 


for a repeat performance of George Ruggle's Ignoramus. James commanded a perfor- 
mance of Susenbrotus at Royston in 1615-16, and another of Fucus Histriomastix at 
Newmarket in 1622-3 (Appendix 6:1 ). Other performances for members of the royal 
family or visiting dignitaries were organized in 1622-3, 1624-5, 1627-8, 1628-9, 
1631-2, 1635-6, and 1641-2. On most such occasions comedies and pastorals proved 
more acceptable fare than tragedies, and English often replaced Latin. 
Another kind of drama which flourished in this period was the quasi-dramatic 
show. Whereas the shows of the mid-sixteenth century were often imitations of mili- 
tary engagements, shows of the early seventeenth century were brief topical jokes in 
verse with such titles as Locus, Corpus, Motus; Band, Cuff, and Ruff; and Gown, 
Hood, Cap (Appendix 6:1). 
Overall, performances during this period were fewer in number and staged in fewer 
colleges. Clare and King's performed their last known plays in 1614-15, Caius in 
1615-16, St John's in 1619-20, Corpus and Jesus in 1622-3. From this point onward 
only Trinity and Queens' are known to have performed plays. Trinity even managed 
a new play on short notice for the young Prince Charles in 1641-2. 


The puritan spirit, embodied in the harsh words of Milton (Appendix 3, 1642), 
brought Cambridge drama temporarily to a complete halt. Technically the colleges 
may have been exempt from parliamentary prohibitions, but Cambridge was scarcely 
a haven from the turmoil of the age, and plays could not easily have been performed 
even if members of the colleges had wished it. In fact they did not wish it: about 1648 
the seniors of Trinity College called for the cancellation of the 1560 statute requiring 
annual plays (Appendix 2). In many colleges royalist fellows were ejected and par- 
liamentarians appointed in their place. At Queens' the transformation was complete, 
for the old college fellowship was expelled to a man. 
In the late 1650s, John Andrews, before he became a fellow of Christ's College, 
'contriv'd' a pastoral in a vacated room of the college. ' When the Restoration per- 
mitted a return to the open production of drama, Trinity College undertook plays 
with such enthusiasm that the college established a 'Comedy Room' for their perfor- 
mance.  7 This room did not, as has sometimes been claimed, antedate the closing of 
the theatres in 1642 (Appendix 11, c 1600); nor did the Comedy Room rival the college 
hall as a theatre. In 1661-2 Queens' College paid 10s 'To ye Cooke for ye Actors at 
Christmas, 's but this seems to have been an isolated payment. For the most part, 
drama picked up where it had left off in 1642, the special province of Trinity College. 

Conditions of College Drama 

Most Cambridge college plays were financed through the college bursar; for this 
reason, college accounts tend to offer the most reliable and complete evidence of play 


Figure 2A Schematic plan of Queens' College hall, with stage of 1640 superimposed (ground- 
plan courtesy of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England) 

Figure 2B Schematic plan of Trinity College hall, with stage of 1612-36 superimposed 
(ground-plan courtesy of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England) 


shows, as distinct from plays, might be performed out of doors in college courts. 2 
The most detailed evidence for a college stage comes from a Queens' College in- 
ventory of 1639-40. A demountable theatre, built entirely of scaffolding materials, 
was erected in the hall (Figure 2A). The stage platform was situated in the far or upper 
end of the hall, near the dais. On either side of the stage were tiring houses, called 
the 'East Tyring House' and the 'West Tyring House.' Galleries for the audience were 
erected against the back wall above the stage, against the two side walls, and against 
the entrance screen. Since the galleries were raised off the ground, the doors of the 
screen could still function as the principal entrances and exits for the bulk of the au- 
dience. 22 
A parallel reference to a stage and galleries in the Trinity College accounts for 
1598-9 and the university's 'Orders and Monitions" concerning plays at Trinity from 
1612-13 to 1635-6, suggest that the stage at Queens' may be taken as the Cambridge 
norm. At Trinity, a rail divided the audience at the lower end of the hall into two 
parts, according to academic rank (Figure 2B); this rail is first mentioned in 1562-3. 
The 'Orders and Monitions' make it clear that seating was rigorously hierarchical, 
and that entrance to the hall was carefully controlled, especially on the occasion of 
a royal visit. Elaborate seats were erected for the comfort of the visiting dignitaries, 
who were meant to be seen as well as to see. In August 1564 Queen Elizabeth sat in 
a special chair placed on the stage itself, against the south wall of the chapel (Figure 3). 
When vice-chancellor Samuel Harsnett 'lay upon the stage' in Trinity College hall in 
1614-15, perhaps seated alongside King James, he was much ridiculed by visitors from 
Oxford for his presumption (Appendix 5, p 872). 
It remains unclear whether the actors played chiefly to the large audience in front 
of the stage or to the smaller, more distinguished audience behind. Perhaps pairs of 
actors who engaged in dialogue tended to face one another, thus being visible to both 
audiences at once, in profile. 
Stage 'houses,' required for all comedies by Plautus and Terence, were a standard 
requirement of plays written at Cambridge. 23 As early as 1522-3, for its staging of 
aplay by Plautus, Queens' College provided decorations for stage houses ('ornamenta 
ediurn'); the college made similar expenditures in 1545-6 ('pro erigendis domibus'). 
Payments for houses are also recorded in the accounts of Christ's (1551-2), Trinity 
(1556-7, 1612-13), and Corpus (1581-2), while the performance of Susenbrotus at 
Royston in 1615-16 required 'particions on the sides' of the stage. 
The stage houses served as house fronts and discovery spaces, and were the principal 
means of entrance and exit for the actors. (In addition, the stage was probably provided 
with a ramp or steps for direct access: in 1540-1 Queens' College purchased five nails 
to secure the steps which led to its stage.) The upper levels of the houses were used 
as city walls and other raised playing spaces. At Queens' the stage houses doubled 
as tiring houses, while at Trinity the tiring area was a separate room behind the upper- 
end wall, accessible through a doorway. 
The college stages required a team of carpenters, who spent from two to five days 





Figure 3 Schematic plan of King's College Chapel, with stage of 1564 superimposed (ground- 
plan courtesy of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England) 


Singing, running, and fighting; houses with multiple levels; dramatic entrances and 
exits; trumpets and gunshots; coronations and pitched battles; realistic sound effects; 
grotesque props - the college stage was vibrant with sights and sounds. 
The presumed pedagogical nature of the dramatic enterprise in the colleges logically 
implies that scholars and fellows were the principal actors in the plays, and so they 
were. More than two dozen cast lists survive in manuscripts or printed copies of 
Cambridge plays (Appendix 7). These cast lists reveal that actors might be recently 
matriculated students or older fellows; scholars, bachelors, or masters of arts. The 
cast lists also reveal that many students took part in several plays. Edmund Hackluit, 
for example, who matriculated from Trinity College in 1611, had parts in Scyros 
(1612-13), Melanthe (1614-15), Fraus Honesta (1618-19), and Loiola (1622-3). 
Others took on prodigious assignments, as for example John Palmer of St John's, who 
played the title role in all three parts of Thomas Legge's trilogy, Richardus Tertius 
(1578-9). Finally, plays were normally acted by members of a single college; the only 
known exceptions to this rule are Aulularia and Ajax Flagellifer, performed for 
Elizabeth in August 1564 by students of colleges other than King's; and Ignoramus, 
performed for James  in March and May of 1615 by students of Clare, Christ's, 
Gonville and Caius, Pembroke, and Queens'. 
Women's parts, of course, were taken by male actors. Records of payments and 
college inventories include such items as women's gowns, kirtles, and 'rede satene 
sieves for a gentlewoman' (1540-1 ). Although Roger Ascham writes slightingly of the 
effect, comparing unhandsome girls to boys acting in tragedies (Appendix 3, 1551-2), 
the illusion could be extremely effective, as in the case of Richard Cholmley, who 
acted the part of Ardelia in Leander (1598-9): 'he did it with great applause, and was 
esteemed beautiful.' Not everyone approved of cross-dressing: in 1635-6 Simonds 
D'Ewes 'purposelie auoided' a play at Trinity College 'because of womens apparell 
worne in it, by boyes and youths.'29 
Students were not paid for acting, but received some compensation in food and 
drink. Actors of outstanding skill and presence might ultimately look for greater re- 
wards. When Thomas Preston attracted the attention of Queen Elizabeth in August 
1564 as an actor in the play of Dido, his career was assured. In a letter of recommen- 
dation dated 1 July 1624, Isaac Bargrave observes that William Hutchinson, who had 
played the role of Theodorus in Ignoramus nine years earlier, was 'knowen first to 
ye king as an excellent Actor in Cambridge' (Appendix 4). Thomas Morgan, who it 
was supposed 'would well become a woman's dress,' was advised by his guardians 
to take the part of Rosabella in Ignoramus, for it was thought that 'if he played this 
game well, he might winne more than could be hoped for elsewhere' (1614-15). Con- 
versely, when Samuel Fairclough declined to act the role of Surda, an old woman in 
the same play, he won the admiration of fellow puritans for putting principle above 
However much college plays may have been intended as a pedagogical resource, 
Cambridge had more than its share of students who used the plays as an excuse not 


for education, but for mayhem. The first broken glass reported, at Christ's College 
in 1537-8, may have been the result of an accident, but subsequent damage was often 
caused by deliberate riot, as in 1578-9 (described 1579-80), 1582-3, 1595-6, 1601-2, 
1606-7, 1610- 11, 1611-12, and 1622-3. The most common damage was to window 
glass, but sometimes heads suffered (1582-3), as did eyes (1622-3), a college gate 
(1606-7), a wall (1610-11), and a door knocker (1611-12). 
Play production was the charge of college fellows, often masters of arts. In the mid- 
sixteenth century, St John's, Queens', and Trinity made play production a statutory 
requirement, threatening with a fine anyone who refused the responsibility. In the 
case of a royal visit great pains were taken to ensure the quality of the enterprise, as 
in 1563-4 when the university assigned five of its best producers, including Roger 
Kelke, Thomas Browne, and Thomas Legge, to oversee the plays. 
The purchase of 'paper to write out ye bookes for ye tragedy' (1578-9) suggests 
that either whole texts or individual part books were issued to the players. Some of 
the surviving manuscript copies may have served as working texts, but no part books 
survive. 3o Some complete texts were transcribed quickly and carelessly, others with 
enormous care, as suited the purposes of the playwright or scribe. 
Playwrights ran the gamut from erstwhile child prodigies like Abraham Cowley 
to seasoned academics like Thomas Legge, who was both a doctor of laws and master 
of Gonville and Caius when his Richardus Tertius was performed at St John's in 
1578-9. Most playwrights took great pride in their work. Thomas Watson's perfec- 
tionism prevented his Absalom from being printed (1539-40); John Christopherson 
commissioned presentation copies of his Jephthah for prospective patrons (Appendix 
6:1); Thomas Legge prepared his Richardus Tertius for publication, though in vain 
(Appendix 6:1): he is said to have spent the rest of his life polishing his Destruction 
of Jerusalem (1578-9). The fame of the Cambridge playwrights was not confined to 
the university: Thomas Watson, Thomas Legge, Edward Forcett, George Ruggle, 
Thomas Randolph, and Abraham Cowley won national reputations as dramatists of 
the first rank. 

Entertainment in the Town 

History of Town Entertainment 

The story of entertainment outside the precinct of the Cambridge colleges is more 
briefly told. In the fourteenth century the united guild of Corpus Christi and the 
Blessed Virgin Mary sponsored a Ludus Filiorurn Israel, about which nothing more 
is known than its name (1352-3). Apart from the mention of 'visers' in 1349-50, no 
additional evidence for guild entertainment survives from any period. (The activities 
of Cambridge parishioners, which may have included plays, are discussed below, 
pp 734-6.) 
During the fifteenth and most of the sixteenth century visits to Cambridge by pro- 
fessional players were commonplace. The visitors included jugglers and buffoons, 3 
but also musicians and actors. The acting companies recorded in sixteenth-century 
town treasurers' accounts were usually under noble patronage (list of Patrons and 
Travelling Companies). The most persistent company of actors was the queen's men, 
who visited Cambridge more than a dozen times from 1558-9 to 1596-7. 
As early as 1568-9, and subsequently encouraged by powers derived from the 
crown in 1569-70, university vice-chancellors strove mightily to enforce an absolute 
prohibition of professional performances within the five-mile limit. The principal 
instrument of the prohibition was a letter from the privy council dated 30 October 
1575, in which the university was granted unusual powers to guarantee public order., 
to suppress distractions which might entice students from their studies, and to protect 
the whole community from the plague. The university acted against plays and games 
at the Gog Magog Hills (1572-3, 1573-4, 1619-20); bear-baiting and plays in Ches- 
terton (1580-1, 1589-90, 1591-2); games and bear-baiting at the Howes (1579-80, 
1611 - 12); shows, including puppet shows, at Sturbridge Fair (1608-9 and after); and 
bear-baiting and cock-fighting within the town (1595-6, 1605-6). 32 
Professional players did not accede to their exclusion without a fight. On 9June 
1580 the university chancellor, Lord Burghley, wrote to Vice-chancellor John Hatcher 
requesting permission for the players of the earl of Oxford (Burghley's son-in-law) 
to spend four or five days in Cambridge. He promised that the players would observe 
'modestie and comlines' appropriate to the place and to the academic audience. 


Hatcher politely refused Burghley's request, pointing out that the earl of Leicester's 
players had also been turned away. 
From at least 1583-4 the performances of the queen's men were also resisted by 
the university. In 1591-2 this company was turned away in June, then returned during 
the first week of Sturbridge Fair and succeeded in staging at least one performance 
in Chesterton, across the river from the fair, despite the vice-chancellor's warrant to 
the contrary, and despite his express prohibition of plays within the university's juris- 
diction. John Duke and Thomas Greene, of Queen Anne's company, were refused 
university permission to play in 1605-6. In 1615-16 the palsgrave's players were 
accosted, their names individually recorded, and their leaders admonished not to play 
within five miles of the town. In 1629-30 Vice-chancellor Henry Butts refused the 
request of the chancellor, Lord Holland, that permission be given to the queen of 
Bohemia's players. 
In 1637-8 the university requested reconfirmation of its powers to prohibit players, 
but such a need for occasional reconfirmation does not mean that the university's 
wishes were often thwarted. Thus, though the lord chamberlain's players came to 
Cambridge at least once, in 1594-5, perhaps with Shakespeare among them, sugges- 
tions that Shakespeare's company succeeded in playing, and even presented Hamlet 
at Cambridge on this or another occasion, may be viewed with some scepticism (Ap- 
pendix 10). Some performers from 1579-80 onward were paid for not performing, 
and others were threatened with jail if they did not depart forthwith. 

Conditions of Performance 

In the years before they were excluded from Cambridge, visiting professional players 
probably gave at least one performance in the guild-hall, perhaps for the mayor, fol- 
lowed by public performances at one or more inns. From Burghley's letter of 9 June 
1580, it seems that the players intended to spend four or five days in Cambridge before 
moving on. In 1591-2, probably following their usual practice, the queen's men set 
up 'bills,' or posters, on the gates of the colleges to announce their performances at 
Chesterton. (This is the sole evidence in the Records concerning the players' method 
of advertising.) 
The Cambridge guild-hall was a relatively small, two-storey building open 
at ground level on three sides, with an upper hall measuring 179 feet by 22 feet 
(Figure 4). 33 It was probably similar to a contemporary hall which still survives in 
Thaxted, Essex. 34 Guild-hall performances by players are recorded in 1530-1, 
1547-8, and 1556-7. In 1605-6 the leaders of Queen Anne's company claimed that 
'masterMaior did give them absolute authoritye to playe ,tin1 the Towne Hall & did 
give order to some to buyld theire stage & take downe the glasse windowes there & 
did also.., give them the Key of the Towne Hall.' (The guild-hall and the town hall 
were one and the same building.) This time, the mayor's authority proved meaningless 
against the power of the university. 


Figure 5A Falcon Inn yard (1875) (watercolour by W.B. Redfern: No 806, Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge, by permission) 

Figure 5B Falcon Inn yard (1883) (after a sketch by Thomas D. Atkinson; reprinted from 
Atkinson, Cambridge Described, p 75) 


In ! 556-T John Mere records performances at the guild-hall and at two inns, the 
Falcon (twice) and the Saracen's Head. In 1599-1600 Henry Pepper, a member of 
Corpus Christi College, was suspended for attending an interlude at the Bear. It is 
not clear from these documents whether the plays at inns were performed indoors 
or outdoors. A warrant from the vice-chancellor to the constables of Chesterton in 
1589-90 refers to a person at Chesterton 'in whose house or grownde ... the sayed 
Players haue alredye presumed.., to playe'; similarly, a warrant of 1591-2 directed 
to Chesterton forbade performances in 'roomes, houses or yardes. "3s 
Like other English towns, Cambridge witnessed a proliferation of inns during the 
course of the sixteenth century, but many of these inns, including all those definitely 
associated with play performances, have now disappeared. The Falcon, formerly in 
Petty Cury but totally obliterated in the course of recent construction, is recorded 
in a painting of 1875 (Figure 5A) and a line drawing of 1883 (Figure 5B). The yard 
of the Bear survives as Market Passage. The Saracen's Head was situated in Bridge 
Street, in St Clement's parish; perhaps it is to be identified with the Blackamoor's 
Head, located just south of St Clement's church. One surviving Cambridge inn, the 
Eagle, has a galleried court reminiscent of the Falcon, but no performances are known 
to have occurred there. 36 
Atop the Gog Magog Hills, just over three miles south-east of Cambridge, lies the 
Iron-Age hill-fort known as 'Wandlebury.' Though the outer circle is still fully visible 
(Figure 6), the inner circle, which may have served as a theatrical 'round,' was oblit- 
erated in the eighteenth century. 37 First mentioned in 1572-3, the hills offered a venue 
for entertainment such as bear- and bull-baiting, and for the competitive sports which 
Simonds D'Ewes knew in 1619-20 as the 'Olympics." 
'The Howes" is a site on the Huntingdon Road, which leads north-west from the 
town centre. According to his nineteenth-century editor, D'Ewes 'mentions a green 
about a mile from Cambridge called Howse, an "ordinary place of recreation for all 
sorts," where he played lovingly with his friends at bowls, and afterwards refreshed 
himself with "such things as the cottage that standeth there could afford. ,,38 Though 
nothing remains of the cottage, the name of the site is still preserved in Howes Place, 
a small cul-de-sac. 
Finally, Sturbridge Fair attracted players and entertainers of every sort, including 
puppeteers, makers of shows, and handlers of animals including an elephant (1623-4) 
and lions (1635-6). In one case the showman was accompanied by a "gatherer' whose 
job was to dun the assembled crowd for coins (1613-14). 


Figure 6 Wandlebury Round, Gog Magog Hills (1956) (Ministry of Defense photograph: 
British Crown Copyright Reserved) 


College Ceremonies 

Cambridge colleges have traditionally been steeped in ceremony, whether in house- 
hold life (dining), religious life (chapel and liturgy), or conventions of dress (caps and 
gowns). The diary of John Mere for 1556-7 provides the single best overview of the 
kinds of ceremony and entertainment which might be experienced both within and 
without the colleges, particularly in the days following Christmas. Mere records per- 
formances by a company of musicians; two college processions including lords of 
Christmas and drummers; the shooting of guns; a show in Trinity College court with 
waits, guns, and squibs (fireworks); a classical Latin comedy; and professional plays 
in the town. 


Sharing the tastes and traditions of prosperous contemporary households, colleges 
secured the services of musicians to play reveilles on winter mornings and to enliven 
meals in the hall. Visiting bands of musicians might play whenever they happened to 
be in town, but Cambridge waits usually performed on designated college feast-days: 

St Nicholas' Day (6 December) 

Gonville Hall (1556) 
King's College (1450-5) 

St Stephen's Day (26 December) 

Peterhouse (1396-1642) 

St John the Evangelist's Day (27 December) 

Clare (1549-58) 
St J ohn's (1534-1634) 

Holy Innocents" Day (28 December) 

King's Hall (1456-1545) 

Sunday before Circumcision 
(variable: 26-31 December) 

Corpus Christi (1467-1554) 


New Year's Day (1 January) 

Pembroke (1557) 

Purification Day (2 February) 

Clare (1574-89) 
Jesus (1568-1642) 
King's College (1472-1642) 
King's Hall (1395-1465) 
Magdalene (1576) 
Trinity College (1554-9) 

Ash Wednesday 
(variable: 4 February-10 March) 

Christ's (1532-82) 

Annunciation Day (25 March) 

King's College (1593-1642) 

St John before the Latin Gate Day (6 May) 

St John's (1595-1633) 

Corpus Christi Day 
(variable: 21 May-24 June) 

Corpus Christi (1555-9) 

Trinity Sunday 
(variable: 17 May-20 June) 

Trinity College (1559, 1593) 

The day of the waits' performance has not been established for Emmanuel, St 
Catharine's (St Catharine's Day, 25 November?), Sidney Sussex, or Trinity Hall. In 
1518-19 and 1519-20, musicians performed at Queens' College on the feast-day of 
its patron, St Margaret (8 July). In 1553 and 1559 Trinity College celebrated its college 
feast, with music by the waits, at Christmas; but the accounts do not make it clear 
whether this was Christmas Day or another day in the Christmas season. 
Many colleges paid the waits or the town trumpeter for a performance on the day 
of the royal accession (17 November, 24 March, and 27 March for Elizabeth, James , 
and Charles  respectively), and, from 1605-6 onward, on Gunpowder Conspiracy 
Day (ie, Guy Fawkes' Day, 5 November). 
Certain colleges also hired musicians to perform at commencement time. Thus 
King's College hired the Norwich waits on commencement day in 1562-3, and simi- 
larly hired one Hookes, a singing-man of Ely, on commencement day in 1575-6. Trin- 
ity College celebrated commencement with sackbuts and cornetts in the chapel in 


During the latter part of the fourteenth century Cambridge students made a practice 
of parading through the streets with a captain and a mock chancellor, mock proctors, 


requested, among other things, that no lottery be used in the college. Apparently the 
complaint had no effect, for in 1610-11 the lottery was still in use: Robert Brooke 
borrowed a stage keeper's suit from Trinity College 'about Snt Iohns lotterye at Twelfe 
tyde last past.' No other entry in the Records sheds light on the event, but the account 
of a lottery at Coventry in 1618 reveals that lotteries might entail supplementary cere- 
monies: 'when any prize was woone there was one that should blow a trumpett ... 
If it were a great prize yen a man should Carry it in his hand alonge the streetes to 
ye parties howse yat did winne it with a trumpett & a drumme going before the party 
yat bare the prize .... ,41 


College saltings were freshmen initiation ceremonies complete with quasi-literary 
texts. They are recorded from as early as 1510 to as late as 1639. Perhaps through a 
misunderstanding, they have been treated by Bentley,Jacobean and Caroline Stage 
Ocs) and by Harbage and Schoenbaum, Annals of English Drama (liED), as if they 
were plays. Saltings are discussed at length in Appendix 12. 

University Ceremonies 


University ceremony also included elements which were not strictly academic or litur- 
gical. For the general commencement, usually held on the first Tuesday in July, the 
university sometimes provided music, as in 1549-50, when it hired the choir of King's 
College. In 1591-2 the university erected a 'new Musicke stage' in Great St Mary's 
Church, probably for the same purpose. In 1599-1600 the stage was set up for music 
on 17 November, the anniversary of the queen's accession. The performance was by 
the choirs of King's and Trinity. The university also paid an occasional trumpeter (eg, 
1605-6), and may have been able to command the services of Cambridge musicians 
licensed as university waits from 1564-5 to the end of the period covered in the 
Ceremonial activity on the occasion of royal visits was organized mainly by the uni- 
versity. Payments to musicians and trumpeters are recorded for the visits of 1563-4, 
1577-8 (Audley End), 1612-13, and 1614-15. 


Praevarications were comic speeches delivered in the course of commencement exer- 
cises, and meant as burlesques of the serious academic ceremonies. They were per- 
formed before the whole university, often in the presence of official guests. Thomas 
Randolph's praevarication of 1631-2, of which an excerpt appears in Appendix 5, 



belongs to the lively tradition of Cambridge verse satire, further exemplified by the 
topical poems cited or noted in the same appendix. 4z 

Town Ceremonies 


In his diary for 1533-4 John Mere noted that 'a pon the chyrche halyday & allso a 
pon allhallowday the... Mayre wente a processyon wythe the waytes playnge before 
hym.' He does not name the church holiday, but it may have been Corpus Christi 
Day, the most spectacular annual event of Corpus Christi College and probably of 
the town, dating from the period of the foundation of the college in 1352. In the pro- 
cession, which Thomas Fuller describes at length, the master of the college walked 
'in a Silke-Cope under a Canopy, carrying the Host in the Pixe, or rich Boxe of Silver- 
gilt.' Ahead of the master walked the alderman of the guild (as master of ceremonies) 
and the elders of the guild, while behind him walked the vice-chancellor, members 
of the university, the mayor, and the burgesses. The procession was abrogated in 1535, 
one year after the entry in Mere's diary. 43 


The Cambridge waits were so prominent in the life of the town that they have been 
consigned to a separate section (pp 738-46). Here it need only be noted that since 
the town paid its waits by annual salaries or livery, only extraordinary performances 
are recorded in the town treasurers" accounts. In 1543-4, for example, the waits twice 
went about the town with the mayor, first in May to celebrate the English victory 
at Edinburgh, then in September to celebrate the victory at Boulogne. Individual pay- 
ments to a town trumpeter, perhaps not a regular employee of the town, are 
commonplace in the seventeenth century: Samuel Biam blew many a blast for the 
town, the university, and the colleges from 1613-14 (?) to 1637-8. Often the occasion 
for his performance was Gunpowder Conspiracy Day (5 November), or the day of 
a royal accession. 


Cambridge musicians were active in at least two of its ancient fairs. 44 At Sturbridge 
Fair a town musician performed the office of the lord of taps. First noted in 1582-3, 
the office is described in that year as of long standing. The lord of taps' principal duty 
was to open and close the fair each day by sounding upon his instrument. Another 
aspect of the office is revealed in a petition of 1606-7 by merchants from London, 
who requested a new lord of taps 'finely conceyted with Iestes to make vs merrie.' 
In 1637-8, and doubtless long before, the lord of taps wore a fool's coat, a feathered 


hat, and a belt from which dangled his 'tapps,' presumably for beer kegs. He also car- 
ried a staff and a battleaxe. 4s In 1612-13 he kept a booth where bread and beer were 
Though the lord of taps apparently started as a town tradition, the university even- 
tually claimed the right to appoint or at least confirm the holder of the office by virtue 
of its jurisdiction in the fair. John Pattyn, who served as lord of taps for many years 
before his death, was replaced in 1582-3 by William Bird, master of the university 
waits. Randolph Howorth was appointed lord of taps in 1617-18, though he was first 
proposed for the position in 1606-7. In 1637-8 Richard Willyams, a Cambridge musi- 
cian, came up against the objections of the university when he attempted to fill the 
vacancy left by the recently deceased John Lyon without the approval of the vice- 
The fair at Reach was traditionally proclaimed by the mayor of Cambridge on the 
Monday of Rogation week. In the seventeenth century various Cambridge musicians 
were paid by the town for services there. 


Visits by travelling entertainers, who stopped in Cambridge during the whole of the 
period covered by the Records, are noted in the list of Patrons and Travelling Com- 
panies. Visitors included the waits of Calais, Derby, King's Lynn, Kingston upon 
Hull, and Nottingham; trumpeters of the king and other members of royalty or the 
nobility; and, occasionally, individuals or companies without a patron. 
Visiting entertainers often performed in the guild-hall, or else in the residence of 
the mayor or another official of the town. The earliest recorded indoor performance 
before town officials was in 1488-9, by the company of the earl of Oxford. 

Parish Ceremonies 


In 1343 Great St Mary's Church was appropriated by King's Hall. 46 This event is re- 
flected in the very first entry cited in the Records: the college gave 2d to their new 
parishioners for dancing. Though the occasion is not specified, subsequent records 
connect Great St Mary's parish dancers with the annual dedication feast of the church, 
which may normally have been celebrated in the summer. 47 Beginning in 1364-5 
King's Hall also incurred an expenditure in connection with All Saints' Church, again 
on the day of the dedication. Although the purpose of the payment is not explained 
in the account, many subsequent payments are again to parish dancers. Similarly, 
Peterhouse paid dancers from 1403-4; these were from Little St Mary's, originally 
the Church of St Peter, which served as the college chapel until 1632. Once more, 


subsequent payments for dancing are associated uniquely with the dedication of the 
Although the exact nature of the dedication ceremonies remains uncertain, some 
details can be supplied. The dancers at Little St Mary's are identified as girls ('puellae') 
from 1429-30, and by inference as early as 1414-15. One time only, in 1434-5, the 
recipients of the Great St Mary's dedication feast expenditure are identified as youths 
('Iuuenibus'). Dancers were not the only recipients of dedication day gratuities: often 
minstrels or waits were paid in place of or in addition to the parish dancers. 


The King's Hall accounts for 1386-7 yield a set of payments, unmatched elsewhere 
in the Records, to a king and a bishop of All Saints' Church and to another king and 
bishop of Great St Mary's Church. The bishops are associated in both instances with 
St Nicholas' Day, implying boy-bishops, or at least parish bishops. The kings are as- 
sociated in both instances with the feast of St Edmund, presumably the king and mar- 
tyr, celebrated on 20 November. By inference the kings were boy-kings or at least 
parish kings. At Great St Mary's the king was accompanied by a 'famula,' a female 
St Edmund's Day was the occasion of entertainment in 1362-3 and in 1364-5. In 
1467-8 King's College spent 6d on wine for the dancers of the hostel ('hospicio') of 
St Mary. As before, the occasion was the feast of St Edmund. Thus the ceremony may 
have continued, though barely noticed in surviving accounts. 


In 1488-9 King's College made a contribution to players ('lusoribus') of St Clement's 
on 3 July, and a similar contribution to players of Little St Mary's on 4 August. In 
1499-1500 and in 1500-1 the college made contributions to parishioners of (Great?) 
St Mary's, 'playing and gesturing" ('ludentibus & gestantibus'), the first year on 30 
June, the second year on 1 July. No clear pattern emerges except that the performances 
tended to occur during the height of summer, on or about 1 July. 


Springtime in Cambridge saw still another ceremony, the collection of money at 
Hocktide by parishioners of Great St Mary's, as recorded in the accounts of King's 
Hall from 1470-1 to 1537-8.4s The 1508-9 accounts of Holy Trinity Church record 
a single Hocktide collection amounting to 2s 8d; in 1510-1 l the women visiting King's 
Hall are described as coming from All Saints' Church as well as from Great St Mary's. 
The St Mary's churchwardens' accounts from 1517-18 record collection receipts of 


22S 3d. Thus the women must have approached many donors in addition to King's 
Hall, which normally gave no more than 12d. 


In 1508-9 members of Holy Trinity parish mounted a Christmas-tide collection drive, 
which went on for twenty-two successive nights, each night at the home of a different 
parishioner. Among the hospitable parishioners were Thomas Brasbrege, designated 
lord of Christmas, and Wylford's wife, designated lady. 
Other parish lords are recorded in subsequent years. In 1534-5 Corpus Christi Col- 
lege was visited by the lord of St Edward's parish. A similar set of payments for 1525-6 
supports the supposition that this was a tradition of some standing. Again in 1539-40 
the college was visited by 'ye lorde of mysrule.' In 1552-3 the lord of Holy Trinity 
parish, presumably the lord of Christmas first recorded in 1508-9, visited Christ's 
College at both Christmas and Candlemas. The college freshened its hall 'whan ye 
christenmas lordes came at candlemas to ye colledge with shewes.' The shows were 
given by the lord and his 'compaignie'; when Christ's College was visited on 23 May 
of the same year by the lord of St Andrew's parish, the lord was once again attended 
by his 'compaignie.' 

Royal Visits 

Royal visitors were received chiefly by officers of the university, with the active par- 
ticipation of individual colleges; town officials normally played only a minor role. 
Though royal visits are recorded from the fourteenth century onward, 49 only those 
beginning with the 1564 visit of Queen Elizabeth are of consequence in the Records. 
The following is a list of notable visits by monarchs or noblemen to Cambridge or 
nearby sites from 1564 to 1642; all were the occasion of play performances except 1614 
and the first visit of 1624: 


Elizabeth l, 5-10 August 
Elizabeth  (Audley End), 27 August-3 September 
Elizabeth  (Audley End), 26 July-c 1 August 
Essex and other noblemen, 26 February- 1 March 
Prince Charles and the elector palatine, 2-4 March 
James  (Audley End), 19-21 July; (Royston), 21-2 July 
James  and Prince Charles, 7-11 March 
James  and Prince Charles, 13-15 May 
James  and Prince Charles (Royston), 11-14 March 
James , 12 March (from Newmarket) 
James  (Royston, including a visit to Cambridge), c 18 July 



James ! and Prince Charles, 8-17 or 18 December 
Charles l, 1-3 March 
Lord Holland (chancellor), and French ambassador, 23-5 September 
Charles  and Queen Henrietta Maria, 19-20 March 
Elector palatine (informal visit), 4-5 February 
Prince Charles, 12 March; with Charles  (briefly), 14 March 

Cambridge Musicians 

History of the Cambridge Waits 

The Cambridge waits, properly so called, were musicians in the employ of the town. 50 
Most records refer to a single group of town waits, but the picture is sometimes com- 
plicated by references to competing groups of musicians, and to musicians of the uni- 
versity. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the town and the university were 
usually served by one and the same company, but from 1582-3 to 1590-1, and perhaps 
at other times, the two institutions were served by different companies of waits. 
Each member of an organized group of musicians in Cambridge, whether the official 
town waits or a rival group, seems to have occupied a designated position in the com- 
pany: first the master wait; then two or more 'men' or 'servants,' named in a given 
order; and finally apprentices. In the rare instances where movement can be detected, 
as for example in 1627-8, the second wait advanced to become master at the former 
master's death, the third wait became the second, and so forth. In one instance, how- 
ever, the first or master wait resigned his mastership in favour of an outsider (1566-7). 
More often than not the Cambridge waits were composed of three men, sometimes 
with two apprentices, but the numbers varied from time to time. In 1450-1 the waits 
increased from three to four, while in 1554-5 Benet Prime's company consisted of 
himself and four men, for a total of five. In 1563-4, at the time of the royal visit by 
Queen Elizabeth, the number of town waits' collars apparently increased from three 
to five; certainly William Gibbons received five collars when he became master wait 
in 1567-8. At Stephen Wilmott's death in 1627-8 the university waits consisted of 
five men and two apprentices; Wilmott's death reduced the group to four, and by 
1641-2 John Browne's company was apparently back down to three. 
The names Robert le Pipere, John Pipere, and Thomas Pipere occur in fourteenth- 
century Cambridge records, once in a context suggesting musical activities (1342-3); 
perhaps these men were from a family of town waits. The earliest reference to town 
waits as such occurs in the King's Hall accounts for 1362-3. Although the activities 
of the waits are recorded frequently throughout the fifteenth century, no more names 
are available until 1495-6, when King's College incurred a charge on behalf of one 
Daltun under circumstances which suggest that Daltun may have been a town wait. 


mastership of the town waits may have passed from Prime's widow to Jerome the 
The fate of Prime's company under Jerome's mastership is unknown. If this com- 
pany did become the official town waits, its tenure was brief, for on 29 September 
1559 an entirely new group consisting of Robert Graystocke, John Hewarden, and 
John Murton was certified as the town company, receiving the official waits' collars. 
By the time of Queen Elizabeth's visit in August 1564, Hewarden had become master, 
while Murton advanced to the position of second wait. Since the town provided two 
new collars to the waits, it seems likely that the size of the company was now increased 
from three to five. 
In the accounts of St John's College for 1564-5 the title 'vnyversytie waites' occurs 
for the first time in the Records; but since the payment covers both this year and the 
year previous, it is possible that the university first licensed waits under its own juris- 
diction in connection with the royal visit which occurred in the year 1563-4. 
At some time before 26 March 1566 William Gibbons of Oxford settled in Cam- 
bridge, s2 On 23 November he made an agreement with Hewarden, now called 'blind 
John,' to become 'thuniuersitie wayth. 'A year later, on 3 November 1567, Gibbons 
made a separate agreement with the common council to serve as town wait; then on 
25 November he received five silver collars from the town. The gap of a year between 
the two acts of confirmation suggests that a master who would serve both the univer- 
sity and the town would now need the separate approval of each. 
Gibbons appears to have retained the mastership of the Cambridge waits until 29 
September 1576, when the silver collars were delivered into the keeping of Murton. 
Gibbons remained in Cambridge until 1583 as keeper of an inn and a dancing school, 
and then returned to Oxford to serve as master wait for that university town. 
John Murton apparently served as master wait from 1576-7, but his mastership may 
not have been an entire success. In 1577-8 and 1578-9 colleges were making payments 
not to Murton, but to Richard Graves, a subordinate member of the company, ss By 
1582-3 another company, under the mastership of William Bird, seems to have 
secured the title of university waits. (This was not the William Byrd of subsequent 
fame. ) Over the next decade Bird's university waits played at most colleges, including 
Christ's, Corpus, Jesus, and Trinity. Only King's College is known to have remained 
loyal to Murton and his town waits. At Murton's death in early 1588 the mastership 
of the town waits appears to have passed briefly to Thomas Lutt, who died in early 


15 September 1588 William Gibbons resigned the mastership of the Oxford 
waits, s4 He subsequently returned to Cambridge with his complete band, taking on 
a new man, John Andrewe, at Easter 1590. By 1591-2 Gibbons seems to have secured 
for a second time the mastership of both the town waits and the university waits. This 
coup obviously threatened the livelihood of native Cambridge musicians. William 
Bird fiercely resisted Gibbons' takeover, publicly proclaiming on 21 June 1590 that 
Gibbons had been 'banished oute of Oxford for his evell behavior,' and that some 


the order was shortlived, for payments were made both in this year and in subsequent 
years in the normal amount. 
Most colleges established regular patterns of payments to waits. The following list 
gives information from the Records for periods during which payments were uniform 
from year to year. The list should be taken as a guide and not as a rule in every case. 

From To 


1530-1 1542-3 8d 
1570-1 1587-8 5s 
1588-9 1638-9 6s8d 


1552-3 1558-9 12d 
1574-5 1609-10 3s4d 

Corpus Christi 

1469-70 1569-70 12d 
1554-5 1596-7 3s4d 
1598-9 1617-18 5s 
1618-19 1641-2 10s 


1597-8 1620-1 5s 


1564-5 1641-2 6s 8d 

King's College 

1476-7 1594-5 2s 
1595-6 1620-1 2s 6d 

King's Hall 

1485-6 1526-7 12d 


1574-5 1575-6 2s 
1581-2 1605-6 2s6d 


1411-12 1445-6 12d 
1450-1 1641-2 16d 

St Catharine's 

1622-3 1641-2 2s6d 

St John's 

1534-5 1549-50 2s 
1557-8 1575-6 2s6d 
1595-6 1632-3 6s 


Sidney Sussex 1600-1 1633-4 6s 

Trinity College 1562-3 1609-10 8s 

Trinity Hall 1586-7 1640-1 1 s 8d 

The waits received additional sums from the university or from the colleges for 
extraordinary performances, including for college plays. While most colleges paid the 
annual wages out of the treasury, Christ's College transferred the burden to individual 
members (Appendix 14). 
Still more income might be derived from performances outside Cambridge, though 
it seems clear that the Cambridge waits did not travel as widely or as often as many 
other companies of civic waits, s8 A company of Cambridge waits which had agree- 
ments with the colleges, the university, and the town doubtless had sufficient work 
at home. 
The agreement of 1627-8 reveals that the members of the company were 'equall 
shearers' and that the men had 'equall pane' with the master 'of all receipts & gifts 
whatsoeuer giuen them for there Musicke or wages." The company also bore equal 
charges for the repair of all instruments which belonged to the company as a whole. 
From at least as early as 1498-9, the waits were provided with silver collars as a 
symbol of their office; a pledge from substantial citizens guaranteed their safe return. 
These collars were not the property of the waits, however, but of the town. 


The 1627-8 agreement between Stephen Wilmott's widow and the surviving waits 
shows that some instruments were owned by the waits as a corporate body, while 
others were the property of individual members of the company, s9 Benet Prime, at 
the time of his death in October 1557, owned ten 'pypes of sondry sortes,' one sackbut, 
seven viols and violins, a flute, a 'neste' of 'vnperfyte' viols, and 'vnperfytt regalles' 
(a portable reed organ). In 1561-2 the town purchased 'an instrument callyd a 
bumbard," doubtless for use by the town waits. In 1565-6 William Gibbons sued 
William Mason over his indebtedness in regard to 'a tenor hoeboye.' William Bird 
or his servant, John Chapman, owned a shawm: in 1590-1 Bird protested that William 
Gibbons had broken the staple and the reed of this instrument, and that the waits were 
thereby prevented from playing for a period of three days. Both Stephen Wilmott and 
his successor, John Browne, were sackbut players. At his death in 1640, William 
Tawyer owned a pair of virginals, five viols great and small, two violins, one sackbut, 
two citterns, and a cornett. Edmund Salter, at the time of his death in 1657, owned 
three lutes and three cornetts. 
Clearly, the principal instrument of the town waits was the shawm: wait pipes were 


While Michael Palmer and Seatree had been involved with independent companies 
of musicians, they and others may have earned a living as college chapel musicians, 
free-lance performers, or teachers: Joseph Mead's notebooks (Appendix 14) reveal 
that during this period certain students paid money to musicians, doubtless for private 

Institutions and Documents 

Most of the documents which provide evidence for dramatic and secular musical per- 
formance in Cambridge may be logically assigned to a local institution, whether col- 
lege, university, town, parish, or guild. The following descriptions of Cambridge 
institutions, including documents and archives, are organized accordingly. 
Institutional documents are listed under the institutions to which they logically 
belong rather than under the archives or libraries where they are currently housed. 
Thus, for example, a petition and a list of complaints by members of St John's College 
are listed and described as college documents even though they are currently housed 
in the university archives. Similarly, letters written by vice-chancellors which now 
reside in the British Library and royal mandates which now reside in the Public Record 
Office in London but which were intended to have statutory force in the university 
are listed and described as university documents. 
Documents which cannot logically be assigned to a particular Cambridge institution 
are described separately: these include certain court or diplomatic documents, both 
English and foreign; private correspondence; personal reminiscences; and antiquarian 
collections and histories. To enable the reader to locate document descriptions where 
the category is not obvious, marginal codes have been supplied as a finding aid: see 
Symbols (vol 1, pp xv-xvi) for explanations. 
Formal descriptions include full information on the present location of each docu- 
ment. For all university and college archival documents, the archives themselves are 
given as the location, regardless of where the archives are currently housed. The dis- 
cursive introductions indicate the current physical location of each archive. For I'Ro 
documents, machine-stamped foliation is always preferred over manual foliation 
where the two co-exist. All documents cited in the Records and in Appendix 1 are 
described in detail; documents which appear only in the other Appendixes or in the 
Endnotes are briefly noted in the places where they are cited. 

The Colleges 

Unless otherwise noted, the following surveys of Cambridge colleges are based on 
Victoria County History, Cambridge (Yen), vol 3, pp 334-498. In general, only 


histories written since the publication of the vc'u are noted in the surveys; vcu may 
be consulted for older college histories. 
Throughout this collection colleges are listed alphabetically rather than by seniority. 
Corpus Christi College is usually called Benet College in the Records. The college 
of Gonville and Caius, alphabetized under Gonville, is often and more familiarly 
referred to as Caius College. Though Clare, Gonville, Pembroke, and St Catharine's 
were historically called halls, all are now designated as colleges. Collectively the prin- 
cipal officers of all colleges are called heads; individually all Cambridge heads are called 
masters except at King's, which is governed by a provost, and at Queens', which is 
governed by a president. The head of King's Hall was called a warden. 
Of the two principal institutions which were transformed into Trinity College in 
1546, King's Hall is treated here as a separate college, whereas Michaelhouse is briefly 
discussed under Trinity College. Downing College, the present custodian of impor- 
tant town documents, was not founded until 1800 and is therefore not described. 
The most important college documents for identifying dramatic performances are 
bursars' accounts, which often mention plays under such headings as 'Necessary 
expenses' or 'External expenses.' Supplementary collegiate references may occur in 
statutes, inventories, tower books, and miscellaneous documents. Tower books were 
notebooks kept in the treasury, which was often located in the tower, for the purpose 
of signing valuable college properties out and back in again. Tower books are one 
manuscript source in which cancellation has positive implications, for a cancelled entry 
implies that the costumes and props were checked out, used in a production, and safely 


Founded as God's House in 1439, Christ's College was refounded under its current 
name in 1505. At first this college served principally as an institution for training gram- 
mar school teachers, but in the sixteenth century it gave up this distinctive purpose 
and prepared its students for regular university degrees like all other Cambridge col- 
Dramatic activity is recorded at Christ's from 1530-1 to 1567-8, but since the first 
reference occurs in the first extant account, plays may well have been performed earlier 
than 1530-1. Christ's eventually became the most puritan college in Cambridge, 
which may explain why performances apparently ceased for good after 1567-8. (This 
was the college of Milton, who inveighed against college plays, reserving his strongest 
words for those actors who were also prospective divines (Appendix 3, 1642).) Despite 
its puritanism, Christ's continued to support the town waits and in 1614-15 joined 
other colleges in making contributions toward the plays organized to entertain James I. 
Christ's remains famous among drama historians for its production in 1544-5 of 
Thomas Kirchmayer's antipapal Pammachius, which gave rise to bitter epistolary 
skirmishing between Vice-chancellor Matthew Parker and Chancellor Stephen 


Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. This college was also the source of the English- 
language play Gammer Gurton's Needle, published in 1575 but probably written in 
the early 1550s. Now thought to be from the pen of William Stevenson, Gammer 
Gurton'sNeedle is the only Cambridge dramatic text still widely read by students of 
English literature (Appendix 6: !). 
The college archives are maintained in a dedicated room in the tower. A typewritten 
handlist entitled 'Christ's College Archives' is kept by the college archivist. Letters 
between Stephen Gardiner and Matthew Parker concerning the college production 
of Pammachius in 1544-5 are described among the vice-chancellors' letters (pp 790-1). 
The tutorial notebooks of Joseph Mead, also maintained in the archives, reveal finan- 
cial details of undergraduate student life including payments for comedies, saltings, 
waits, and music lessons, for the period 1613 to 1638 (Appendixes 12, 14). 

Christ's College Archives, B1/I-7; 1530-1639; English; paper; c 300 leaves per volume; 
c 300ram x c 200ram; 1-3 foliated, 4-7 paginated (often incompletely or erroneously); bound 
in reversed calf (some modern rebinding in leather) over boards; B 1/6 bound in tooled leather 
with flap and buckle, boxed. 

B1/1 neat accounts 1530-43 B1/4 
B1/2 neat accounts 1545-57, BI/5 
rough accounts ! 570-83 B 1/6 
B1/3 neat accounts 1557-80 B1/7 

rough accounts ! 585-1604 
neat accounts 1581-1609 
accounts ! 609-26 
accounts 1622-39 

Neither neat nor rough accounts survive for 1543-4, 1544-5, and 1580-1. Where B 1/6 
and B 1/7 overlap, from 1622-3 to 1625-6, it is unclear which is the neat and which 
is the rough hand. B 1/7 is cited in preference to B 1/6, although a variant from B 1/6 
is noted for 1622-3. 

Tutorial Notebooks of Joseph Mead 
Christ's College Archives, T. 11.1-4; 1613-38; English; paper; 156 to c 230 leaves per volume; 
295-310mm x 95-100mm; foliated (some volumes incompletely; foliation of T. 11. ! begins 
on 20th leaf, foliated as 19); stiff parchment binding. 

Dates are given from the beginning of the first quarter to the end of the last quarter 
covered by each notebook, but within a given notebook not all students' records are 
complete for the entire range. 


24 June 1613-24 March 1621 
25 March 1621-23 June 1625 
24June 1625-24 December 1632 
25 December 1632-24 March 1638 



Clare College was founded in 1326 as University Hall, but since 1346 has been called 
by the name of its benefactor, Elizabeth de Clare. (The historical Clare Hall, officially 
designated Clare College in the nineteenth century, must be distinguished from the 
modern graduate institution called Clare Hall, which is a recent foundation.) 
Some of the college's early muniments were destroyed in a fire of 1521. Surviving 
accounts contain no payments for drama within the college, but frequent payments 
to entertainers. The first two account books, covering the years 1549-50 to 1610-11, 
record annual payments to the Cambridge waits, while the third, covering 1612-13 
to 1641-2, preserves no town waits' wages but frequent payments for the university's 
entertainment of official guests. 
The total absence in the accounts of any reference to college plays sorts oddly with 
external evidence such as Thomas Nash's description of a satiric attack on Gabriel 
Harvey and his two brothers, probably in the 1580s (Appendix 3, 1596); the perfor- 
mance of Club Law c 1599-1600; a play riot at the college (1611-12); and George 
Ruggle's Ignoramus (1614-15). In addition, like Queens', the college seems to have 
had an 'acting chain ber" (1614-15), perhaps a room set aside permanently for the stor- 
age of costumes and the rehearsing of plays. In contrast to other colleges, Clare on 
at least one occasion financed a play not through the college bursary, but through 
assessments on individual members of the college. A letter to the vice-chancellor in 
1615-16 reveals that those who financed Ignoramus expected to be repaid not by the 
college, but by the university. The cast list for Ignoramus (Appendix 7) reveals another 
unusual circumstance: actors were drawn not only from Clare, but from Christ's, 
Gonville and Caius, Pembroke, and Queens'. 
Ignoramus, staged not at Clare but in Trinity College hall, was the most notorious 
play ever performed at Cambridge. King James returned to Cambridge for a second 
viewing; Ruggle's satire on lawyers provoked a spirited reaction in the form of poetic 
repartee and a prose tract (Appendixes 4, 5). The college library preserves George Rug- 
gle's personal copy of Gian Battista della Porta's l.a Trappolaria (F. 8.20), the source 
for Ignoramus: the few insignificant notations to the copy in Ruggle's hand, however, 
have been rendered even more insignificant by cropping. The library also preserves 
a manuscript copy of Ignoramus, not in Ruggle's hand. 
The college archives have been maintained in a muniments room under the care of 
the bursar. The college recently appointed an archivist who is arranging a new reposi- 
tory. A preliminary catalogue is in preparation. Described in uMC, and by Emden, 
p xvii. 

Clare College Archives, Safe A:1/16; 1549-70; English; paper; 194 leaves; 415mm x 160mm; 
modern pagination; bound in stiff parchment and boxed (spine missing, back broken); outer 
edges of early leaves deteriorated. 


Clare College Archives, Safe A: 1/2; 1571-1611 ; English; paper; c 300 leaves; 405ram x 145ram; 
unfoliated; bound in stiff parchment and boxed, title on spine: College Accounts Michaelmas 
1571-Michaelmas 1610. A loose gathering, 1570-1 (415mm x 155ram), has been placed in the 
front of the volume. 

Clare College Archives, Safe A: l/3; 1612-70; English; paper; c 300 leaves; 400ram x 168ram; 
unfoliated; bound in stiff parchment (spine missing, back broken), title on spine: Michaelmas 
1613-Lady Day 1670. A gap of about a year occurs between this and the previous volume. 


Corpus Christi College, formerly also called Benet College (sometimes spelled Bene't, 
from St Benedict), was founded in 1352, the creation of the united town guild of Cor- 
pus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary. Until 1535 the college participated in the 
civic Corpus Christi procession (p 733). Fragmentary college accounts for 1380-1 and 
1398-9 contain payments to musicians. Subsequent accounts from 1457-8 reveal that 
the tradition of hiring entertainers, including the town waits, continued essentially 
unbroken through 1641-2. 
Although not a single text nor even a title of a Corpus Christi College play survives, 
substantial dramatic activity is recorded in the accounts for 1550-1 to 1557-8, for 
1575-6 to 1581-2, and for the individual years 1596-7 and 1613-14. The Punter 
incident, reported in 1579-80, confirms a production in 1578-9 complete with stage 
keepers; similarly, the Evans incident points to a production in 1582-3. 
Chapter book entries for 1621-2 and 1622-3 suggest that the college plays at this 
late date were satires in English. In the first of these two years members of the college 
denied that their recent plays had cast aspersions on the duke of Buckingham or on 
the recently fallen Francis Bacon. Despite this denial, the college agreed to perform 
no more plays in English except at Christmas or at the feast of the Purification and 
the day or days preceding this feast; all plays, moreover, whether in English or in 
Latin, had to pass the prior censorship of a senior official of the college. This legislation 
strongly implies that a performance occurred as late as 31 January 1623, but whether 
plays were staged after that date is not known. 
The college archives, maintained in a dedicated muniments room, are mainly un- 
catalogued except for estate deeds. A full catalogue is currently in progress. Described 
by UC, and by Emden, pp xviii-xix. 

College Accounts 1398-9 
See Corpus Christi Guild Minutes (p 801). 

Accounts 1 
Corpus Christi College Archives; 1376-1485; Latin; paper; 228 leaves; 290ram x 100ram; 


repaired, rebound in stiff parchment. Also known as Master John Botwright's Book: 
Botwright's expense accounts occur on ff 37-78. 

Liber Communarum 
Bound in at the back of Accounts 2 (see above); 1516-61 ; Latin; paper; 36 leaves (four gather- 
ings); 315mm x ll5mm; foliated. 

Chapter Book 
Corpus Christi College Archives; 1569-1626; Latin and English; paper; ii + c 132 + iii; 
418ram x 270ram (352mm x 205ram); ink pagination irregular as a consequence of rebinding 
(1-154, 259-64, 273-82, 291-2, 155-79, 190-256, plus odds and ends recently bound in); 
bound in half-leather, title on spine: C.C.C.C. CHAPTER BOOK 1569-1626. 


Emmanuel College, established during several years of negotiations and planning, was 
dedicated in 1587, though its earliest undergraduates matriculated in 1584. Bursar's 
accounts contain payments to musicians from 1597-8 to 1641-2 but no evidence of 
college involvement in drama, apart from payments for the comedies of other colleges 
in 1614-15, 1628-9, and 1631-2. 
Though Emmanuel's puritan tendencies may well have precluded dramatic perfor- 
mances within the college, several play texts are attributed to college members: 
Clytopbon, apparently written by William Ainsworth c 1625 and Pseudomagia, by 
William Mew c 1626 (Appendix 6:1). Unfortunately, the bursar's accounts which 
might have shed light on performances are missing for the period 1622-8. Masquerade 
du Ciel, c 1640, probably by John Sadler, may be a closet play (Appendix 6:3). (For 
a doubtful ascription of Leander to Emmanuel, see Appendix 6:1.) 
The college library contains an extensive collection of college plays, among which 
only Pseudomagia is at all likely to have been performed at Emmanuel. The college 
muniments, housed within the college library, are listed in a typescript catalogue. 
Described by HMC. 

Bursar's Accounts 
Emmanuel College Archives, BUR.8.1; 1591-1621; English; paper; 122 leaves; 345mm x 
108ram; pencil pagination (rectos only); bound in reversed calf over boards, spine broken, 
title on p 1 : A book of expenses .... 

Accounts generally follow half years. They are defective for part of October 1594 to 
12 October 1597, and for October 1598 to October 1603. The second half of the vol- 
ume consists of inventories. 

Bursar's Accounts 
Emmanuel College Archives, BUR. 8.2; 1628-1720; English; paper; c 300 leaves; 390ram x 


150mm; unfoliated; bound in stiff parchment, recently repaired. Original first leaf, headed 
'Expences since September 29 (1628)' bound in as second leaf by error. 

Steward's Accounts 
Emmanuel College Archives, STE. 15.1; 1627-37; English; paper; c 75 leaves; 315mm x 
208mm; unfoliated; binding missing, some leaves loose, boxed. 


Gonville and Caius College, founded as Gonville Hall in 1349, was refounded under 
Dr John Caius (pronounced 'keys') in 1557, whence its name is often shortened to 
Caius College. The statutes of 1573 forbade attendance at plays outside the college 
but allowed private plays; nevertheless, there is no evidence that Dr Caius counte- 
nanced plays in the college during his tenure. 
After Dr Caius' death in 1573 the mastership passed to Thomas Legge, who held 
the post until 1607, not without controversy. 61 Legge composed two plays while mas- 
ter of Caius, but his Richardus Tertius was performed by St John's College (1578-9), 
while his $olymitana Clades, or Destruction of Jerusalem, possibly intended for St 
John's, was never produced at all (Appendix 6:3). (Legge's likeness is preserved in 
a funerary statue in the college chapel.) 
While the Punter incident reported in 1579-80 refers to a Caius College stage keeper 
in the previous year, no other evidence points to performances at Caius during Legge's 
tenure as master. Bursar's books, which survive from after 1609, contain only a single 
reference to a performance in the college, a comedy in 1615-16. The only surviving 
play text which has been associated with this college, Euribates, probably by Aquila 
Cruso, is therefore assigned tentatively to this date (Appendix 6:1). 
A recent history of the college is Christopher Brooke, A History of Gonville and 
Caius College (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1985). The college archives are maintained in 
a dedicated muniments room. The Registrum Magnum catalogue of 1657-1976 is sup- 
plemented by card catalogues of estate deeds, maps, and architectural plans. Described 
in HMC; by John Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, vol 3 
(Cambridge, 1901), 263-70; and by Emden, p xviii. 

Bursar's Book 
Gonville and Caius College Archives; 1609-34; Latin and English; paper; iii + 768 + iv; 
335mm x 200ram; not foliated (64 numbered gatherings of twelve leaves each); 20th c. binding 
in half-leather and buckram over boards. 

Gonville and Caius College Library, 755/370; 1573; Latin; parchment; i + 34 + i; 280ram 
x 185mm (210mm x 132mm); foliated; bound in stamped leather over boards, with ties, spine 
repaired with reversed calf. 



boy-bishop, which was celebrated on St Nicholas' Day (6 December) from at least 
1450-1 to 1534-5 (p 731). 
Unparalleled evidence of dramatic activity survives for King's College from the sec- 
ond half of the fifteenth century. The college was visited by players from local and 
distant parishes, by amateur and professional musicians, and by such professional 
companies as the king's players. The college also produced its own disguisings on an 
average of once every three years from 1456-7 to 1489-90, and produced its own plays 
from 1465-6 (pp 710-11). 
Henry Medwall, a King's College scholar from 1480 to 1483, is the first English 
playwright known by name. During the 1490s Medwall composed Fulgens and Lucres 
and Nature for his patron, John Morton, chancellor of England and archbishop of 
Canterbury. Medwall's plays, evidently performed for Morton's household at Lam- 
beth Palace, may be as close as we will ever get to the fifteenth-century disguisings 
and plays at King's College. 63 
Christmas plays were common fare at King's during the first half of the sixteenth 
century. In Edward Vl'S protestant reign the college transformed liturgical garments 
into playing gear, but in 1552-3 and 1554-5, in the Catholic reign of Mary, the college 
changed the garments back to their original use. 
A sensational production of Euripides' Hippolytus in 1552-3 featured thunder, 
lightning, and live hunting dogs, but the college's greatest dramatic triumph occurred 
in 1563-4, during Queen Elizabeth's visit to Cambridge. King's was responsible for 
two of the four plays prepared for the event. The traditional stage which the college 
erected in its hall was deemed insufficient by the queen's surveyors, who at their own 
expense built a huge stage in the magnificent King's College chapel. 
After 1564 performances are occasionally recorded at King's. PastorFidus, by an 
unknown author, was evidently performed at King's about 1604-5 (Appendix 3), 
while in 1606-7 the college produced two English comedies. The last known produc- 
tion by King's was Phineas Fletcher's Sicelides, staged in Trinity College hall for the 
visit of James ! in 1614-15 (Appendix 6:1). 
The college archives are maintained in a dedicated muniments room. A handwritten 
catalogue, drawn up in 1808, has been updated from time to time. Some unsorted items 
in storage boxes are listed in a recent, handwritten notebook; further cataloguing is 
in progress. Described by 1-1MC; by John Saltmarsh, 'The Muniments of King's Col- 
lege,' c'ls: Proceedings, 33 (1933), 83-97; and by Emden, pp xix-xx. 

Libri Communarum 
King's College Archives; 1447-1664; Latin; paper; most c 300mm x c 110mm, from vol 12 
onward size becomes more variable: smallest 290mm x 105mm, largest 435mm x 170mm; 
mostly unfoliated; originally separate booklets gathered into volumes, bound in leather 
over boards; many bindings broken, some volumes recently rebound. The booklet for 
1549-50, which escaped being gathered into a larger volume, retains its original stiff parchment 



The Liber Communarum series is organized as a sequence of weekly accounts. Since 
most volumes are unfoliated, excerpts transcribed in the Records are identified by 
the week in which they occur. Thus 'Christmas' means that the item occurs in Christ- 
mas week, while 'Christmas + 5' means that the item occurs in the fifth week after 
Those parts of vols 8 and 9 which record provisions rather than commons are omit- 
ted from the following list. The list is otherwise complete to 1539-40, but then skips 
to 1614-15 for the only subsequent item cited in the Records. 

1.1 1447-8 7.2 1483-4 
1.2 1450-1 7.3 1484-5 (defective) 
1.3 1451-2 8.6 1487-8 
2.1 1455-6 9.1 1486-7 
2.2 1459-60 9.2 1488-9 
2.3 1460-1 9.5 1490-1 
2.4 1461-2 10.1 1494-5 
2.5 1462-3 (defective) 10. 2 1495-6 
3.1 1466-7 10.3 1498-9 
3.2 1468-9 11.1 1511-12 
4.1 1471-2 11.2 1513-14 
4.2 1472-3 12.1 1517-18 
4.3 1475-6 12.2 1527-8 
5.1 1476-7 13.1 1528-9 
5.2 1477-8 13.2 1529-30 
6.1 1479-80 14.1 1534-5 
6.2 1481-2 14.2 1539-40 
6.3 1482-3 25.5 1614-15 
7.1 1482-3 (continuation) 

Mundum Books 
King's College Archives; 1447-present; Latin; paper; 295mm x 110mm (vols 1-7), 305mm 
x c210mm (vols 8-27); foliated through vol 9 only; originally separate booklets gathered into 
volumes, bound in reversed calf over boards, spines repaired. 

1.1 1447-8 4.2 1466-7 
1.2 1448-9 5.1 1467-8 
2.1 1449-50 5.2 1468-9 
2.2 1450-1 6.1 1469-70 
2.3 1453-4 6.2 1472-3 
2.X 1454-5 (fragment) 6.3 1473-4 
3.1 1456-7 7.1 1476-7 
3.2 1457-8 7.2 1478-9 
3.3 1458-9 8.1 1482-3 
4.1 1465-6 8.2 1488-9 


8.3 1489-90 11.1-5 1535-46 (except 1537-41, 1542-4) 
8.4 1492-3 12.1-5 1547-53 (except 1550-1) 
8.5 1496-7 13.1-5 1553-8 
8.6 1498-9 14.1-5 1558-9 (except 1559-60) 
9.1 1499-1500 15.1-5 1564-9 
9.2 1500-1 16.1-6 1569-75 
9.3 1502-3 17.1-6 1575-81 
9.4 1503-4 18.1-6 1581-7 
9.5 1506-7 19.1-6 1587-93 
10.1 1507-8 20.1-6 1593-9 
10.2 1508-9 21.1-6 1599-1605 
10.3 1509-10 22.1-6 1605-11 
lObis. 1 1510-11 23.1-6 1611-17 
10.4 1515-16 24.1-6 1617-24 (except 1619-20) 
10.5 1518-19 25.1-6 1624-30 
lObis.2 1524-5 26.1-6 1630-6 
10.6 1532-3 27.1-6 1636-42 

A broken series of Particular Books from 1548, bound in stiff parchment, very incom- 
plete in earlier years, contains the rough accounts which were subsequently transferred 
to the Mundum Books. 

College Accounts 
King's College Archives; 1450-1604; Latin; paper; 300mm x 110mm (vols 1-4), c 455mm x 
c 150mm (vols 5-6); unfoliated; originally separate booklets gathered somewhat haphazardly 
into volumes by size, bound in reversed calf over boards, spines broken. 

The bulk of the booklets are bursar's accounts and provosts' accounts from 1455-6 
to 1490-1. Other booklets include payments for 'stipendarij' (probably mercenary 
soldiers) sent to the king at Northampton on 4July 1450, a Liber Stauri 1503-4, and 
a college inventory 1598. Bursars' accounts form the basis of contemporary Mundum 

King's College Archives; 1506-84; Latin and English; paper; ii + 194; 310mm x 212mm; 
foliated to f 115; bound in stiff parchment (somewhat decayed), with broken ties. Contains 
many separate inventories. 

King's College Archives; 1443; Latin; parchment; vi + 59 + ii; 318mm x 225mm (180mm 
x 110mm); foliated; bound in double limp parchment (boards apparently lost). 

Hatcher's Book 
King's College Library, Misc. 74/1; 1661; English; paper; 193 leaves; 356mm x 232mm; 




Volume 4 


Volume 6 



cover of 1390-1 
undated list of books 
repoorium, 1361-2 
undatable fragments 







Volume 10 









Volume 12 





Volume 16 


miscellaneous receipts, 
probably for Trinity College 
property c 1546 
1455-6 (cover only) 


1469- 70 (fragments) 
1470-1 (fragment) 
undated rough notes 

1478-9 (partial duplicate) 
inventory of college 
valuables 1477-8 

1478-9 (full version) 






Volume 21 








1-38 1517-18 
39-68 1518-19 
69-98 1519-20 
99-134 1520-1 

1-33 1521-2 
34-70 1522-3 
71-104 1523-4 
105-33 1524-5 
134-70 1525-6 
171-84 1526-7 

1-39 1528-9 
40-72 1529-30 

73-116 1530-1 
117-60 1532-3 
161-84 1527-8 

1-44 1534-5 
45-80 1535-6 
81-118 1536-7 
119-51 1537-8 

1-38 1539-40 
39-77 1541-2 
78-123 1542-3 
124-60 1543-4 
161-97 1516-17 


Magdalene College was founded in 1542 on the remains of a decayed institution called 
Buckingham College. (The name is pronounced 'maudlin'; the final 'e' serves by mod- 
ern convention to distinguish the college from Magdalen College, Oxford.) Magdalene 
began as the poorest of all Cambridge colleges and retained this dubious distinction 
for virtually all of the period up to 1642. Payments to musicians, probably Cambridge 
waits, occur from 1575-6 to 1587-8, and again from 1599-1600 to 1605-6. Magdalene 
contributed to the support of Cambridge plays for James ! in 1614-15; this is the only 
record in which the college is mentioned in connection with plays. 
Magdalene's archives, maintained in the college library, are catalogued in a type- 
script list entitled 'Hand List of Official Archives' (1980). Described by UMC'. 

Magdalene College Archives, B/421 ; 1575-1695; English; paper; 264 leaves; 290mm x 190mm; 
numbered by openings (left-hand page designated 'a,' right-hand page 'b'); bound in leather 
over boards, spine repaired, title on spine: MAGD. COLL. REGISTER No. I 1575-1695. 


Pembroke College, founded in 1347, was called Pembroke Hall until modern times. 
Only five entries from the college account book are cited in the Records, and each 
is of a different kind. An uncancelled entry of 1569-70 and a cancelled entry of 1571-2 
record payments to waits: John Mere's diary of 1556-7 gives substance to these 


entries, for Mere notes that the waits played for the college feast on New Year's Day. 
A unique entry in the accounts gives evidence of a college play in 1585-6. While 
no other internal records point to the college's involvement in drama, university 
records show that Thomas Mudd, a Pembroke student and subsequently a musician 
of some prominence, brought notoriety to himself and to his college in 1582-3 when 
he was committed to the Tolbooth prison for poking fun at the mayor in a play. The 
Miles Moses affair of the same year reveals that the play was performed in the college. 
In 1614-15 the college contributed to the entertainment of James l, and in 1632-3 
to the costs of plays for the royal visit during the previous year. 
Philip Kynder's lost Silvia and two lost plays by William Holies, including a Latin 
play of unknown title and an English comedy called The Country Court, were perhaps 
all closet dramas (Appendix 3, 1615; 1640). 
The college archives, maintained in a dedicated muniments room, were catalogued 
by Gilbert Ainslie (1843-6) and are listed in an 'Index of Documents.' Described by 
utc, and by Emden, p xvii. 

Treasury Accounts 
Pembroke College Archives Max; 1557-1642; Latin and English; paper; ii + c 340 + ii; 
420mm x 275mm; foliated to f 200; bound in stamped leather over boards, hinge broken, title 
on spine: TREASURY ACCOUNTS 1557-1642. 


Founded in 1284, Peterhouse is the oldest of the Cambridge colleges. For most of 
its history it has also been among the smallest. The college statutes of 1344 discouraged 
the fellows from watching plays and other frivolous games. Nevertheless the 
Peterhouse computus rolls, which constitute the second most important sequence of 
early Cambridge bursarial documents after the King's Hall accounts, reveal that the 
college supported music and later drama within its own walls. The computus rolls 
record annual payments to the waits of Cambridge from 1396-7 to 1641-2. During 
this 245-year period, the amount was adjusted only once: from the 12d recorded 
through 1445-6, the amount was raised by 1450-1 to 16d. From at least as early as 
1429-30, and by inference as early as 1414-15 or even 1403-4, the college gave money 
to girls of the parish church of Little St Mary's for dancing at the church dedication 
feast. (This church served the college as a chapel until 1632, when a chapel was built 
within the college walls.) 
Five plays and perhaps a sixth are recorded for Peterhouse. Four are noted in the 
computus rolls for 1562-3, 1571-2, 1572-3, and 1575-6. A fifth reference occurs in 
the churchwardens' accounts of Great St Mary's for 1567-8. A sixth play may have 
been performed about 1580-1 : according to Thomas Nash, members of the college 
put on a satire called Dunsfurens or Dick Haruey in afrensie: 'Whereupon Dick (ie, 


Richard Harvey, the brother of Gabriel) came and broke the Colledge glasse 
windowes; and Doctor Perne ... caused him to be fetcht in, and set in the Stockes 
till the Shew was ended' (Appendix 3, 1596). Although the incident may be a fabri- 
cation, the computus roll of 1577-8 confirms the existence of the college stocks, while 
evidence from other colleges confirms both the cruelly satirical nature of many plays 
during the last decades of the sixteenth century and the frequent breaking of glass 
The Peterhouse archives are kept in a dedicated muniments room, where they are 
maintained by the college archivist. Described by HMC; by T.A. Walker, A Biographi- 
calRegisterofPeterhouse Men, vol 1 (London, 1927), vii-viii; by Emden, p xv; and 
by [Roger W. Lovatt], 'The Early Archives of Peterhouse,' Peterbouse Record 
(1975-6), 26-38. 

Computus Rolls 
Peterhouse Archives; 1374-1642; Latin; parchment; mostly rolls of several membranes serially 
attached; length variable, width generally 350-80mm (widest 460mm), full skins 1562-3 to 
1624-5 (c 940mm x c630mm) folded lengthwise and rolled; membranes not numbered; rolls 
for 1522-3 and 1544-5 defective. 

Rolls survive for the following years: 

1374-5 1438-9 1462-3 
1388-9 1441-2 (defective) 1463-4 
1396-7 1445-6 1464-5 
1403-4 1447-8 1466-7 
1411-12 1450-1 1469-70 
1414-15 1455-6 (defective) 1470-1 
1415-16 1456-7 1472-3 
1417-18 1457-8 1474-5 
1424-5 1458-9 1488-9 
1425-6 1459-60 1491-2 
1429-30 (possibly 1430-1 ) 1461-2 1493-4 

1499-1567(except 1505-6, 1507-10, 1511-12, 1513-16, 1517-18, 1519-20, 1524-6, 1528-9, 
1531-2, 1534-7, 1541-2, 1543-4, 1548-50, 1552-8, 1560-1, 1565-6) 
1568-1642 (except 1621-2, 1627-8, 1630-1) 

A duplicate roll for 1593-4 was formerly marked 1598-9. A copy of the 1622-3 
account occurs in the college register. The rolls employ a tabular format from 1635-6 

Peterhouse Archives; c 1344; Latin; parchment; 16 leaves; 310mm x 210mm; bound in 

soft parchment with cloth wrapper, sewn with 3 cords sealed on the outside, stored as a 


Queens' College claims to have been founded by two queens. Originally founded in 
1446 as St Bernard's College, it was refounded in 1448 by Margaret of Anjou and again 
by Elizabeth Wydevill in 1475. (The placement of the apostrophe and the absence of 
an article distinguish this college, by modern convention, from The Queen's College, 
Oxford.) Erasmus, who resided at Queens' from 1511 to 1514, gave encouragement 
to the study of Greek throughout the university. Among Erasmus' spiritual descen- 
dants was Thomas Smith, admitted to Queens' in 1526 and made a fellow in 1530. 
Together with John Cheke of St John's College, Smith was passionately involved in 
a project to recover the original pronunciation of ancient Greek. In a book on this 
hotly debated subject, he recalls a performance of Aristophanes' Plutus which he pre- 
sented at St John's c 1535-6, pronounced according to the new method. 
The formal college accounts are somewhat erratic in their recording of payments 
for music and plays. Though the volumes begin in 1484, the first payment for enter- 
tainment occurs only in 1518-19. Few subsequent payments are made to musicians 
for general entertainment and virtually no annual payments to the town waits. 
Nevertheless, rough accounts in the few bursar's books which survive from 1612-13 
to 1641-2 show steady annual payments. In sum, the Magnum Journale accounts give 
only a partial picture of entertainment at Queens'. 
A single payment for a comedy of Plautus is recorded in 1522-3. From 1536-7 
onward, the accounts contain numerous and detailed payments for stages, costumes, 
and the waits who performed at the plays. Though the accounts are silent again from 
1554-5 to 1560-1, costume lists of 1554-5 and 1557-8, and the revised college statutes 
of 1558-9 suggest that performances continued unabated. 
Queens' College joined St John's and Trinity as one of the three most active pro- 
ducers of plays. In 1546-7, following the example of St John's, the college made play 
production a statutory requirement. Although Queens' had an elaborate stage from 
at least as early as 1540-1, large sums were expended on a new stage for the hall in 
1546-9. This demountable stage, with its attendant scaffolds for seating, was possibly 
the original of the elaborate stage described in exacting detail in a college inventory 
of 1639-40 (pp 688-93). The hall in which the plays were staged survives intact, 
although a thoroughgoing redecoration in 1732-4 has changed its superficial appear- 
ance considerably. Queens' reserved a room for use as an 'acting Chamber,' probably 
for rehearsals. Costumes were stored in the treasury. (For a theory that Queens' 
College constructed a separate theatre in 1637-8, see Appendix 11.) 
Queens' was the only college other than Trinity which continued to produce plays 
in the 1630s. A strong sense of rivalry between the two colleges surfaced in the 1631-2 


productions for Charles I and his queen. The Queens' College play was Peter 
Hausted's The RivalFriends. (Five songs composed for this play by George Jeffreys 
survive in a British Library manuscript (Appendix 15).) The Trinity College play was 
Thomas Randolph's The Jealous Lovers. Most witnesses judged the Queens' play a 
disaster, Trinity's a triumph. In the aftermath of the royal visit the vice-chancellor, 
Henry Butts, who had strongly backed the Queens' College play, committed suicide. 
Butts was severely depressed as a consequence of a three-year battle against outbreaks 
of the plague in the town and of a scandalous rush for academic degrees which had 
occurred during the royal visit. In the opinion of at least three contemporary com- 
mentators, however, the principal cause of the suicide was the king's disapproval of 
the play on which Butts had, in effect, staked his reputation. 
Most items from the college muniments are currently housed in the University 
Library (Manuscripts Room), while a few remain in the college. A manuscript 
catalogue is kept in the college library. Typescript lists are available in the University 
Library Manuscripts Room. Described by HMC; by J.F. Williams, 'The Muniments 
of Queens' College,' CAS: Proceedings, 27 (1926), 43-8; and by Emden, p xx. 

Magnum Journale 
Queens' College Archives, Books 1-6; 1484-1691 ; Latin and English; paper; c 200 leaves per 
volume; smallest 300ram x 212ram, largest 428mm x 290mm; foliated; Books 1-4 bound in 
leather over boards (modern), Book 5 in original stiff parchment, repaired, Book 6 in tooled 
leather over boards (all hinges repaired), titles on spines:JOURNALE COLL. REGIN. (with 

Book I 1484-1517 Book4 1560-88 
Book2 1517-35 Book5 1588-1616 
Book 3 1535-60 Book 6 1616-42 

Book 1 is not cited in the Records. Book 6 runs through December 1642 and resumes 
with the 1660-1 academic year. The series runs to eight volumes, 1484-1835. The 
accounts are organized on a monthly basis rather than by terms, and all of September 
is included in the accounts for the year beginning at Michaelmas. September entries 
cited in the Records are assigned to the Michaelmas year to which those entries apply. 

Bursar's Books 
Queens' College Archives, Books 16, 24-7; English; paper; c 60 leaves per year; c 295mm 
x c 195mm; mostly unfoliated, first half of Book 27 paginated on versos only (verso of first 
leaf is p l, etc), second half to p 61 only; Book 16 bound in blind-stamped leather over boards, 
24-6 in stiff parchment, 27 in reversed calf over boards; 24 and 25 have tabs. Books 16 and 
24-6 are booklets; 27 is a substantial codex of several hundred leaves of which approxi- 
mately the last half are blank. An undated fragment (1633-47) is bound in as the last leaf 
of 25. 


Book24 1612-13 Book 16 1632-3 
Book 26 1623-4, 1624-5 Book 27 1636-7, 1637-8 
Book 25 1625-6, 1626-7 (minor accounts 1641-2) 
(minor accounts 1631-2 to 
1641-2, 1660-1 to 1661-2) 

The bursar's books contain material subsequently transferred to the Magnum Journale 
volumes. Blank spaces in the books were often used in later years for notes and lists. 
Only dates of principal accounts and major subsequent interpolations are given here. 
Book 16 is not cited in the Records. 

Sealing Book 
Queens' College Archives, Book 49; 1615-1864; English; paper; c 280 leaves; 420mm x 
290mm; foliated through f 70 only; bound in stiff parchment. Record of official transactions, 
with notes and letters in envelope inside back cover. 

Queens' College Archives, Book 75; 1619-1760; English; paper; iii + 203 + ii (f iii is former 
cover leaf); 200ram x 300ram; paginated; rebound 1828 in parchment over boards, tide on 
lists and inventories. 

Queens' College Archives, Book 76; c 1475-1568; Latin and English; paper; x + 52 + ii; 
290ram x 200ram; foliated; bound in soft leather, title on spine: A Miscellany. 

Queens' College Archives, Book 61 ; 1559; Latin; paper; 27 leaves; 382mm x 275mm (285mm 
x 168mm); foliated; 19th c. binding in half-leather over boards, title on cover: CODEX 

Codex Chadertonianus 
Queens' College Archives, Book 62; c 1546-1675; Latin; parchment; iii + 63 + iii; 345mm 
x 240ram; pagination stars on verso of first leaf, skips p 77; 1828 binding in stamped leather 
over boards, title on spine and cover: CODEX CHADERTONIANUS. 


Founded in 1473 as Catharine Hall, St Catharine's has always been one of the smaller 
colleges of Cambridge. The surviving college account book reveals regular payments 
to waits from 1622-3 to 1641-2, but no college performances of drama. St Catharine's 
made contributions to the plays for James  in 1614-15, to the Trinity College plays 
of 1628-9, and to the entertainment of Charles I in 1631-2. 



The college archives are maintained in a dedicated muniments room. They are listed 
in E.A. Barnard's typescript 'Catalogue of Documents in the Muniment Room; the 
Master's Lodge; and the College Library' (1930; additions in 1934), and in a card 
catalogue. An abridged version of Barnard's catalogue is printed in W.H.S. Jones, 
A History of St Catharine's College (Cambridge, 1936), 283-9. Described by HMC, 
and by Emden, p xx. 

Audit Book 
St Catharine's College Archives, L.26; 1622-84; English; paper; i + c 400 + i; annual booklets 
bound into one volume; smallest 290ram x 180ram, largest 320ram x 208ram; modern foliation; 
bound in half-leather over boards, hinges broken, title on spine: Audit Book 1623-1684. 


St John's College was founded in 1511 in accordance with the bequest of Lady Mar- 
garet Beaufort (mother of Henry vii), under the powerful supervision of John Fisher, 
bishop of Rochester. The early history of St John's is characterized by internal sec- 
tarian strife. Nevertheless, the college provided its share of entertainment, hiring the 
town waits for annual feasts, conducting a college lottery (1587-8, 161(1-11), and 
engaging in dramatic activity from at least as early as 1524-5. Even earlier, in 1521-2, 
John Fisher himself seems to have offered a play for performance by the college. In 
the early 1520s St John's conceivably produced two plays by Thomas Arthur, 
Microcosmus and Mundus Plumbeus (Appendix 1). 
Bishop Fisher and Nicholas Metcalfe, master from 1518 to 1537, were promoters 
of the new learning. John Cheke, John Redman, and Thomas Watson of St John's, 
leaders in the teaching of Greek, were all engaged in the production of Greek or Latin 
plays in the 1530s. About 1535-6 Thomas Smith of Queens' produced Aristophanes' 
Plutus in St John's College hall, using a reconstructed pronunciation of classical Greek 
which he had devised in collaboration with Cheke. About 1539-40 Watson wrote his 
Absalom for production in the college hall. Roger Ascham, another learned Johnian, 
wrote eloquently of the beauty of the college hall when fitted out as a theatre at Christ- 
mas (Appendix 3, 1550). 
So important were the plays in the life of the college that the revised statutes of 
1544-5 made annual performances mandatory. Similar statutes requiring the annual 
performance of plays were subsequently adopted by Queens' and by Trinity. At St 
John's, the plays and costumes were the special responsibility of the lord of Christmas 
(1544-5, 1548-9). 
In 1578-9 St John's was the scene of intensive dramatic activity when Thomas 
Legge, master of Caius, composed his massive trilogy, Ricbardus Tertius, for perfor- 
mance in the college hall. During the following decade, Thomas Nash, a student at 
St John's, witnessed, possibly wrote, and subsequently reported on satirical college 


Beginning in 1535-6 and lasting throughout the period covered in the Records, St 
John's adopted a double financial year: in general, rents were reckoned from Michael- 
mas to Michaelmas, whereas expenses were reckoned from Christmas to Christmas, 
or, in effect, from 1 January to 31 December. Since any given account may contain 
entries from Michaelmas of one year through 31 December of the next year, split years 
rather than single calendar years are given for all volumes described below. Expenses 
which fall in the fourth (October) quarter are listed in the Records under the ensuing 
Michaelmas to Michaelmas administrative year. 

Master's Accounts 
St John's College Archives, D 106.12; 1524-5; English; paper (parchment flyleaves); i + 157 
+ i; 285mm x 205ram; recent pagination in pencil, rectos only; bound in parch ment with flap, 

Master's Accounts 
St John's College Archives, D 106.11 ; 1524-37; English; paper (parchment flyleaves); i + 170 
+ 1; 300mm x 210mm; modern pencil foliation; bound in parchment with flap, boxed. 

Bursars' Accounts 
St John's College Archives, D 106.14; 1534-5; English; paper (parchment flyleaves); i + 84 
+ i; 305ram x 210ram; recent pencil pagination, rectos only; bound in parchment with flap, 

Bursars' Accounts 
St John's College Archives, D107.4; 1535-6; English (some Latin); paper; ii + 92 + i; 288mm 
x 205ram; paginated, rectos only; original parchment cover with flap, boxed. 

Bursars' Accounts 
St John's College Archives, D 106.16; 1537-8; English; paper (parchment flyleaves); 45 leaves; 
298mm x212ram; paginated, rectos only; bound in modern stiff parchment with flap, boxed. 
Bursars' Accounts 
St John's College Archives, D106.17-18; 1539-47, 1547-50; English; paper; 314 leaves 
(D106.17), 164 leaves (D 106.18); c 320ram x c 220ram; recent pencil foliation; bound in stiff 
parchment over boards, with broken ties, boxed, titles on spine (D106.17): St Johns College 
Bursars Book 31-38 Hen. viii, and on covers: The former/latter part of the old Bursers Booke 
That was in the Treasurie. 

St John's College Archives, SB4.1-5; 1555-1650; English (some Latin); paper; c 500 leaves 
per volume; c 425mm x c 280mm; foliated; vols 1, 2, 5 have modern pigskin binding over 
boards, 3 has ornamental stamped binding, flat straps, flap with buckle, 4 has stiff parchment 
binding over boards, remnants of ties, titles on spines (except 3): RENTAL or RENTALS 
(with dates). 


Vol 1 1555-75 (titled 1556-75) Vol 4 
Vol 2 1575-1600 (titled 1576-1600) Vol 5 
Vol 3 1600-19 (titled 1601 - 19) 

1619-34 (titled 1620-34) 
1634-42 (titled 1535-50) 

Loose Bill 
St John's College Archives, D57.136; c 1522-3; English; paper; single sheet; 95mm x 225mm. 

Register of Inventories 
St John's College Archives, C7.2; 1528-96; English; paper; i + 279 + ii; foliated; bound in 
stiff parchment with flap, repaired, boxed. 

St John's College Archives, D57.123; 1556-7; English; paper; roll of 4 membranes; 1845mm 
x 435mm; originally serially attached with paste, now detached, stored flat in folder. 

The date has been established by similarity to C17.2, another roll in the same hand 
containing financial accounts prepared for the official visitors and dated 1556. 

St John's College Archives, C 1.3; 1530, 1545; Latin; parchment; ii + 93 + ii; 417ram x 278mm 
(1530) and 412mm x 290mm (1545); foliated; modern binding in red leather over boards, title 
on spine: STATUTA COLL. DIVI IOANNIS 1530-1545. 

St John's College Archives, C1.4; 1545, 1549; Latin; parchment; ii + 57 + ii; 395mm x 
290mm; paginated; modern binding in red leather over boards, title on cover: STATUTA 

Fellows' Petition to the Commissioners 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 93 (Art. 9); September 1588; English; paper; 3 sheets; 
350mm x 275mm; foliated; pasted into guard-book; poor condition, left edges damaged. 

43 Complaints against William Whitaker, Master 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 6.1 (Art. 35); c 1588; Latin and English; paper; 4 leaves; 
300mm x 205mm; foliated; pasted into guard-book. 

The following are letters to the master, all signed. For letters written to Owen Gwyn 
as vice-chancellor, see p 793. 

John Smith to Nicholas Metcalfe 
St John's College Archives, D 105.47, 49; 9, 14 December 1521 ; English; paper; single sheets; 
204mm x 206ram (D105.47), 235mm x 206mm (D105.49); marks of seals. Holographs. 



Trinity College was founded in 1546, absorbing two earlier foundations, King's Hall 
and Michaelhouse. 's King's Hall (described above) had been active in the production 
of plays until at least 1516-17, but the Records give no evidence of performances after 
that date. Michaelhouse, founded in 1324, is represented by a single, rather doubtful 
record concerning a comedy in 1386 (Appendix 11). 
The new college, which owed its foundation to the munificence of Henry viii, soon 
rivalled its elder neighbour, St John's, in size and influence. Payments to waits, both 
annual rewards and reimbursements for assisting at plays, occur frequently in the 
accounts, though no clear pattern of performances at college feasts can be said to 
Within a few years of its foundation, Trinity surpassed all other colleges in the in- 
tensity of its dramatic activity. Interest in drama seems to have come naturally to the 
college through the prior experiences of some of its earliest masters and fellows. John 
Redman, who produced plays at St John's in 1534-5, later served as last warden of 
King's Hall, and then as first master of Trinity, until his death in 1551. John Chris- 
topherson, who wrote the Greek play]ephthah, became third master of Trinity, pro- 
ducing a show in his first year (1554-5). 
Inventories from 1547-8 and 1550-1 which list large stocks of costumes provide 
supporting evidence of early dramatic activity. Where evidence survives for the 1550s, 
Trinity College regularly produced five plays each year, and when the college statutes 
were amended in 1559-60 a clause was added to mandate the production of five plays 
By all measures the most famous play ever produced by Trinity College was Edward 
Forcett's Pedantius, a satire on the pedant Gabriel Harvey and the subject of numerous 
literary allusions during the succeeding decades (Appendix 3, 1591-1622). Although 
Thomas Nash attributes the play to Anthony Wingfield (Appendix 3, 1592), a manu- 
script in St John's College library composed by Forcett himself confirms Forcett's 
authorship of the play; a Trinity College tower book entry for 1580-1 with Forcett's 
signature may be taken as confirmation of the year of performance. 
About this time Trinity, alone among Cambridge colleges, made contributions to 
a professional company of actors, the queen's men. In 1586-7 the college gave the 
company 30s ('at Midsomer'). Evidently this was for a performance, possibly in the 
college itself (during the same year the town treasurers paid exactly the same amount 
'to the players yat plaid before Master Maior'). In 1591-2 the college gave 2s 6d 'to 
one of the Quenes men,' but this time the company had been 'debarred from playinge' 
by the university, so the purpose of the payment on this occasion is uncertain. 
From the turn of the century a series of cast lists provides unusually complete bio- 
graphical information concerning Trinity College plays (Appendix 7); those plays 
with surviving cast lists are Leander (1598-9, 1602-3), Labyrinthus (1602-3), Adelphe 



(1611-12, 1612-13), Scyros (1612-13), Cancer (1612-13?), Melanthe (1614-15), 
Fraus Honesta (1618-19), Loiola (1622-3), and Paria (1627-8). Shows were also 
popular at Trinity College during this period (p 714). 
Beginning in 1612-13 the plays of Trinity often achieved national prominence, at- 
tracting royal visits by Charles  (both as prince and as king), by James I, and by Prince 
Charles, the future Charles u. The college presented two plays for royal consumption 
in 1612-13, and two more in 1614-15. In 1622-3, when internal dissension flared 
up between the master and seniors of Trinity, who wanted the plays suppressed, and 
younger members of the college, who wanted them continued, the king himself was 
eventually asked to decide the case and defended the plays. In the competitive royal 
performances of 1631-2, Trinity's entry, Thomas Randolph's The Jealous Lovers, was 
widely declared victor over Queens' entry, Peter Hausted's The Rival Friends. In 
1641-2 Abraham Cowley wrote The Guardian at short notice for the visit of Prince 
Charles. Later the prologue and epilogue of Cowley's play found their way into a 
pamphlet which served as a rallying cry for the monarchy (Appendix 5, 1642). 
From 1612-13 onward, all royal performances at Cambridge were staged in the 
magnificent hall built by Thomas Neville and completed c 1608 (p 715). Modelled on 
Middle Temple hall in London, Trinity College hall rivalled Oxford's Christ Church 
hall, in particular as a place to receive and entertain royal guests. Extensive details con- 
cerning the transformation of Trinity College hall into a theatre may be gleaned from 
the series of 'Orders and Monitions' published by the university for royal visits from 
1612-13 to 1635-6. The plays were staged at the upper end of the hall; a rail near 
the lower end separated the BAs from the tAs. Senior members of the college and dis- 
tinguished guests sat behind the stage with their backs to the upper-end wall. A room 
behind this wall served as a tiring chamber and probably also as rehearsal room. (The 
Trinity College 'Comedy Room' was not established until after 1660: see Appendix 
11, c 1600.) 
Trinity College's comedies were the occasion for the great riot of 1610-11 with St 
John's College, documented in some sixty pages of official depositions. Smaller riots 
occurred in other years, generally also with St John's. The natural rivalry between 
two such major colleges was enhanced by the fact that St John's tended to be populated 
by northerners, Trinity by southerners. 
The college library holds a rich collection of college play texts, many of which were 
performed at Trinity. The archives are maintained in a dedicated muniments room, 
which also holds the archives of King's Hall (pp 759-63) and Michaelhouse. The Trin- 
ity College archives were catalogued c 1920 by W.H.B. Bird on typed slips. This 'Bird 
Catalogue' is currently under revision. Described by UMC. The Michaelhouse archives 
are listed in J.W. Clark's manuscript 'Catalogue of those Muniments of Michaelhouse 
which concern Cambridge.' Described in nMC (Trinity), and by Emden, pp xvi-xvii. 
Trinity College accounting practice is difficult to establish. During the first five 
years (1547-8 to 1552-3), a Christmas to Christmas accounting year is used. In 



1553-4 there is an apparent transition to a Michaelmas to Michaelmas year. In 1554-5 
the scribe who wrote the junior bursar's annual booklet was moved to explain: 
"[t]haccompt doyth run from December, vnto december; in the whyche munth our 
Audytt ys keptt; notwythstanding yat the yere doyth begyn; & end at Michaelmesse.' 
Thereafter the accounting year is always stated to run from one Michaelmas to the 
following Michaelmas. However, during the period when accounts are still itemized, 
it is possible to see that many receipts and some expenditures were recorded which 
actually fell into the period after the 'nominally" concluding Michaelmas but before 
the following December audit. Nevertheless, after 1553-4 payments made at Christ- 
mas are probably for the Christmas included within the stated Michaelmas to Michael- 
mas year. For the years preceding 1552-3, the December to December accounting 
period is indicated by an editorial subheading. 

Senior Bursar's Accounts 
Trinity College Archives; 1546-1659; English; paper; annual booklets gathered into large vol- 
umes, number of leaves variable; smallest 265mm x 195mm, largest 440ram x 280mm; recent 
foliation; all are bound in leather over boards, except vol 3, which is bound in cloth over boards 
(many individual accounts have original parchment covers); vol 2, ff 359-82 (1580-1), de- 
cayed, defective, is maintained separately in Box 27.1. Vol 5 and subsequent volumes are called 
Senior Bursar's Audit Books. 

Vol 1 
Vol 2 
Vol 3 
Vol 4 
Vol 5 

1547-63 (except 1555-8, 1559-60, 1561-2) 
1563-83 (except 1567-8, 1572-3, 1574-5, 1580-1) 
1600-21 (except 1602-3, 1604-5, 1606-7, 1610-11, 1612-13, 1616-17, 1618-19) 
1636-42 (except 1637-9, 1640-1) 

Junior Bursar's Accounts 
Trinity College Archives; 1549-1660; English; paper; annual booklets gathered into large vol- 
umes, number of leaves variable; smallest 300mm x 200mm, largest 350mm x 245mm; recent 
foliation; vols I and 3 bound in cloth over boards, vols 2 and 4 in leather over boards (many 
individual accounts have original parchment covers); vol 2, ff 281-300 (the first part of 
1573-4), loose but in good condition, is maintained separately in Box 27.1. 

Vol 1 

Vol 2 
Vol 3 
Vol 4 

1549-63 (except 1555-6, 1557-9, 1561-2) 
(1552-3 is combined with Steward's Book) 
1563-77 (except 1571-2, 1574-5) 
1578-1615 (except 1584-5, 1589-90, 1591-8, 1601-5, 1606-12, 1613-14) 
1619-21 (no more through 1641-2) 

Steward's Books 
Trinity College Archives; 1549-1660; English; paper; annual booklets gathered into large vol- 
umes, number of leaves variable; smallest 295mm x 205ram, largest 365mm x 240ram; foliated; 
bound in leather over boards. 



colleges by 1535 and at St John's in 1516.6s Similarly, though the chancellor of the 
university was ostensibly its chief administrative officer, by the sixteenth century 
chancellors were usually members of the nobility who took little day-to-day interest 
in the university and did not reside in Cambridge. Thus the routine administration 
of the university passed into the hands of the vice-chancellor, who from early in the 
sixteenth century was usually, and from 1587 always, the head of a college. Finally, 
though in earlier years students could matriculate in the university independently, by 
the middle of the sixteenth century matriculation assumed prior admission to a college. 
As a consequence, while the university had the power to decide who might attain a 
degree, the colleges determined who might join the university community in the first 
The university's academic responsibilities played some part in the fostering of 
music, most obviously in the granting of degrees for composition and performance. 
The university authorized a company of its own waits from at least as early as 1564-5 
and arranged for music on festive occasions. In 1549-50 music was supplied by King's 
College choir at Great St Mary's Church, doubtless for the July masters' commence- 
ment. The commencement ceremonies were conducted on a stage which the university 
erected annually in the church. In 1591-2 the university constructed an additional 
stage for music, which was supplied either by the waits or, as in 1599-1600, by the 
choirs of King's and Trinity Colleges. 
The university became involved with drama through its exercise of two essentially 
non-academic responsibilities: the reception of official visitors and the maintenance 
of order. Royal visits to Cambridge were fairly commonplace from the fourteenth 
century onward (pp 736-7). Beginning in 1563-4 with the visit of Queen Elizabeth, 
royal visits were almost always the occasion for drama. At Cambridge most plays were 
produced by individual colleges, but the university oversaw the program of dramatic 
performances offered to the visitor and helped to defray the costs of the plays, either 
by direct subsidy or by levying an assessment on the colleges, including those that 
did not put on plays. 
The university was responsible for maintaining order outside the college precinct. 
In this role it became active in suppressing professional plays and other forms of popu- 
lar entertainment, and in disciplining students who attended unauthorized perfor- 
mances or who were guilty of infractions against rules of conduct, often in connection 
with plays. During the fourteenth century, the university issued an injunction against 
unruly ceremonies (Appendix 1), and from 1548-9 onward more injunctions were 
issued, first against lords of Christmas in the colleges, and later against professional 
entertainment such as bull-baitings, bear-baitings, puppet shows, interludes, plays, 
and games. The effects of the prohibitions were felt by such companies as the queen's 
men, who from 1583-4 were sometimes sent away without being permitted to play, 
but who nevertheless might collect a fee. The university suppressed unauthorized en- 
tertainment not only in Cambridge, but at the Howes, in Chesterton, and at the Gog 
Magog Hills, all traditional performance sites within five miles of the town centre. 


thereby gaining a common law jurisdiction over residents of the town and its environs. 
Considered as lord of Sturbridge Fair, he would also have had jurisdiction over the 
piepowder court which decided merchants' disputes under the mercantile code. 
The Records contain an example of the commissary court exercising jurisdiction 
over the fair in a case over the price of beer against William Warne (1612- ! 3). A case 
of 1579-80 shows the vice-chancellor exercising jurisdiction as a Jp. But by far the 
majority of the judicial cases in the Records show the vice-chancellor in the role of 
chief judicial officer of the university sitting in judgment over cases of student mis- 
conduct. Such cases occur in 1578-9 (described 1579-80), 1582-3, 1595-6, 1599- 
1600, 1601-2, 1606-7, 1610-11, and 1611-12. 
Finally, the vice-chancellor was expected to represent the university in dealings with 
persons of authority. Stephen Gardiner, who was both chancellor of the university 
and bishop of Winchester, held Vice-chancellor Matthew Parker accountable for the 
performance of Pammachius in 1544-5; other inquiries from the crown or from royal 
commissioners were similarly addressed to the vice-chancellor. 
The effects of the university's power and privileges on relations with the town of 
Cambridge are discussed above (pp 707-9); here it may suffice to point out that the 
university had no moral and certainly no puritan objections to the performance of 
plays, even by prospective divines, nor can it be readily imagined that performances 
by such companies as the queen's men held the prospect of disturbances anywhere 
approaching the violence of the ! 6 ! 0-11 riot, which, far from ending college plays, 
ushered in a hectic decade of performances. Rather, the university seems to have been 
acting primarily to preserve its control over the greater university environment in the 
face of all secular competition. 
The university archives are housed in the University Library and are consulted in 
the Manuscripts Room. The archives are described by HMC; by H.R. Luard, 'A List 
of the Documents in the University Registry from the Year 1266 to the Year 1544," 
cas: Communications, 3 (1864-76), 385-403; by Venn, vol 1, pp vi-viii; by vcH, 
pp 327-9; by Heather E. Peek and Catherine P. Hall, The Archives oftloe University 
of Cambridge: An Historical Introduction (Cambridge, 1962): see especially Appendix 
A; and by Emden, pp xiii-xv. Manuscript catalogues have been compiled by 
registraries Caryl (I 751-8), Romilly (I 832-62), and Luard (I 862-9 I); the last is the 
most detailed, and is still useful. A printed catalogue is in preparation. A card catalogue 
in the Manuscripts Room serves as a partial guide to the collection. Several important 
volumes and series are calendared in typescript; many others have been provided with 
a handwritten index, often by Romilly. 


University statutes were often copied and recopied into various official manuscript 
volumes maintained by officials such as the vice-chancellor, the registrary, and the 
senior and junior proctors. The individual colleges and even the town government 


x 210mm; endorsed: A drawght of a letter from the Lords of ye Counsell to the vniuersitie 
of Cambridge, places erected for playes and games. 

Letter from the Privy Council to the University 
London, vRo, PC2/20; 1592-3; English; paper; i + 564 + ii; 355mm x 220mm; bound in 
leather over boards: title on spine: ELIZABETH. VOL. xL COUNCIL REGISTER. 22. 
AUG. 1592. TO 26. AUG. 1593. Letter of 29 July 1593 on pp 516-17. 

Letter from James  to the University 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 1 la.A.8.a; 23 July 1604; English; parchment; single 
sheet; 360mm x 445mm (95mm x 340mm); seal intact, no personal signature; faded, text dam- 
aged or missing along old fold lines; repaired by 'Ro in 1954. 

Letters Patent from James t to the University 
Cambridge University Archives, Luard 196; 4 March 1605; Latin; parchment; two sheets; 
760mm x 860mm, 640mm x 860mm (bottom 70mm folded up); round seal 150mm (boxed), 
signed; decayed, partly illegible. 

Because this sealed document is illegible in many places, the following registered copy 
has been used as a base text. 

Letters Patent from James  to the University 
London, ,Ro, C66/1652; 4 March 1605; Latin; parchment; roll of 41 membranes serially 
attached; c 26.5m x 260mm (x 210mm); written on one side only; membranes numbered; 
additional membrane serves as wrapper. 

Summary of Letters Patent 
London, wo, SP38/8; 4 March 1605; English; paper; originally bifolium; 308mm x 195mm; 
unfoliated (organized by date); in guard-book. 

Letter from Charles i to the University 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 12.A.30; 26 June 1632; English; parchment; single 
sheet; 330mm x 415mm (110mm x 370mm); seal intact, document signed, repaired with silk 
chiffon lisse. 

Orders and Injunctions 

Orders for the Royal Visit 
London, BL, Harley 7033 (Baker 6); c 1720; Latin and English; paper; vii + 363 + v; 306mm 
x 190mm; original foliation in ink supplemented by recent foliation in pencil; bound in tooled, 
gold-stamped leather over boards, title on spine: COLLECTANEA AD ACAD. CANT. 
SPECTANTIA. Orders occur on ff 113-14v. 

Original not traced. Apparently this order (along with the letter from Burghley 


transcribed on f 113) is comprehended in a cover note on f94: 'Transcripts from My 
Lord Chief Justice's Hale's Papers some of which are now in the custody of ye 
Reverend Mr. George Harbin.' 

Order against Attending Plays and Games at Gog Magog Hills 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 44.1 (Art. 137); 29 May 1574; English; paper; single 
sheet; 308mm x 195mm; pasted into guard-book; heavily repaired. 

Decree against Attending Bear-baitings, etc 
Cambridge University Archives, Misc. Collect. 8; 1600-8; Latin and English; paper; ii + 89 
+ i (plus letter pasted to flyleaf, index bound in at end); 190ram x 140ram; foliated beginning 
with third leaf; bound in half-leather over boards, title on spine: LETTERS 1600. A register 
of letters. 

Decree against Drink and Tobacco 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 44.1 (Art. 145); 23 February 1607; English; paper; 
broadsheet; 395mm x 305ram (360mm x 260mm); written on both sides; no binding; heavily 

Decree in Time of Plague 
Cambridge University Archives, T.X. 19 (ff 3v-4); 11 July 1625; English; paper; printed 
broadsheet; 395mm x 305mm; bound as bifolium in guard-book. 

This is one of two copies of the broadsheet bound into the Plague Book (next item); 
the second is bound as ff 2, 5. Another copy is CUR 54 (Art. 8). Yet another version, 
issued 23 September 1636, is CUR 54 (Art. 232). 

Plague Book 
Cam bridge U niversity Archives, T. X. 19; 1625; English; paper; 59 leaves; 310mm x 200mm; 
foliated; bound in limp parchment, title on cover: The Acts of Court In the times of the Plague 

Decree concerning Student Conduct 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 44.1.149a; 22 November 1628; revised 7January 1630; 
Latin; paper; printed broadsheet; 405mm x 300mm (250mm x 184mm); unbound, heavily 

Orders and Monitions 

From 1613 to 1636, the university issued a series of orders and monitions regulating 
the behaviour of students and others on the occasion of royal visits. Most are recorded 
in 'Tabor's Book' (p 795); the following separate drafts or copies are cited in the 
Records (see also pp 537-8): 



Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. III. 27 (Art. 121); 8 December 1624; English; paper; 
single sheet (now folded); 390mm x 300mm; in packet of 204 items pierced with a single lace; 
in hand of two different scribes. 

Cambridge University Archives, CUR 27 (Art. 6); 1632; English; paper; bifolium; 307mm 
x 200mm; pasted into guard-book; in hand of James Tabor. 

Cambridge University Archives, CUR 27 (Art. 7); 1636; English; paper; broadsheet; 365mm 
x 275mm; written on one side only (fair copy for printer ?); pasted into guard-book; bottom 
right corner repaired. 


The university maintained two principal courts, the vice-chancellor's court, with juris- 
diction over fellows, students, and privileged persons; and the commissary's court, 
with jurisdiction in the town, including Sturbridge Fair. A useful calendar of univer- 
sity court records is the typescript 'Records of Jurisdiction' in the university archives. 

Vice-chancellor's Court Books 

Cambridge University Archives, Collect. Admin. 13; 1550-75; Latin; paper; ii + 290 + ii 
(index pp ii-v); 291 mm x 200mm; 16th c. foliation; blind-stamped leather binding (19th c. ?), 
title on spine: UTINAM. 

Buckle Book 
Cambridge University Archives, Collect. Admin. 6a; 1577-88; Latin; paper; ii + 426 + ii; 
298mm x 208mm (265mm x 150ram); irregular 16th c. pagination (1-680, 479"-640", 655"- 
666*); 19th c. blind-stamped leather binding over boards, hinges damaged, ungainly modern 
strap and buckle; edges of first several pages heavily repaired. 

Acta Curiae 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.3; 1595-7; Latin and English; paper; ii + 359 
+ ii; c300mm x 205mm (last quire 285mm x 175mm); modern pencil foliation; modern parch- 
ment rebinding over stiff boards, boxed, title on box: V. C.'s COURT ACTA CURIAE 16 
JAN 1595-29 OCT 1597; last gathering repaired. 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.5; 1600-2; Latin and English; paper; ii + 260 
+ ii; 305mm x 210mm (2 quires 200ram); modern pencil foliation; modern rebinding in orig- 
inal parchment cover over boards, boxed, title on box: V. C. 's COURT ACTA CURIAE 19 
SEPT. 1600 2 APRIL. 1602. 


Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. I. 7; 1609-12; Latin (some English); paper; i + 270 
+ ii; 310mm x 200mm; modern pencil foliation; modern rebinding in original parchment 
cover, boxed, title on box: V.C. COURT ACTA CURIAE 19JAN. 1609 2 OCT. 1612; some 
edges and leaves repaired; hand of James Tabor. 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.8; 1612-17; Latin and English; paper; ii + 327 
+ ii; 315mm x 200mm; modern pencil foliation; some edges and sheets repaired; modern re- 
binding in original parchment cover, boxed. 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.9; 1617-21 ; Latin and English; paper; ii + 360 
+ ii; 300mm x 200mm; modern pencil foliation; some edges and sheets repaired; modern re- 
binding in original parchment cover, boxed with I. 10. 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. I. 12; 1641-58; Latin and English; paper; 1640-1 
gathering has 82 leaves; 270mm x 165mm; pencil foliation on versos; many gatherings bound 
into guard-book, boxed. 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.37; 1606-8; Latin (some English); paper; ii 
+ 135 + ii; 310ram x 205mm; modern pencil foliation in bottom left corner of rectos; modern 
binding, parchment over boards, original titling incorporated into binding; hand of James 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.41 (part 1); 1611 ; Latin and English;paper; 50 
leaves; 278mm x 170mm; modern pencil foliation (skips f 2); recently bound into modern 
parchment covered guard-book, title on spine: ACTA CURIAE 15 APRIL. 1611.15 JAN. 
1612; repaired; hand of James Tabor. 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.41 (part 4); 1611 ; Latin and English; paper; 40 
leaves; 267mm x 190mm (some leaves 275mm); modern pencil foliation; recently bound into 
modern parchment covered guard-book together with previous item. 

Cornrnissary's Court Books 

Cambridge University Archives, Comm. Ct. II.4; 1589-93; Latin and English; paper; 248 
leaves; 295mm x 210mm; modern pencil foliation; many personal signatures and personal 
marks; outer leaves serve as cover. 

Cambridge University Archives, Comm. Ct. II.13; 1606-8; Latin and English; paper; 133 
leaves ; 280mm x 170mm; 2 inner quires enveloped by double-gathered outer quire; modern 
pencil foliation; many personal signatures and personal marks; bound in limp parchment (now 
dry and deteriorated); hand of James Tabor. 

Cambridge University Archives, Comm. Ct. V.7; 1585-1614; Latin and English; paper; 292 
leaves; 310mm x 200mm; modern pencil pagination; bound in reused parchment music 


manuscript (now dry and damaged), many pages dog-eared; various hands, including James 

Cambridge University Archives, Comm. Ct. V.8; 1611-19; Latin and English; paper; 178 
leaves; 310mm x 200mm; modern pencil foliation; bound in reused parchment (now dry and 
damaged), many pages dog-eared; various hands, including James Tabor's. 

Cambridge University Archives, Comm. Ct. V.9; 1621-9 (some later notes); Latin and 
English; paper; 215 leaves; 315mm x 200mm; modern pencil foliation (some loose sheets 
unfoliated); bound in reused parchment (now dry and damaged), many pages dog-eared; hand 
of James Tabor. 

Allegations, Complaints, Depositions, Warrants 

Complaint concerning a Bear-baiting at Chesterton 
London, BL, Lansdowne 33, Art. 28 (ff 56-7); 22 April 1581; English; paper; originally 
bifolium; 305mm x 205mm; pasted into guard-book; no seal or address. 

Depositions concerning a Bear-baiting at Chesterton 
London, BL, Lansdowne 33, Art. 32 (ff64-5); 6 May 1581 ; English; paper; originally bifolium; 
310mm x 210mm; pasted into guard-book; personal signatures; evidence of seal. 

Warrant to the Constables of Chesterton 
Cambridge University Archives, O. II.211 ; 27 June 1590; English; paper; single sheet; 318mm 
x 210mm; unbound sheet which contains drafts or copies of other orders concerning conduct 
and apparel (sheet apparently turned and reused). Draft letter. 

Warrant to the Constables of Chesterton 
London, UL, Lansdowne 71, Art. 82 (f 201); 1 September 1592; English; paper; bifolium; 
312mm x 210mm; pasted into guard-book. 

The bifolium includes 1/copy of 24 July 1270 injunction against tournaments (f 200); 
2/excerpt from charter of 1570 (f 200); 3/copy of privy council letter of 30 October 
1575 (f200v); 4/this warrant (f201); 5/itemization of contents of bifolium (f 201v). 

Depositions concerning a Riot 
Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. I. 72 (16); 27 February 1596; English; paper; one 
bifolium, one single sheet; 300mm x 203mm; loose, repaired. 

Complaint concerning a Bear-baiting at the Elephant 
.Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. I. 74; 1596; Latin and English; paper; single gather- 
ng; 350mm x 142mm; modern pencil foliation; unbound; heavily repaired. 


Depositions and Allegations concerning a Riot (Part 1) 
Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. 1.23; 1611; English; paper; i + 21 + i; 310mm 
x ! 95mm, except for three small sheets, f 5 (245mm x 195mm), f 7 (195mm x 185mm), and 
f ! 2x (195mm x ! 35mm); ff 1,2 cognate, rest now single sheets; modern pagination (pp 1-12, 
! 2x-! 3x, 13-40), individual sheets previously folded, not in original order (27-8 out of 
place?); sheets pasted onto tabs and bound 1907 in guard-book, half-leather, two-colour 
brown paper over board, title on cover: Acta Curiae. Riot at Great Gate of Trin. Coll. 1610- 
11 ; in hand of James Tabor and at least one other; many personal signatures. (See Endnotes, 
pp 1234-5, for a full analysis of this document and the next.) 

Depositions and Allegations concerning a Riot (Part 2) 
Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. II. 15; 1611 ; English; paper; 16 leaves; bifolia except 
for f 12B, single sheet; 310mm x 203mm, except for ff ! B, 3A (223mm x 158mm), 12B (207mm 
x 155mm); modern foliation (IA, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 4-11, 12A, 12B, 13); pasted into guard-book, 
not in original sequence, modern heavy paper binding, title on cover: Depositions; Riot at 
Trinity Gate; additions and corrections in hand of James Tabor; many depositions signed with 
personal signatures; heavily repaired. 

Allegations of William Bird against William Gibbons 
Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. I. 72 (6.9); 21 November 1590; Latin and English; 
paper; single sheet; 235mm x 150mm; pasted into guard-book with heavy paper cover, title 
on cover: Acta Curiae ... 1590; on verso of sheet:/kllegacio Bird contra Gibbons 1590. 

Vice-chancellor's Probate: Inventories 

Inventory at Death of Benet Prime 
Cambridge University Archives, VCP; 12 October 1557; English; paper; single sheet; 420mm 
x 165mm; in bundle; extensively repaired. 

Inventory at Death of John Mere 
Cambridge University Archives, VCP; April 1558; English; paper; 13 leaves; c 420mm x 
160mm; unfoliated; originally single gathering, recently bound in heavy paper cover, in 
bundle; extensively repaired. 

The ordering of leaves as now bound is erroneous: in particular, f [12] should follow 
f [1]. Though the inventory is undated, a date can be assigned by reference to a will 
in VCP Will Transcript I, f 110, 1 April 1558. 

Inventory at Death of Stephen Wilmott 
Cambridge University Archives, VCP; 18 June 1628; English; paper; bifolium; 415mm x 
160mm; in bundle. 


Inventory at Death of William Tawyer 
Cambridge University Archives, VCP; 8 June 1640; English; paper; bifolium; c 310mm x 
155mm; in bundle. 


vc Court Memorandum concerning Henry Pepper 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 16 (Art. 6); 28 May 1600; English; paper; single sheet; 
268mm x 200mm; pasted into guard-book. Luard's note on verso: "Dorninus Pepper for being 
present at certain interludes without his habit ordered out of Court & have his hair polled 
immedtely & at his return suspended.' 

Petition to vc concerning the Lord of Taps 
Cambridge University Archives, V.C. Ct. III. 14 (Art. 78); 12 September 1607; English; paper; 
single sheet; 300mm x 200mm; 145 pieces pierced with single lace; signed. 

Letter of Deputation from Samuel Harsnett vc to Heads 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 27 (Art. 1); 6 March 1615; English; paper; single leaf; 
300mm x 192mm; pasted into guard-book, repaired; personal signature. 

Articles of Agreement concerning the University Waits 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 9 (Art. 10(1)); 1628; English; paper; 5 sheets; 335mm 
x 260mm (240mm x 225mm); original pagination at bottom of sheets; bound into guard-book, 
bottom originally folded, pierced with five sets of slits for seals (seals missing). 

Articles of Agreement concerning the University Waits 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 9 (Art. 10(2)); 1628; Latin and English; parchment; 
single sheet; 270mm x 250ram; bound into guard-book, bottom originally folded, pierced with 
five sets of slits for seals (seals missing); part of tab for middle seal intact. 

Judgment on Petition of Seatree and his Wife 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 15 (Art. 13); c 1636; English; paper; bifolium; 268mm 
x 162ram; pasted into guard-book; hand of James Tabor. 


University Audit Book 
Cambridge University Archives, U. Ac. 2 (1); 1545-1649; Latin and English; paper; viii + 418 
+ ix; 302ram x 195ram; modern pencil pagination supersedes older ink foliation; 1980 binding 
in maroon leather over boards, title on spine: UNIVERSITY AUDIT BOOK 1545.- 1659. 

This large volume contains fair copies of individual vice-chancellors' and proctors' 
accounts, many of which survive in the original as neat or rough accounts in single 


gatherings (V. C.V.), or as receipts or notations on small, irregular pieces of paper now 
bound in guard-books (U.Ac. 1(1-4)) and keyed to the audit book by numbers in 
a modern hand. Accounts cited in the Records are the vice-chancellor's unless other- 
wise noted. The four items which follow contain information not copied into the uni- 
versity audit book. 

Cambridge University Archives, V. C.V. 3 (2a); 1592-3; English; paper; single sheet; 305mm 
x 210mm; unbound. 

Cambridge University Archives, V. C. V. 3 (25c); 3 February 1616; English; paper; single sheet; 
155mm x 195mm; foliated; unbound. 

Cambridge University Archives, V.C.V. 3 (27d); 3 August 1618; English; paper; single sheet; 
155mm x 200mm; unbound. 

Cambridge University Archives, V. C. V. 4 (6a); 1631-2; English; paper; single quire; 323mm 
x 205mm; foliated; sewn, unbound. 

Miscellaneous Sheets of Accounts 

Cambridge University Archives, CUR 27 (Art. 2(1)); 1615; English; paper; single sheet; 
325mm x 250mm; pasted into guard-book. 

Cambridge University Archives, CUR 27 (Art. 3); 20 January 1615; English; paper; 4 single 
sheets (originally 2 bifolia?); 308mm x 198mm; pasted into guard-book, three sheets on one 
tab, one on another, all leaves formerly folded; second leaf badly worn along vertical fold; 
f 1 in one hand (signed by Thomas Brooke, esquire bedell), the rest in another. 


As principal resident officer of the university, the vice-chancellor served as its official 
spokesman, and might receive or initiate letters, either as vice-chancellor, or on behalf 
of all heads of colleges. The following letters include two composed by other officers 
on behalf of the university (William Masters, 1563-4, and Thomas Neville, 1594-5) 
and an anonymous report written after the suicide of Vice-chancellor Henry Butts 
in 1632 and before Thomas Comber was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

1545 (Matthew Parker) 

Letters between vc and Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor 
Corpus Christi College Library, 106 (ff 223-31); 27 March-16 May 1545; English; paper; 
single sheets and bifolia; (1) sheet 295mm x 200mm; (2) bifolium 295mm x 195mm; (3) sheet 
275mm x 195mm; (4) bifolium 305mm x 200mm; (5) bifolium 305mm x 210mm; (6-7) bifolia 


1579-80 (John Hatcher) 

vc to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, PRO, SP12/133 (f 1);9 December 1579; English;paper; bifolium; 305mm x 210mm; 
bound into guard-book. 

Lord Burghley, Chancellor, to vc 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 9 (B. 18); 9June 1580; English; paper; bifolium; 305mm 
x 203mm; bound into guard-book; evidence of seal. 

vc to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, PRO, SP12/139 (f 76); 21 June 1580; English; paper; bifolium; 305mm x 210mm; 
bound into guard-book. 

vc to Sir Francis Hinde 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 9 (E.7.a); 20 September 1580; English; paper; single 
sheet; 305mm x 210mm; repaired, pasted into boxed guard-book; signed. 

vc to Lord North 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 9 (E. 7. b); 20 September 1580; English; paper; single 
sheet; 305mm x 210mm; repaired, pasted into boxed guard-book; signed. 

Lord North to vc 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 9 (E. 7. d); 20 September 1580; English; paper; bifolium; 
305mm x 210mm; repaired; pasted into boxed guard-book; signed, mark of seal on verso, 
addressed: 'To the right worshipfull my loving frend Doctor Hatcher vizchanselor of 

1580-1 (Andrew Perne) 

vc and Heads to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, BL, Lansdowne 33, Art. 29 (ff 58-9);25 April 1581 ; Latin; paper; originally bifolium; 
320mm x 230mm (f 58), 320mm x 200mm (f 59, folded off centre); pasted into guard-book. 

vc to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, BL, Lansdowne 33, Art. 31 (ff62-3); c6 May 1581 ; English; paper; bifolium; 305mm 
x 205mm; pasted into guard-book; evidence of seal. 

Lord Burghley, Chancellor, to vc 
Cambridge University Archives, Collect. Admin. 5; contains transcript of letter of 20 May 
1581. For full description, see above, 1563-4 (Lord Burghley, Chancellor, to vc) 


1591-2 (Robert Some) 

vc and Heads to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, BL, Lansdowne 75, Art. 8 (ff 16-17); 18 September 1592; English; paper; bifolium; 
315mm x 215mm; pasted into guard-book; evidence of seal. 

vc and Heads to the Privy Council 
London, BL, Lansdowne 71, Art. 83 (ff 202-3); 18 September 1592; English; paper; single 
sheet; 290mm x 420mm; written across full width of sheet on one side only; pasted as bifolium 
into guard-book, repaired. 

1592-3 (John Still, Thomas Legge) 

vc and Heads to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, BL, Lansdowne 71, Art. 84 (ff 204-5); 2 December 1592; English; paper; originally 
bifolium; 310mm x 210mm; pasted into guard-book; signed, evidence of seal. 

vc and Heads to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, m_, Lansdowne 75, Art. 5 (ff 10-11); 17July 1593; English; paper; bifolium; 310mm 
x 215mm; pasted into guard-book; signed, evidence of seal. 

1594-5 (John Duport) 

Thomas Neville, Master of Trinity College, and Fellows to Lord Burghley, Chancellor 
London, m_, Lansdowne 78, Art. 16 (ff 34-5); 28 January 1595; English; paper; bifolium; 
296mm x 200mm; pasted into guard-book; signed, evidence of seal. 

I615-16 (Owen Gwyn) 

Robert Scott to vc 
St John's College Archives, D 105.12; 16 November 1615; English; paper; bifolium; 308ram 
x 192mm; signed, seal intact. 

Barnabe Googe to vc 
St John's College Archives, D105.195; 23 April 1616; English; paper; bifolium; 305mm 
x 195mm; signed, seal intact. 

I629-30 (Henry Butts) 

Lord Holland, Chancellor, to vc 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 12 (D.3); 12 February 1630; English; paper; bifolium; 
300mm x 195mm; repaired; pasted into boxed guard-book; signed, seal intact. Copy. 


vc to Lord Holland, Chancellor 
Cambridge University Archives, Lett. 12 (D.4); undated (reply to the above); Enghsh; paper; 
single sheet; 286mm x 200mm; repaired, pasted into boxed guard-book. Copy. 

1632 (Thomas Comber) 

Anonymous Letter 
London, 'RO, SP16/215 (ff 14-15); 4 April 1632; bifolium; 315mm x 200mm; bound into 
guard-book; broken along fold, repaired; no address or personal signature. 


Registrary's Book and Bedells" Books 

The registrary was the official recordkeeper of the university. James Tabor, whose 
book is described here, served in this office from 1600 to his death in 1645. The esquire 
bedell (pronounced bidell:) was a minor executive officer of the university. At any 
given time, three bedells were appointed. The responsibilities of the office and the 
individuals who held the office are described by Henry Paine Stokes, The Esquire 
Bedells. Since esquire bedells supervised university ceremonies, many kept books 
which recorded details of such events as commencement exercises and royal visits. 
Documents by the following esquire bedells (listed with their dates of office) are cited 
in the Records: John Mere, 1530-58; Matthew Stokes, 1557-85; William Ingram, 
1592-1605; John Buck, 1626-80; and John Peck, 1669-82. 

Mere's Diary (Fragment A) 
Cambridge University Archives, Grace Book A; 1454-89; Latin; paper; xvii + 162 + xiii; 
283mm x 205mm; ink foliation; modern leather binding over boards, title on spine: LIBER 
G RATI ARUM A 1454-1489. Diary notations in English c 1533 written into originally blank 
spaces including f 51v. 

Mere's Diary (Fragment C) 
Corpus Christi College Library, 106; 20 December 1556 to 3 June 1557; English; paper; 10 
leaves; 305mm x 200mm; separately foliated; bound into volume between f 310 and f 311. 

John Mere kept a diary of which only three fragments have survived: Fragment A 
(1533-4), printed in Stanley M. Leathes (ed), Grace Book A, pp 221-30; Fragments 
B (1548-9) and C (1556-7), printed in John Lamb, Collection of Letters, pp 109-20, 
184-236. Only Fragments A and C are cited in the Records. 

Stokys' Book 
Cambridge University Archives, Misc. Collect. 4; c 1590; Latin and English; first and third 


Royal Visit to Cambridge (Ac) 
John Nichols, The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth, vol 1 (London, 1823), 
pp 185-8. Original not traced. 

Nicholas Robinson's Book 
Washington, D.C., Folger Shakespeare Library, V.a. 176; c 1564; Latin; paper; ii + 174 + ii; 
224mm x 167mm; modern foliation supersedes some earlier foliation in crayon; bound in 
leather over boards. 

Abraham Hartwell, Regina Literata 
REGINA LITERATA I Siuel De serenissimae Dominae Elizabe-- I thae Angliae, Franciae 
& Hiberniae Reginae, I fidei defensione illustris, in Acade-  miam Cantabrigiensem aduen-  
tu. &c. Anno .1564. Aug. 5. I NARRATIO I Abrahami Hartuelli Cantabri-  giensis I Ad 
Clariss, virum D. Gualterum I Haddonum Regiae Maiestati a sup-  plicum libellis tunc 
temporis I conscripta, nunc demure I poteris tradita. I Londini. 1565. src: 12897. A manuscript 
of this work is CUL: Add. 6861. 

Memorandum concerning Royal Visit 
Gonville and Caius College Library, 73/40 (ff 232-43); 1613; English (some Latin); paper; 
11 leaves (in volume of 450 leaves); 310mm x 200mm (f242 is 270mm x 200mm, f243 is 140mm 
x 200mm); foliated (skips f 237); bound in leather over boards, spine repaired. Though the 
eleven leaves are in order, their contents are somewhat out of order; internal scribal marks 
indicate intended order. 

Memorandum concerning Royal Visit 
Cambridge University Archives, CUR 27 (Art. 4); 15 May 1615; English; paper; single 
gathering of six leaves; 288mm x 168mm; sewn and pasted into guard-book; in hand of James 

Dering Manuscript 
Cambridge University Library, Add. 2677 (Art. 1); c 1615; Latin and English; paper; gathering 
of 6 leaves; 196mm x 150mm; modern foliation supersedes original pagination; bound into 
slim volume. Notes on acquisition by CUL pasted into volume. 

Art. 1 contains Latin poems and an account of the plays of 1614-15. Art. 2 contains 
1641-2 'Prologue and Epilogue.' See Appendix 5 for variant texts of the Latin poems 
and of the prologue and epilogue. 

Account Book of Henry Butts 
Cambridge University Archives, T.X.20; 1629-31; English (some Latin); paper; 90 leaves; 
c 205ram x 160mm; foliated; recently bound in leather over boards, title on spine: MISC. 
ACCOUNT BOOK OF DR. BUTTS v.c. 1629-31; many leaves heavily repaired. 


The Town of Cambridge 
The first Cambridge charters date from 1120 at the earliest to 1131 at the latest. 72 A 
charter of 1268, modelled on the Oxford charter of 1255, provided for two aldermen 
and four associated burgesses to assist the mayor. Bailiffs were authorized by 1215 
and a council of twenty-four by 1376. Two treasurers were elected annually by 1347. 
By 1529 the town government consisted of a mayor, four bailiffs, and burgesses, all 
elected annually at Michaelmas (29 September). An Elizabethan charter of 1589 se- 
curing the town's rights over Sturbridge Fair was severely compromised by the fact 
that the university retained jurisdiction over victuals, weights, and measures. Sub- 
sequent town charters, dated 1605 and 1632, have no bearing on drama or entertain- 
During the fifteenth century Cambridge solicited the goodwill of such magnates 
as John, Lord Tiptoft, the duke of York, and the duke of Norfolk: the town presented 
gifts to these noblemen and made payments to their entertainers. In 1529 Cambridge 
set a national precedent by electing a high steward. 73 The first high steward was the 
duke of Norfolk, succeeded by the dukes of Somerset, Northumberland, and again 
Norfolk. Like their counterparts in the fifteenth century, these magnates are of con- 
sequence to this collection principally for their entertainers or trumpeters, who visited 
Cambridge with some frequency. Of far greater consequence in the Records is Roger, 
second Baron North, of Kirtling, a member of the new nobility who served as high 
steward from 1572 to 1600. Lord North became involved in several hot disputes over 
local or visiting players; he was also a patron of musicians in his own household. 74 
Francis Bacon, apparently the object of a satirical attack in a Corpus Christi College 
play of 1621-2, was high steward 1617-25. 
The accounts of the town treasurers, which begin in 1422-3, reflect the eventual 
erosion of the town's freedom to admit visiting players. During the fifteenth and much 
of the sixteenth century Cambridge was visited by numerous players of various kinds. 
The 1570s and 1580s witnessed the continuation of the visits, but also resistance from 
the university. During the 1590s the town paid the queen's men only twice and the 
lord chamberlain's men once. 7s From the turn of the century almost no players are 
mentioned in the town accounts. 
In 1579-80 Vice-chancellor John Hatcher reiected Lord Burghley's personal 
request to allow the players of his son-in-law, the earl of Oxford, to play in the town. 
In 1605-6 the vice-chancellor forced Thomas Greene and John Duke to abandon plans 
foran interlude in the town hall, even though they said that the mayor had granted 
them permission to perform there. In 1615-16 the vice-chancellor sent the palsgrave's 
men packing. In 1629-30 Vice-chancellor Henry Butts denied a direct request from 
the chancellor, Lord Holland, to allow a performance by the queen of Bohemia's 
players. Prohibitions addressed to players were legalistic and unceremonious; refusals 
directed to patrons were more polite, usually expressed as fear of unrest or the plague. 


Cambridge waits play such a prominent part in this collection that they are discussed 
separately (pp 738-46). Itinerant entertainers, particularly the waits of King's Lynn, 
Derby, and Nottingham, visited the town regularly and performed in the colleges as 
well (list of Patrons and Travelling Companies). Thus music was encouraged in Cam- 
bridge, whereas virtually any other sort of performance, except for the colleges' own 
plays, was eventually discouraged or prohibited altogether. 
The official repository of historical Cambridge town archives is the Cambridgeshire 
County Record Office (cRo), in the Shire Hall, Cambridge. Town archives are 
catalogued in a typescript list, 'Cambridge Corporation Archives,' by W.M. Palmer 
and E. A.B. Barnard (1928-9). (The 'PB' symbol in document reference numbers re- 
fers to this 'Palmer/Barnard' list.) Described by re/-/, pp 29-30, and by J.M.P. Farrar, 
'Annual Report of the County Archivist for the year 1975' (Cambridgeshire County 
Council, 1975), 15-16. 
An important body of town muniments was deposited in the Downing College Li- 
brary by John Bowtell about 1794. The first ten Bowtell volumes are Cambridge 
treasurers' books; of these, the first five contain accounts from 1510-11 to 1641-2. 
Also in the Bowtell collection are 'Metcalf's Thesaurus' and 'Wickstede's Thesaurus.' 
The manuscripts are catalogued in the typescript 'Downing College Library, Cam- 
bridge, MSS from the Bowtell Bequest' (1978). Described by/-/Me (Downing). 


Some sixteen parish churches distinguished medieval and renaissance Cambridge. 76 
Cambridge churchwardens' accounts are now preserved in the cRo, where such 
accounts for the entire county are listed in a typescript catalogue. Four excerpts from 
churchwardens' accounts are cited in the Records: one from Holy Trinity (1508-9) 
and three from Great St Mary's (1517-18, 1567-8, 1635-6). 
Numerous references to parish entertainments occur in the accounts of colleges 
closely associated with parish churches. Thus the accounts of King's Hall contain 
numerous expenditures on Great St Mary's, which was appropriated by the college 
in 1343, and was later designated the University Church. All Saints' Church also had 
a particular bond with King's Hall, perhaps because of its physical proximity, and 
is frequently mentioned in the college accounts. Similiarly, Little St Mary's is the 
parish church referred to in the accounts of Peterhouse, which used the church as its 
chapel until the construction of a chapel within the college walls in 1632. 


Some thirty religious guilds have been identified for medieval Cambridge. Most were 
parish guilds founded for social and devotional purposes. The bulk of surviving guild 
documents are in the PRO. The only guild document cited in the Records is the minute 

book of the guild of Corpus Christi (1349-50, 1352-3), preserved among the mun- 
iments of Corpus Christi College. z7 


Town Documents 

Common Day Book 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/6; 1564-77; Latin and English; paper; iii + 119 + iii; 
310mm x 210mm (c 270ram x c 150ram); originally foliated to f 101, paginated to end (recent 
pagination supersedes older foliation); bound in parchment over boards, title of c 1800 on 
spine: Common Day Book from 6th Elizth. to 19th I; first leaves in poor condition. 

Original foliation indicates that the first page is now missing. The 'I" in the title on 
the spine has eluded any obvious explanation. Although this document is described 
here for the record, all citations are taken from the Register Book (described below) 
with cross-references given in the Endnotes. 

Common Day Book 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/7; 1610-47; English and Latin; paper; xiv + 340 + xiii; 
300mm x 195mm; foliated to f 233, then paginated pp 234-445; bound in reversed calf over 
boards; spine repaired. 

Register Book 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/57; c 1544-82; Latin and English; paper; xi + 512 + xiv; 
380mm x 245mm (300mm x 155mm); unfoliated first gathering, remainder foliated 1-298,230- 
444 (note overlapping foliation); 1929 binding in blind-stamped reversed calf over boards, title 
on spine: Register Book 1539-82. 

This volume is a fair copy of the proceedings of Borough Common Days and of en- 
rolments of deeds in the town court, 1544-82. It incorporates material from the Com- 
mon Day Book, PB/6 (see above). The will of John Faune (1550-1) occurs on ff 47v-8 

Metcalf's Thesaurus 
Downing College Library, Bowtell 11; c 1592-1630; English; paper; xxiv + 212 + xviii; 
295mm x 190mm (240mm x 120mm); original foliation (first 16 leaves unfoliated); c 1794 bind- 
ing by John Bowtell in half-leather and marbled paper over boards, title on spine: 

A previously unnoted contemporary copy of this volume is cut: MS Ff. 3.33. Thomas 
Medcalfe (or Metcalf) was mayor, 1592-3. 

Wickstede's Thesaurus 
Downing College Library, Bowtell 12; 1613-30; English; paper; xiv + 321 + viii; 295mm 
x 200mm (270mm x c 170mm); foliated in two parts (first part begins with f 3 since two leaves 


were lost before volume was bound); c 1794 binding by John Bowtell in half-leather and mar- 
bled paper over boards, title on spine: WICKSTEDE THESAURUS. John Wickstede was 
mayor, 1613-14. 

Treasurers' Accounts 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/X/70/1-10, X/71/1-10; 1422-1501; Latin; parchment; 
rolls, serially attached, mostly two membranes (minimum 1, maximum 4); average 670- 
960ram long (minimum 630mm, maximum 2.74m), 260-360mm wide; written on one side 
only except for X/71/3, a single membrane; membranes not numbered; paper wrappers; X/71 
series has decorated capitals. 

X/70/1-10 1422-36 (except 1428-31, 1432-3) 
X/71/1-10 1483-1501 (except 1486-8, 1491-3, 1494-8) 

Treasurers' Accounts 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/XVII/24B; 1500-1 ; Latin; paper; roll of 10 membranes, 
serially attached; 4.29m x 310ram; modern pencil numbering; fragment of lost first membrane. 
Rough version of parchment roll X/71/10, which is cited in the Records. 

Treasurers' Accounts 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/X/71A; 1503-4; Latin; paper; roll of 12 membranes, 
serially attached; 4.8m x 320ram; modern pencil numbering. 

Treasurers' Accounts 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/XVII/24A; 1513-14; Latin; paper; roll of 13 membranes 
plus fragment, serially attached; 5.82m x 310ram; membranes numbered [iii], iv-vii, 1-9; first 
two membranes missing. 

Treasurers' Books 
Downing College Library, Bowtell 1-5; 1510-1642; English; paper; average 400 leaves per 
volume; c 315mm x c 220mm (minimum 240ram x 155mm); haphazard early foliation super- 
seded by new pencil foliation; separate annual accounts gathered into large volumes; c 1794 
bindings by John Bowtell in boards, marbled paper, half-leather, titles on spines: LIBER 
RATIONALIS (with dates). The complete Liber Rationalis series runs to 10 volumes, 1510- 

Vol 1 

Vol 2 
Vol 3 
Vol 4 
Vol 5 

1510-61 (except 1511-15, 1519-21, 1522-3, 1526-7, 1528-30, 1533-5, 1541-2, 
1544-5, 1553-4, 1555-9, 1559-60) 
1561-89 (except 1566-7, 1575-82) 
1590-1611 (except 1598-9) 
1611-28 (except 1612-13, 1618-19, 1626-7) 
1628-42 (except 1639-40) 


Subsidy Roll, Market Ward 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, PB/XVII/23; 1513; paper; roll of 10 membranes serially 
attached, with extra sheet at end; 4.3m x 310ram. 

Town Complaint, with University's Reply 
London, PRO, SP12/279, Art. 66(2) (ff 114-18); 1601 ; English; paper; 5 single sheets (some 
originally bifolia ?); 315ram x 220mm, first sheet has a smaller sheet ( 180m m x 120mm) pasted 
onto recto; bound into guard-book, titled: 1601 Towne Complaintes Vniuersitie answers / 

Parish Documents 

Holy Trinity Churchwardens' Accounts 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, P22/5/1; 1504-58; English; paper; i + 118 + iii; 306mm 
x 218mm; modern pencil foliation, starting with f 11, attempts to respect original construction 
of the volume (of the 10 leaves missing at the beginning, 3 are bound in at the end); bound 
in half-leather and marbled paper (herring-bone pattern) over boards, gold-stamped label on 
cover: xx. HEN. vn. TO v. PHILIP & MARY. A modern transcript of these accounts is 
CRO: R84/15. 

Great St Mary Churchwardens' Accounts 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, P30/4/1 ; 1504-1635; English; paper; vi + 394 + vi; 300mm 
x 200-15mm; mixture of original (roman and arabic) and modern foliation, with some con- 
fusion and some corrections; bound in blind-tooled leather over boards; faded label on cover. 

The first volume of Great St Mary's churchwardens' accounts has been edited by John 
E. Foster, Churchwardens'Accounts of St Mary the Great Cambridge from 1504 to 

Great St Mary Churchwardens" Accounts 
Cambridgeshire Record Office, P30/4/2; 1635-99; English; paper; i+ 285 + vi; 348mm x 
220mm; early pagination; bound in leather over boards, labels on cover. 

Guild Document 

Corpus Christi Guild Minutes 
Corpus Christi College Archives, Masters N1 ; 1349-61 ; Latin; paper; 18 leaves in gathering, 
plus 1 extra leaf; 295mm x 215mm; modern foliation in pencil at bottom left of rectos; recently 
rebound in stiff parchment. Originally blank pages at end contain Corpus Christi College 
accounts for 1398-9. 


Royal, Court, and Diplomatic Documents 


In most instances the vice-chancellor's court proved sufficient to control behaviour 
in the university or within the five-mile limits; on several occasions, however, com- 
plaints or appeals went outside the university. 

Submission of Thomas and Richard Paris 
London, BL, Lansdowne 33, Art. 33 (f 66); 17 May 1581 ; English; paper; single sheet; 274mm 
x 200mm; pasted into guard-book. 

Star Chamber Court Book 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson A.128; 1632; English; paper; i + 45 + i; 330mm 
x 210ram; pencil foliation; stiff parchment binding, soiled, ties broken. 

Deposition of Edward Cropley against James Preist 
London, PRO, SP16/293 (f 197); 5July I635; English; paper; single sheet; 195mm x 150mm; 
bound into guard-book, no seal, endorsed: an Informacion against Iames Preist. 

Warrant against Showing Lions without a Licence 
London, PRo, SP16/303 (f 249); 13 December 1635; English; paper; single sheet; 355mm 
x 240mm; bound into guard-book. 

Petition of Robert Gill 
London, PRo, SP16/304 (f 115); 18 December 1635; English; paper; single sheet; 290mm 
x 190mm; bound into guard-book; much torn, especially along bottom, repaired. 


On several occasions the court paid for building or supervising stages for royal per- 
formances. The official in charge of these payments was the treasurer of the chamber. 

Treasurer of the Chamber Accounts 
London, PRO, E351/544; 1614-16; English; parchment; roll of 226 membranes, attached at 
top; c 660ram x c 510mm (x 265mm); written on both sides; membranes numbered. The index 
for this manuscript is PRo, AO1/393/66 (ff 27-8). 

Office of Works, Declared Accounts 
London, PRO, E351/3250; 1615-16; English; parchment; roll of 24 membranes, attached at 
top; c 630mm x 470mm; membranes not numbered. 


Lord Chamberlain's Warrant Book 
London, PRO, LC5/132, 1628-34; English; paper; ii + c 136 + ii; 355mm x 225mm; paginated; 
bound in stiff parchment (now over boards), recently rebound, spine repaired, thong as fas- 
tener, leaves enclosed in rice-paper. 


Letters from Guzm:in de Silva to the King of Spain and the Duchess of Parma 
Sirnancas, Archivo General, Legajo 817 (ff 76, 78, 82); 7, 12, and 19 August 1564; Spanish 
(Castilian); paper; letters; 334mm x 228mm; fragments or evidence of seals. 

Letter from Francesco Quaratesi to Curzio Picchena 
Florence, Archivio di Stato, Fondo Mediceo del Principato, Filza 4192; 5 March 1615; Italian; 
paper; single sheet; 300mm x 200mm; addresses on versos, seals or evidence of seals. 

Letters from Amerigo Salvetti to Andrea Cioli 
Florence, Archivio di Stato, Fondo Mediceo del Principato, Filza 4198; 12, 19, 26 March, and 
2 April 1632; Italian; paper; single sheets; 300mm x 200mm. 

Letter from Amerigo Salvetti to Andrea Cioli 
Florence, Archivio di Stato, Fondo Mediceo del Principato, Filza 4199; 15 February 1636; 
Italian; paper; single sheet; 300ram x 200ram. 


Anonymous Letter on the Royal Visit 
London, 8L, Add. 46367; c 1544-81 ; English (some Arabic, Latin, and Greek); paper; i + 
143 + ii;295mm x 195mm; original foliation in ink superseded by modern foliation in pencil; 
bound in tooled, gold-stamped leather over boards, title on spine: Harington MS. Letter of 
10 August 1564 on f 34v. 

Roger Ascham to Lord Robert Dudley (Ac) 
London, BL, Add. 33271; c 1590; English and Latin; parchment; ii + 46 + i ii; 365mm x 530mm 
(280ram x 365mm); BL binding in black leather over boards, title on cover: LETTERS, 
SPEECHES, ETC. 1545-1579. Letter of 5 August 1564 at f 19. 

William Beale to William Boswell 
London, PRO, SPI 5/43 (f 1); 1623; Latin; paper; single sheet; 300mm x 200mm; bound into 
guard-book; seal. Holograph. 

Joseph Beaumont to his Father, John Beaumont (A) 
George Nayler (ed), 'Two Original Papers. One, a Letter containing an Account of the 
Reception of King Charles the Second, when Prince of Wales, at Cambridge, in 1641 .... ' 
Archaeologia, 18 (1817), 29-30. 


Original not traced. Nayler, a member of the College of Heralds, reports (p 29) that 
he encountered the letter(s) in the way of private business. 

Samuel Brooke to Sir Dudley Carleton 
London, PRO, SP16/149, Art. 108 (ff 151-Ibis); 28 September 1629; English; paper; bifolium; 
295mm x 200mm; bound into guard-book, broken and repaired along fold, seal. Holograph. 

John Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton 
London, PRo, SP14/71 (f 122), 14/72 (ff 139-40), 14/80 (ff 75-6, 105-6, 159-60), 14/86 
(ff 187-8, 228-9), 14/138 (ff 100-1), 14/139 (ff 86-7), 14/140 (ff 21-2), 14/176 (ff 77-8); 
16 ! 2-25; English; paper; bifolia; c 315mm x c 210mm; bound into guard-books; seals variously 
intact, fragmentary, or lost; most letters heavily repaired. Holographs. 

John Flower to Viscount Scudamore 
London, pro, C ! 15/M31/8148, M32/8191 ; 3, 24 March 1632; English; paper; bifolia; 290mm 
x 192mm, 298mm x 188mm; unbound; outer edge of 8148 damaged in 2 places (by mice?), 
bottom quarter of second leaf of 8191 torn away. Holographs. 

Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, to William Paget 
London, PRO, SP1/210 (ff 119-23); 13 November 1545; English; paper; 2 bifolia plus wrapper; 
310mm x 210mm; bound into guard-book. Holograph. 

George Garrard to the Earl of Stratford 
Sheffield, Central Library, Archives Division, Wentworth Woodhouse Muniments, Stratford 
Papers 15/332; 25 January 1636; English; paper; bifolium; 290mm x 190mm; unbound; per- 
sonal signature, no seal. Holograph. 

Sir Henry Herbert to Viscount Scudamore 
London, PRO, C115/N3/8548; 2 March 1632; English; paper; bifolium; 315mm x 207mm; 
unbound; no seal or address. Holograph. 

Sir John Holies to his Son, Denzil 
Nottingham, Nottingham University Library, Portland Papers, Pw V 2; 16th-17th c.; 
English; paper; ii + 119 + ii; 185mm x 150mm; paginated; bound in white leather. Sir John 
Holies' letter-book and common-place book; letter of 4 March 1615 on pp 101-3. Copy. 

Joseph Mead to Martin Stuteville 
London, BL, Harley 389-90; 1621-9; English; paper; bifolia; smallest 270mm x 162mm, 
largest 300mm x 192mm; pencil foliation supersedes ink foliation; bound into guard-books; 
some letters repaired, some evidence of seals. Holographs. 

Charles Montagu to Edward Montagu 
Northampton, Northamptonshire Record Office, Montagu Papers, vol 3 (p 119); 12 March 
1623; English; paper; single sheet; 262mm x 161mm (253mm x 150mm); bound into guard- 
book, wrapper (p 121) has seal. Holograph. 


Edward Forcett, Concio ad Concionatores 
St John's College Library, K. 16 (336); 1603; Latin; paper; iv + 62 + iii; 182mm x 145mm; 
foliated; bound in half-leather over boards, tide on spine: CONCIO AD CONCIONA- 
TORES. ^.D. 1603. MS. Treatise addressed to the fellows of Trinity College by Forcett, a 
former member of the college. 

Thomas Fuller, Outline History of the University 
Jesus College Library, R.2.5 (formerly R. 3.42);c 1635; Latin and English; paper; c 60 leaves; 
425mm x 280ram; numbered by openings (1,2, 3... 26, 26x, 27, 27x, etc); bound in leather 
over boards, spine repaired. 

Thomas Fuller (1608-61) apparently drew up this abstract while preparing his History 
of the University. Although most of the events he notes occurred before his birth, 
Fuller had opportunity to collect information from eye-witnesses, including his 
father, also named Thomas, who matriculated from Trinity College in 1584, remained 
at Cambridge through the decade of the 1590s, and was still alive in 1632. 

Thomas Fuller, History of the University 
Thomas Fuller, History of the University of Cambridge since the Conquest. Part of The 
Church-History of Britain: from the Birth of Jesus Christ, until the Year 1648 (London, 1655). 
Wing: F2416. 

Thomas Fuller, Worthies of England 
Thomas Fuller, The History of the Worthies of England, 3 vols (London, 1662). Wing: F2440. 

John Hacker, Scrinia Reserata (^) 
John Hacker, Scrinia Reserata: A Memorial Offer 'd to the Great Deservings of John Williams, 
D.D. (London, 1693). Wing: H171. 

John Leland, Poetic Encomia (^c) 
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Tanner 464, vol iv; c 1576; Latin; paper; iv + 68 + iv; 207ram 
x 147ram; pencil foliation; bound in leather over boards, title on spine: LELAND *v; in hand 
of John Stow. 

This is the fourth of five notebooks in which John Stow recorded compositions by 
Leland some years after Leland's death in 1552. In 1589 the Cheshire poet Thomas 
Newton printed more than 250 of Leland's poems in Principvm, Ac illustrium aliquot 
6 eruditorum in Anglia virorum; Encomia, Troph,ea, Genethliaca; & Epithalamia 
(src: 15447). 

Thomas Ball, Life of Doctor Preston 
Thomas Ball, The Life of Doctor Preston, E.W. Harcourt (ed) (Oxford, 1885). Wing: C4513 


Harcourt states, 'the manuscript is in the library at Nuneham.' Neither the present 
location of the library (near Oxford) nor the manuscript itself has been traced. First 
printed in Samuel Clarke, A General Martyrologie, Containing a Collection of all the 
greatest Persecutions which have befallen the Church of Christ, from the Creation to 
our Present Times. Whereunto are added, the Lives of Sundry Modem Divines (Lon- 
don, 1651). 

Thomas Smith, De recta & emendata lingwe Grece pronuntiatione 
De recta & emendata  LINGVAS GRASCAS PRONVN- I tiatione, Thoma: Smithi Angli, tunc 
in Aca-I demia Cantabrigiensi publici pra:lectoris ad  Vintoniensem Episcopum Epistola.  
... I LVTETIAS, I Ex officina Roberti Stephani Typographi Regij. I M. D. LXVIII. I CVM 
PRIVILEGIO REGIS. src: 22856.5. 

John Weever, Epigrams 
EPIGRAMMES I in the oldest cut, and I newest fashion. I A I twise seuen houres (in so many 
 weekes) studie I No longer (like the fashion) not vn- I like to continue.  Thefi'rst seuen I 
Iohn Weeuer.  Sit voluisse, Sat valuisse, I At London  Printed by V.S. for Thomas Bushell, 
and are to be  sold at his shop at the great north doore I of Paules 1599. sTc: 25224. 

William Whiteway, Diary 
London, BL, Egerton 784; 1618-41 ; English; paper; 121 leaves; 135mm x 75mm; original foli- 
ation superseded by modern foliation; bound in gold-stamped leather. 

William Whiteway (1599-1635) was a Dorchester merchant. He started writing his 
diary in 1618 and continued to do so up to the time of his death. For a full account 
of Whiteway's life and times see Thomas D. Murphy, 'The Diary of William White- 
way of Dorchester, County Dorset, from the Year 1618 to the Year 1635,' PhD thesis 
(Yale, 1939). 


John Bale, Scriptorum ... Catalogus 
SCRIPTORVM IL- I lustrium maioris Brytanniae, quam I nunc Angliam & Scotiam uocant: 
Ca- I talogus ... ... I Autore IOANNE BALEO ... ... BASILEAE, APUD 10AN.  nero 
Oporinum. sTc: 1296a. This undated 2-volume work was published in 1557 and 1559. 

Lady Margaret Beaufort's Household Accounts 
St John's College Archives, D91.21 ; 1505-7; English; paper; 86 leaves; 288mm x 208rnrn; pagi- 
nated (rectos only); bound in limp parchment. 

Matthew Hutton, Personal Accounts 
Northallerton, North Yorkshire County Record Office, ZAZ 76; 1614-15; English; paper; 
bifolium; 330mm x ll0mm. 


Will of Nicholas Prime 
Cambridge University Library, Ely Diocesan Records, WR. 1 ; 1529-44; English (some Latin); 
paper; viii + 287 + ii; 282mm x 192mm; foliated; recently rebound in half-leather over boards, 
title on spine: ARCHDEACONRY OF ELY 1529-1544. Will register; Prime's will, dated 
12 January 1543, entered on ff 196-7v. 

The date of Prime's death can be determined within a three month period. By 13 April 
1543 both he and his widow were dead, she dying so soon after her husband that the 
administration of the will was not formally entrusted to her. The entry in the diocesan 
records which includes the text of the will appoints an administrator for the estate 
and a guardian for Prime's minor son. 

Report to Parliament concerning Cambridge Colleges 
London, BL, Harley 7019 (ff 52-93); 1641; English; paper; i + 41; single sheets; 375mm x 
265mm; foliated; bound into guard-book, title on first page: Innovations in Religion & abuses 
in Government in ye Vniversity of Cambridge 

Editorial Procedures 

Principles of Selection 

- Geographical boundaries. This collection embraces the whole of Cambridge, in- 
cluding colleges, university, town government, parish churches, and religious guilds. 
In the late middle ages the town of Cambridge included the built-up area within a 
one-mile radius of the parish church of Great St Mary's on the market (see map 4). 
In 1570 Queen Elizabeth granted to the university powers of supervision over persons 
and activities within a five-mile radius of Great St Mary's, an area which takes in 
Chesterton to the north-east and the Gog Magog Hills to the south-east. In 1605 the 
university precinct was officially defined as extending to this five-mile limit. 
With a very few exceptions, the geographical scope of this collection is coterminous 
with the limits of the university's jurisdiction. Several performances beyond the five- 
mile limit have been included because they were first planned or staged in Cambridge. 
These remote performances include a student masque before Elizabeth at Hin- 
chingbrooke, near Huntingdon (1563-4); a comedy before Elizabeth at Audley End, 
near Saffron Walden (1577-8); a Trinity College play at Royston (1615-16); and a 
Queens' College play at Newmarket (1622-3). 

- Music. Musical activity for secular occasions has been included in this collection, 
but not musical activity for liturgical purposes, though the distinction is not always 
clear. Purchases of viols and viol strings by Trinity College have been noted, although 
these may have been used in the chapel. Ownership of instruments by individuals 
other than waits has not been systematically recorded. 

- Tournaments. From 1234 to 1305 the royal court acted six times to restrict or al- 
together prevent tournaments at Cambridge. Since there is no evidence to suggest that 
such tournaments involved mimetic display, these records have been excluded, zs 

- Academic ceremony. University and college ceremony, including disputations and 
commencement exercises, was frequently treated as entertainment for the benefit of 
visiting dignitaries. Elaborate descriptions of such exercises survive, along with 



custom and may be beyond recovery. Appendix 18 gives the dates of most feasts 
named in the documents, or, for movable feasts, directions for discovering the dates 
in a given year. Dates which cannot be discovered by reference to Appendix 18 are 
given in the appropriate heading, footnote, or endnote. 
Most documents are included within their proper administrative year: thus a docu- 
ment from 29July 1593 is included in the year 1592-3, whereas a document from 30 
October 1575 is included in the year 1575-6. Where all items cited from a non- 
standard account can be assigned with confidence to a given administrative year, those 
items are printed without further comment (eg, Corpus Christi accounts from 1465-6 
and 1470-1 to 1478-9). Where items cited from a non-standard account may refer 
to events in either of two administrative years, the account is assigned to the year to 
which the bulk of the account applies and an explanation or a caution is supplied in 
an endnote (eg, Trinity College accounts from 1547-8 to 1550-1). Where non- 
standard accounts were kept quarter by quarter, as at St John's College, the accounts 
of the fourth (October) quarter are placed in the following year, where they properly 
belong. Reminiscences or allusions to events in years gone by are normally assigned 
to the year of the event. Although every effort has been made to assign documents 
to particular years, sometimes by reasonable conjecture, a few documents have re- 
sisted close dating: these undatable documents are assigned to Appendix 1. 
The date range of a given account, if less than the entire administrative year, is given 
in an editorial subheading. When the specific date of an event can be established, it 
is given either in a subheading or in a footnote. For the King's College Liber Com- 
munarum series, editorial subheadings not only give the date span of the week in which 
payments were made, but are also intended to serve as an aid to locating the payments 
in the unfoliated originals. (Thus, for example, entries cited from the 1450-1 Liber 
Communarum occur in the accounts for Michaelmas week, Christmas week, the sec- 
ond week after Christmas, and the third and fourth weeks after Easter: precise dates 
for those weeks are given in the subheadings; the entries may be located in the original 
volumes under the accounts for the appropriate weeks.) 
At times, particularly in plague years, commencement exercises and other cere- 
monies were postponed. The following provisional list of plague years is chiefly de- 
rived from Cooper, Annals, Index, s.v. Pestilence: 1348, 1389, 1447, 1485, 1491-5, 
1513, 1514, 1521, 1526, 1529, 1532, 1537, 1538, 1539, 1545, 1546, 1551, 1563, 1574, 
1577, 1580, 1593, 1603, 1605, 1608, 1610, 1625, 1630, 1631, 1636, 1637, 1638, 1641, 
1642. s* The plague was usually most virulent in the hot summer months. 


Each entry in the Records is preceded by a name or descriptive title, along with a brief 
identification of its source. On a separate line the folio, page, or membrane number 
is given, along with the precise accounting period of the entry (where known), and 


a virtually unreadable text, it has been decided to transcribe Tabor's hand as if every 
letter were, in fact, visible; footnotes or pointed brackets are supplied only where 
entire words or essential meanings are in doubt. Furthermore, to make the difficult 
1610-11 riot documents easier to read, abbreviated names have been expanded even 
when they lack a mark of abbreviation, although this is an exception to P, EED'S usual 

Unfoliated and Oddly Numbered Manuscripts 

Unfoliated manuscripts with a small number of leaves or membranes have been 
counted by hand and conjectural folio numbers supplied in square brackets. Such con- 
jectural foliation, however, may be awkward and indeed unreliable for manuscripts 
with a large number of leaves, especially when irregularities such as torn leaves and 
inserted sheets will virtually guarantee that various users will count folios differently. 
Most annual accounts are organized internally by year and by account heading and/or 
term. Following this logic, unfoliated accounts from King's College (also, in lesser 
numbers, from Christ's and Corpus Christi), are marked 'nf' to signify lack of foli- 
ation; then, following the account heading, a folio count is supplied within square 
brackets. This supplied foliation reckons the leaf on which the subdivision begins as 
folio 1. (A special system for identifying account headings in the King's College Liber 
Communarum series is explained on p 813.) 
Where two manuscripts or two leaves have by error been given the same number 
by a scribe or cataloguer, the second occurrence is marked 'bis." Where a volume or 
sheet of paper has been turned upside down for an entry, 'rev' (for reversed) follows 
the folio or page number. 
In several of the manuscripts cited in the Records, not folios or pages but 'openings' 
are numbered: as the manuscript is opened, the same number is assigned to the left- 
hand and the right-hand pages of the opening. In Magdalene College Archives Register 
B/421, moreover, the left-hand page of any given opening is marked with a subscript 
"a,' the right-hand page with a subscript 'b': this practice results in a reversal of the 
modern convention which designates rectos as 'a' and versos as 'b.' Jesus College 
Library R.2.5 is organized as a sequence of annual tables in chronological order, each 
table extending across an entire opening. When the table for a given year carries on 
to the next opening, a subscript 'x' is added to the second opening: thus, for example, 
opening 28x follows opening 28. 

Texts with Multiple Copies 

Where records exist in multiple copies, the editor has attempted to select the 'most 
authentic' copy as the source text for transcription. Two cases deserve special atten- 



1/ Where a letter was transmitted from one party to another and copies were made 
by sender, recipient, or both, preference is given to the letter which was actually sent 
(often distinguished by fold marks, seals, etc). If the transmitted document does not 
survive, a registered copy is used as source text. 

2/Where accounts and letters exist both in rough (or draft) form and in neat (or 
finished) form, preference is given to the neat version, which may be considered more 

When two or more copies of the same record survive, the editor has chosen one 
as source text and recorded the copy or copies in the Endnotes. Although normal REED 
policy requires collation of all significant variants, the large number of copies surviving 
in the university environment has forced a compromise in this collection: footnote 
collation against variant texts is provided only when differences extend to entire 
phrases. Differences in capitalization, forms of abbreviation, word division, or punc- 
tuation are not collated. 
Transcriptions by the Cambridge antiquary Thomas Baker (1656-1740) are listed 
in the Endnotes, along with any more nearly contemporary copies, to allow for check- 
ing the work of previous historians, who often cite Baker as principal source even 
though the originals from which Baker transcribed can almost always be traced. The 
Baker manuscripts are now divided between the British Library (Baker 1-23 = 
Harley 7028-50) and the Cambridge University Library (Baker 24-42 = Mm. 1.35- 
53). 82 Because others refer to the manuscripts sometimes by shelf-marks and some- 
times by the numbers Baker himself gave to his volumes, and because the relationship 
between shelf-mark and Baker number is never obvious, both systems are always 
cited. A compilation made by members of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Index 
to the Baker Manuscripts (Cambridge, 1848), provides further details. 
Certain additional antiquarian transcriptions are included in the Endnotes for the 
express purpose of alerting the reader to the fact that those transcriptions are derivative 
and not original. Two groups of manuscripts have been systematically excluded from 
the Endnotes: the handsome but inherently derivative university registers compiled 
by Robert Hare before his death in 1611 (see Venn and DN/); and transcriptions made 
by the Cambridge antiquary William Cole (1714-82) now among the Additional 
manuscripts in the British Library (see Venn and DN/). The latter may be consulted 
with the aid of George J. Gray, Index to the Contents of the Cole Manuscripts in the 
British Museum (Cambridge, 1912). 


1 Charles Henry Cooper, Annals of Cambridge, 5 vols, remains the closest approx- 
imation to a comprehensive history of the town. vc/-/, pp 1-149, a summary his- 
tory, is the source of all undocumented references in this essay. Most of the count- 
less histories or descriptions of Cambridge are entirely derivative. An exception, 
despite the author's disclaimer, is Thomas D. Atkinson, Cambridge Described 
& Illustrated. An engaging set of essays is F.A. Keynes, By-ways of Cambridge 
History, whose chapters on 'Cambridge Waits and Orlando Gibbons' and 'Early 
Drama in Cambridge' are now, however, somewhat out of date. 
James Bass Mullinger, The University of Cambridge, 3 vols, is the standard 
history of the university. The earliest comprehensive history is Thomas Fuller, 
History of the University of Cambridge (citation from p 120). vcH, pp 150-210, 
provides an overview with bibliographical references. The university is also 
prominent in Cooper, Annals. Detailed descriptions of university customs, of- 
rices, and institutions are given in R.J. Tanner (ed), Historical Register. 
Further details concerning the university and town are given on pp 778-81, 
2 VCla, pp 109-11 (includes maps showing town growth); and Nigel Goose, 
'Household Size and Structure in Early-Stuart Cambridge,' Social History, 5 
(1980), 347-85 (census details pp 353, 384-5). Miri Rubin, in Charity and 
Community in Medieval Cambridge (Cambridge, 1987), 44, estimates the total 
population of Cambridge at no less than 3,500 at the beginning of the fourteenth 
3 vc, pp 102-3; Goose, 'Household Size,' pp 355-8. 
4 VCla, pp 7, 92-4; Mary Bateson and Frederic W. Maitland, The Charters of the 
Borough of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1901), 97; and Daniel Defoe, A TourThro' 
the Whole Island of Great Britain, 4th ed, vol 1 (London, 1748), 91-2. 
5 See p 343 and endnote. 
6 vcl-l, pp 160-1; Mark H. Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge m Transition, 1558- 
1642, p 36. 
7 Tanner, Historical Register, p 24; Curtis, pp 36-41, 54-82. 
8 Curtis, p 3. 



9 VCl-l, pp 8-12; citation from p 11. Cambridge was one of six towns exempted from 
the general pardon of November 1381. 
10 vcn, pp 1, 29. 
11 Cooper, Annals, vol 1, pp 348-9 (1532); vol 2, pp 557-8 (1596); vol 3, pp 20-1 
(1605-6), 46-7, 53, 55 (1611-12). See also Gray, Mayors, pp 22-9. 
12 yen, pp 81-3. 
13 H.C. Porter, Reformation and Reaction. 
14 VCH, p 15. 
15 Chambers, ms, vol 1, pp 393-403. See also p 756, on the plays of Henry Medwall. 
16 Willis and Clark, Architectural History, vol 2, p 214. Andrews matriculated in 
1664 and became a fellow in 1669. 
17 Smith, College Plays, pp 14-16; and Smith, 'Academic Drama,' 174-82. 
18 Smith, 'Academic Drama,' 194. Payment for work in the acting chamber in 
1664-5, noted on the same page, cannot be taken as evidence of a performance. 
19 See also the payment by Matthew Hutton in 1614-15 (p 539). 
20 For histories and descriptions of college halls and chapels, see Willis and Clark, 
Architectural History; and Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, 
England, An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge, 
2 vols (London, 1959). 
21 The accounts of Queens' College for 1560-1 seem to suggest that a spectacle 
(show?) was performed in the president's lodge ('in cubiculo presidis'). See also 
Queens' College accounts for 1548-9. 
22 Leslie Hotson has attempted to reconstruct the Queens' College stage in Shake- 
speare's Wooden 0 (New York, 1960), 169-72. 
23 Smith, College Plays, pp 26-8, notes many references to stage houses in Cam- 
bridge play texts. 
24 See also R.B. Graves, 'Stage Lighting at the Elizabethan and Early Stuart Courts,' 
Theatre Notebook, 38 (1984), 27-36. 
25 Smith, College Plays, p 31: 'The chest at Queens' is still in existence.' 
26 Nan Cooke Carpenter, 'Musicians in Early University Drama,' Notes and 
Queries, 195 (1950), 470-2, discusses some aspects of this topic. 
27 See 'Manner of Production of College Plays,' in Smith, College Plays, pp 17-48; 
and L.J. Mills, 'The Acting in University Comedy,' 212-30. 
28 The first two stage directions are taken from Richardus Tertius, Robert Lordi (ed) 
(New York, 1979), Part n, Act v, Scene i, following line 87; and Part m, Act v, 
Scene viii, following line 43. The second two are from Destruction of Jerusalem, 
CuL: Add. 7958, Part , Act v (f 46); and Part m, Act v (f 70v). 
Note objections to cross-dressing in 1614-15 (pp 543-4); biblical grounds are dis- 
cussed in the endnote. 
Other references to the purchase of writing materials occur in the accounts of 
Queens' College (1549-50) and of Trinity (1554-5, 1620-1 ). A printed copy of 
Albumazar, by Thomas Tomkis, contains contemporary manuscript stage 

820 NOTES 

directions (Appendix 6:1). A part book survives from Oxford: see David 
Carnegie, 'Actors' Parts and the "Play of Poore,"' Harvard Library Bulletin, 30 
(1982), 5-24. 
3 ! Thomas Brandon, Henry vm's juggler, visited Cambridge in 1532-3, 1534-5, and 
1535-6. Edward v's jester performed in 1548-9 and 1552-3; tumblers performed 
in 1572-3 and 1574-5; a jester in 162 7-8; and Charles 's jester in 1631-2 (see 
Patrons and Travelling Companies). Simonds D'Ewes reports having seen a rope- 
dancer in the town in 1619-20. For a possible exclusion of a dancer at Chesterton, 
see Records, 1568-9, and endnote. 
32 These prohibitions were not applied with equal force to bull-baiting, which was 
considered less a sport than a technique of rendering the flesh more wholesome: 
a bullring was erected on the market in 1603-4; owners who allowed a bull to 
be slaughtered without first being baited were fined by the university in 1641-2. 
33 Atkinson, Cambridge Described, pp 81-5; you, p 120; and Keynes, By-ways, 
pp 1-15. 
34 I am grateful to Professor Robert Tittler for calling the Thaxted town hall to my 
35 The 'common playe' from which John Crowfoote was 'Drawen by the heeles' 
may have been performed in an upstairs room at the Elephant (see pp 1228-30). 
36 On Cambridge inns, see Atkinson, Cambridge Described, pp 71-6; Palmer, 
Cambridge Borough Documents, vol 1, pp 138-40; and you, pp 115-16. Atkin- 
son (pp 73-4), reports: 'The Falcon has now ceased to be used as an inn, but it 
is a very good example of the old arrangement. Till quite recently the court was 
entirely surrounded by the timber buildings of the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries, 
and the west and south sides still stand almost unaltered. The buildings are in three 
floors, the two upper of which have open galleries, projecting slightly over the 
ground storey. The galleries probably ran all round the court originally .... The 
galleries on the east side appear to have been destroyed in the last century to form 
a large reception room, the three round-headed windows of which appear in our 
illustration' (Figure 5B). 
37 B.R. Hartley, 'The Wandlebury Iron Age Hill-Fort, Excavations of 1955-6,' cas: 
Proceedings, 50 (1957), 1-27. 
38 El-H. Marsden, (ed)], College Life in the Time of James the First (Cambridge, 
1851), 97. 
39 Chambers, MS, vol 1, pp 336-71 ; suppression of the feast described p 366. See 
also Boas, University Drama, pp 10-11. 
40 Boas, pp 4-8. See also the Oxford collection to be published in the REED series. 
41 Coventry, R.W. Ingrain (ed), IEED (Toronto, 1981). 
42 G.C.M. Smith, Thomas Randolph, Warton Lecture on English Poetry, British 
Academy (London, 1927), 25. 
43 The source for this episode is the mid-sixteenth-century master of Corpus Christi 
College, John Joscelyn, whose manuscript history of the college has been 




published as Historiola Collegii Corporis Christi, J.W. Clark (ed), CAS, Octavo 
Series 17 (1880); the incident is described pp 12-17. The account cited is by Fuller, 
History of the University, pp 44-5. See also Cooper, Annals, vol 1, pp 303,324; 
Gray, Mayors, p 22; and vet-i, p 373. 
On Sturbridge Fair, see p 706; on all Cambridge fairs, see Atkinson, Cambridge 
Described, pp 203-13; and vet-i, pp 91-5. 
The office of the lord of taps survived until 1833: Cambridge Borough Docu- 
ments, vol 1, p 166. 
Cambridge churches are described in more detail, p 798. 
See King's Hall account for 1364-5 and endnote. 
Hocktide ceremonies are described by Chambers, Ms, vol 1, pp 154-6; and by 
J. Charles Cox, Churchwardens" Accounts from the Fourteenth Century to the 
Close of the Seventeenth Century (London, 1913), 64-5, 261-3. 
Cooper, Annals, records royal visits for the entire history of Cambridge. Docu- 
ments and descriptions from 1564 onward are published by Nichols, Progresses 
of Elizabeth and James the First; Mullinger, University of Cambridge, especially 
vol 1, p 448; and Marion Colthorpe, Royal Cambridge: Royal Visitors to Cam- 
bridge, Queen Elizabeth 1- Queen Elizabeth I1 (Cambridge, 1977). 
The following sources supplement details printed by these three authorities 
(information kindly supplied by Marion Colthorpe): 1571 : PRo: E 101/431 / 1 (cof- 
ferer's account, 1 October 1570 to 30 September 1571 ). 1578: Privy Council meet- 
ings were held at Audley End, July 27, 31, and at Long Melford on 3 August 
(Acts of the Privy Council). An itinerary at Longleat House (Thynne Papers, vol 
1.11, f 82) shows that the queen stayed at Sir Thomas Barnardiston's (Kedington, 
Suffolk) en route to Long Melford. John North's diary (Bodl. : ss Add. C 193, 
f 39) shows that the court moved from Kedington to Long Melford on 2 August. 
The queen's stay at Audley End can be dated as '26-31 July/1 August.' 1615 (first 
visit): Plo: E101/433/19 (controller's account, 1 October 1614 to 31 March 1615). 
1616: PRO: E101/434/1 (controller's account, 1 October 1615 to 30 September 
1616). 1624 (second visit): PlO: E101/437/2 (controller's account, 1 October 1624 
to 31 March 1625) and the parallel cofferer's account only give the places where 
the king spent his Sunday nights (Newmarket, 5 December; Cambridge, 12 
December; and Royston, 19 December). 
This discussion draws upon the Records and upon information gathered in 
Appendix 13. Previous histories of the Cambridge waits begin in 1484, the date 
of their first appearance in town treasurers' accounts: see VCH, pp 60-1 ; and F.A. 
Keynes, 'Cambridge Waits and Orlando Gibbons,' By-ways, pp 42-59. See also 
Ian Payne, 'The Musical Establishment at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1546- 
1644,' cAs: Proceedings, 74 (1987 for 1985), 53-69; and 'Instrumental Music at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, c. 1594-c. 1615: Archival and Biographical Evi- 
dence,' Music and Letters, 68 (1987), 128-40. 
Mere reports in 1556-7: 'Item Clarkes dawghter ye wayt[(.)] and his seruante 

822 NOTES 

maryed at .s. Edwardes'; this implies that Clark was the master wait, and that 
his daughter married one of his subordinate waits. 
52 Edmund H. Fellowes, Orlando Gibbons and his Family, p 15. 
53 Bv 1581-2 Graves apparently left Cambridge and joined the Norwich town waits: 
see Norwich 1540-1642, David Galloway (ed), REED (Toronto, 1984), 63. 
54 Fellowes, p 18. 
55 Fellowes (pp 18-19) records the deaths of William and Mary Gibbons. Mary Gib- 
bons' ownership of the Bear is noted in Appendix 13. 
56 Fellowes, pp 21 (Edward), 31 (Ferdinando). The suggestion that Orlando per- 
formed from 1600-1 to 1602-3 is advanced by Dry/3; by Fellowes, p 35; and by 
New Grove. Keynes, p 57, suggests that the performer was Edward Gibbons. 
57 The Corpus Christi College chapter book for 1619-20 requires the waits to 'pro- 
vide a sample of their skill in playing and singing.' 
58 The Cambridge waits performed in the Bassingbourn St George Play in 1511 :J.C. 
Cox, Churchwardens' Accounts, p 272. In May 1567 they played in Boston, 
perhaps in connection with a play: Stanley J. Kahrl, 'Records of Plays and Players 
in Lincolnshire, 1300-1585,' Malone Society, Collections, vol 8 (Oxford, 1974), 
5. On 11 July 1571, 'ye playars of Cambrydge" received a payment in Ipswich: 
E.K. Chambers, 'Players at Ipswich,' Malone Society, Collections, vol 2, part 3 
(Oxford, 193 l ), 267. In 1574 Henry Reade, 'one of the wayghtes of Cambridge,' 
was paid 'for his attendance in Christmas tyme' at Hengrave Hall: David 
Galloway and John Wasson (eds), 'Records of Plays and Players in Norfolk and 
Suffolk, 1330-1642,' Malone Society, Collections, vol 11 (Oxford, 1981), 166. 
Much earlier, in 1415-16, a payment was given at King's Lynn (Galloway and 
Wasson, p 43): 'cuidam logulatori Ludenti ciuii Cambrigie." 
For further evidence of travel by Cambridge waits, other volumes in the REED 
series should be consulted. 
59 REED, Norwich 1540-1642, as summarized on p xi, contains extensive information 
concerning musical instruments. 
60 cuA: CUR 37.3.111, f [Iv]. 
6 i See Dry/3. Legge was criticized in 1581-2 for permitting the singing of lewd ballads. 
This complaint is preserved with others in 8L: Lansdowne 33-4, Arts. 46-51. 
See also Heywood and Wright, Transactions, vol 1, pp 314-50, 353-69; Cooper, 
Annals, vol 5, p 313; Boas, University Drama, pp 112-13; and Brooke, History 
of Gonville and Caius, pp 84-93. See also P.G. Stern, 'Thomas Legge: A Six- 
teenth Century English Civilian and His Books,' Satura Roberta Feenstra, J.A. 
Ankum et al (eds) (Fribourg, Switzerland, 1985), 545-56. 
62 See David W. Blewitt, 'Records of Drama at Winchester and Eton, 1397-1576,' 
Theatre Notebook, 38 (1984), 88-95, 135-43. See also the Buckinghamshire col- 
lection for the REED series (in preparation). This was the original college of 
Thomas Preston, apparently the author of Cambyses: see p 778 and note 66. 

NOTES 823 

63 For further information on Medwall's life and plays, see The Plays of Henry Med- 
wall, Alan H. Nelson (ed) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1980); and 'Life Records of 
Henry Medwall, M. ,., Notary Public and Playwright; and John Medwall, Legal 
Administrator and Summoner,' Leeds Studies in English, ns 11 (1980), 111-55. 
64 Cobban, The King's Hall, especially pp 186-8. 
65 A third site incorporated into Trinity College was Physwick Hall, mentioned in 
the college inventory of 1547-8 (p 154, 1. 19). This hall is described in H.P. 
Stokes, Medieval Hostels, pp 95-6; and by vc/4, pp 357, 462. 
66 Chambers,/s, vol 3, p 469, questions whether a person of Preston's learning and 
eminence could have written Cambyses, but Norman Rabkin remarks of Preston 
the scholar, Preston the playwright, and Preston the ballad-monger, 'All three 
may well be the same man; there were other Thomas Prestons in the period, too' 
(Russell A. Fraser and Norman Rabkin (eds), Drama of the English Renaissance, 
I, The Tudor Period (New York, 1976), 59). 
67 For some standard histories of and guides to the university, see note 1. The in- 
troductions to the Grace Book series also provide important information. 
68 Damian Riehl Leader, 'Professorships and Academic Reform at Cambridge: 
1488-1520,' Sixteenth Century Journal, 14 (1983), 218-27. 
69 On theTolbooth, see Atkinson, Cambridge Described, pp 81-7, 91-4; and you, 
pp 119-20. 
70 A thirteenth-century Paris riot among arts students involved the automatic ex- 
communication of all participants, because to strike a clerk was to strike God's 
71 Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 16th ed, vol 1 
(London, 1825), 470. 
72 vCH, pp 1-149, is the source of all undocumented references in this essay. See 
also 'Town and Gown,' above, pp 705-9. For a list of mayors, seeJ. Milner Gray, 
73 vCH, pp 13, 59-60; Keynes, 'The Office of High Steward of the Borough of Cam- 
bridge,' By-Ways, pp 16-41. 
74 Walter L. Woodfill, Musicians in English Society from Elizabeth to Charles i, 
Princeton Studies in History, 9 (Princeton, 1953), 264-5 (accounts from 1576 to 
1589, from 3L: Stowe 774). For further information on Roger North, see Boas, 
University Drama, p 224. 
75 On the possibility that Shakespeare's Hamlet was performed at Cambridge by 
the chamberlain's men, see Appendix 10. 
76 vcH, pp 123-32. 
77 Toulmin Smith, Lucy Toulmin Smith, and Lujo Brentano (eds), English Gilds: 
The Original Ordinances of more than One Hundred Early English Gilds, EETS, 
OS 40 (London, 1870), 274-82; Mary Bateson (ed), Cambridge Gild Records; 
Herbert Francis Westlake, The Parish Gilds of Mediaeval England (London, 

824 NOTES 

1919), 139--41 (also Chesterton, pp 141-2); Bede Camm, 'The Mediaeval Gilds 
of Cambridge,' Downside Review, 43 (1925), 9-20; and VCH, pp 133-5. The Cor- 
pus Christi Guild Minute Book and the guild returns from 1382 in the PRO are 
described and printed by Bateson; English Gilds contains several of the returns 
written in English. 
78 Further on tournaments, see Cooper, Annals, vol 1, pp 42 (1234), 44 (1245), 46 
(1251), 53 (1270), 71 (1305), and 72 (1309). 
79 Further on ownership of classical play texts, see E.S. Leedham-Green (ed), Books 
in Cambridge Inventories: Book-Lists from Vice-Chancellor's Court Probate In- 
ventories in the Tudor and Stuart Periods, 2 vols (Cambridge, 1987); see also Ian 
Lancashire, Dramatic Texts and Records of Britain: A Chronological Topography 
to 1558 (Toronto, 1984), 94-102; and, concerning academic lectures on play texts, 
Damian Riehl Leader, 'Professorships and Academic Reform at Cambridge: 
1488-1520,' pp 218-24. 
80 vcH, p 62. 
81 Catherine P. Murrell, 'The Plague in Cambridge 1665-1666,' Cambridge 
Review, 72 (1950-1), 375-6, 403-6, includes a discussion of the plague in the 
years leading up to 1642. 
82 Of the CUE volumes, Baker 39 is a printed book (formerly Mm.l.50, now 
Adv. b. 52. l ), while Baker 41 and 42 (Mm. I. 52-3) are original manuscripts with 
notations by Baker. The latter is 'Peck's Book': see Introduction, p 795. 
Nineteenth-century transcriptions of Baker manuscripts in the aL made by mem- 
bers of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, now in the CUE and designated 
Mm.2.22-5, have no independent authority. 

Select Bibliography 

The Select Bibliography consists of books and articles containing first-hand transcrip- 
tions of primary records and of some essential reference works. No attempt has been 
made to list all works cited in the Introduction, textual footnotes, and Endnotes. 

Acts of the Privy Council of England. 46 vols, ns (London, 1890-1964). 
Alton, R.E. 'The Academic Drama in Oxford: Extracts from the Records of Four 
Colleges,' Collections. Malone Society, vol 5 (Oxford, 1959), 29-95. 
Atkinson, Thomas Dinham. Cambridge Described and Illustrated: Being a Short His- 
tory of the Town and University (London, 1897). 
Baker, Thomas and John E.B. Mayor. History of the College of St. John the Evangelist, 
Cambridge. 2 vols (Cambridge, 1869). 
Bartholomew, A.T. Catalogue of the Books and Papers for the Most Part Relating 
to the University, Town, and County of Cambridge Bequeathed to the University 
by John Willis Clark, M.a. (Cambridge, 1912). 
Bateson, Mary (ed). Cambridge Guild Records. Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 
Octavo Series 39 (Cambridge, 1903). 
- (ed). Grace Book B, Part !: Containing the Proctors'Accountsand OtherRecords 
of the University of Cambridge for the Years 1488-1511 (Cambridge, 1903). 
- (ed). Grace Book B, Part !!: Containing the Accounts of the Proctors of the University 
of Cambridge, 1511-1544 (Cambridge, 1905). 
Bentley, Gerald Eades. The Jacobean and Caroline Stage. 7 vols (Oxford, 1941-68). 
Billington, Sandra. 'Sixteenth-Century Drama in St John's College, Cambridge,' 
Review of English Studies, ns 29 (1978), 1-10. 
Binns, J.W. 'Seneca and Neo-Latin Tragedy in England,' Seneca. C. D. N. Costa (ed) 
(London, 1974), 205-34. 
Birch, Thomas. The Court and Times of James I. 2 vols (London, 1849). 
Boas, Frederick S. University Drama in the Tudor Age (Oxford, 1914). 
- 'University Plays,' The Cambridge History of English Literature. Vol 6, pt 2 (Cam- 
bridge, 1910), 330-69, 523-44. 
Bowers, R.H. 'Some Folger Academic Drama Manuscripts,' Studies in Bibliography, 
12 (1959), 117-30. 


Bowes, Robert. A Catalogue of Books Printed at or Relating to the University, Town 
& County of Cambridge from 1521 to 1893 (Cambridge, 1894). 
Bradner, Leicester. 'The First Cambridge Production of Miles Gloriosus,' Modem 
Language Notes, 70 (1955), 400-3. 
-'The Latin Drama of the Renaissance (1340-1640),' Studies in the Renaissance, 4 
(1957), 30-70. 
Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, Edward Vl, Mary, Elizabeth, James. 12 vols 
(London, 1856-72). 
Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, Charles I. 23 vols (London, 1858-97). 
Chambers, E. K. (ed). 'Dramatic Records:The Lord Chamberlain's Office,' Collec- 
tions. Malone Society, vol 2, pt 3 (Oxford, 1931), 321-416. 
- The Elizabethan Stage. 4 vols (Oxford, 1923). 
- The Mediaeval Stage. 2 vols (Oxford, 1903). 
- and W.W. Greg (eds). 'Dramatic Records from the Lansdowne Manuscripts,' Col- 
lections. Malone Society, vol 1, pt 2 (Oxford, 1908), 143-215 
Churchill, George B. and Wolfgang Keller, 'Die lateinischen Universit/its-Dramen 
Englands in der Zeit der K6nigin Elisabeth,' ShakespeareJahrbuch, 34 (1898), 221- 
Clark, J.W. The Riot at the Great Gate of Trinity College, February 1610-11. Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society, Octavo Series 43 (Cambridge, 1906). 
Cobban, Alan B. The King's Hall within the University of Cambridge in the Later 
Middle Ages. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 3rd series, 1 (Cam- 
bridge, 1969). 
Cooper, Charles Henry. Annals of Cambridge. 5 vols [John Williams Cooper (ed), 
vol 5] (Cambridge, 1842-1908). 
- and Thompson Cooper. Athenae Cantabrigienses. 3 vols (Cambridge, 1858-1913). 
Curtis, Mark H. Oxford and Cambridge in Transition, 1588-1642 (Oxford, 1959). 
Dee, John. 'The Compendious Rehearsall,' Chetham Society, 24 (Manchester, 1851), 
Documents Relating to the University and Colleges of Cambridge. 3 vols (London, 
Dyer, George. The Privileges of the University of Cambridge; together with Addi- 
tional Observations on its History, Antiquities, Literature, and Biography. 2 vols 
(London, 1824). 
Ellis, Henry. Original Letters, lllustrative of English History. Series 1-3, 11 vols 
(London, 1824-46). 
Emden, Alfred B. A Biographical Register of the University of Cambridge to 1500 
(Cambridge, 1963). 
Feil, J. P. 'Dramatic References from the Scudamore Papers,' Shakespeare Survey, 11 
(1958), 107-16. 
Fellowes, Edmund H. Orlando Gibbons and his Family: the Last of the Tudor School 
of Musicians. 2nd ed (London, 1951). 



Foster, J.E. (ed). Churchwardens' Accounts of St Mary the Great Cambridge from 
1504 to 1635. Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Octavo Series 35 (Cambridge, 1905). 
Fuller, Thomas. The History of the University of Cambridge Since the Conquest (Lon- 
don, 1655). Wing: F2416. 
Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (ed). Reports of Cases in the Courts of Star Chamber and 
High Commission. Camden Society, ns, 39 (London, 1886). 
Gray, J. Milner. Biographical Notes on the Mayors #Cambridge (Cambridge, 1922). 
Greenwood, David. 'The Staging of Neo-Latin Plays in Sixteenth Century England,' 
Educational Theatre Journal, 16 (1964), 311-23. 
Greg, W. W. A Bibliography of the English Printed Drama to the Restoration. 4 vols. 
Bibliographical Society, Illustrated Monographs 24 (London, 1939-59). 
Harbage, Alfred. Annals of English Drama: 975-1700. S. Schoenbaum (rev) (Philadel- 
phia, 1964). S. Schoenbaum, Supplements (Evanston, Illinois, 1966, 1970). 
-'A Census of Anglo-Latin Plays,' PML,*i, 53 (1938), 624-9. 
Hawkins, John S. (ed). Ignoramus (London, 1787). 
Heywood, James (ed). Early Cambridge University and College Statutes in the 
English Language. 2 vols (London, 1855). 
- and Thomas Wright (eds). Cambridge University Transactions during the Puritan 
Controversies of the 16th and 17th Centuries. 2 vols (London, 1854). 
The Historical Manuscripts Commission. Francis L. Bickley (ed). 'The Manuscripts 
of the Hon. Frederick Lindley Wood,' Report on Manuscripts in Various Collec- 
tions. Vol 8 (London, 1913), 1-195. 
- W.O. Hewlett (ed). 'The Manuscripts of the Marquess of Townshend,' The 11th 
Report of the Manuscripts Commission. Pt 4 (London, 1887). 
A.B. Hinds (ed). Report on the Manuscripts of the Marquess of Downshire Pre- 
servedat Easthampstead Park, Berks. Historical Manuscripts Commission 75. Vol 
4 (London, 1940). 
- A.J. Horwood (ed). 'The Manuscripts of the Right Honourable Lord De L'Isle 
and Dudley at Penshurst, Co. Kent,' The 3rd Report of the Manuscripts Commis- 
sion (London, 1872), 227-33. 
- 'The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland at Syon House,' 
The 6th Report of the Manuscripts Commission (London, 1877), 221-33. 
H.T. Riley (ed). 'Cambridge: Corpus Christi College,' The 1st Report of the 
Manuscripts Commission (London, 1870), 64-7. 
-'Cambridge: King's College,' The 1st Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1870), 67-9. 
- 'Cambridge: Pembroke College," The 1st Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1870), 69-72. 
- 'Cambridge. - Queens' College,' The 1st Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1870), 72. 
- 'Cambridge. - Registry of the University,' The 1st Report of the Manuscripts 
Commission (London, 1870), 73-4. 


- 'Cambridge: St Peter's College,' The 1st Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1870), 77-82. 
- 'Cambridge: Trinity College,' The 1st Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1870), 82-6. 
- 'Clare College, Cambridge,' The 2nd Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1871), 110-16. 
- 'Downing College, Cambridge: The Bowtell Collection,' The 3rd Report of the 
Manuscripts Commission (London, 1872), 320-7. 
- 'Emmanuel College, Cambridge,' The 4th Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1874), 417-21. 
- 'Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge,' The 2nd Report of the Manuscripts 
Commission (London, 1871), 116-18. 
- 'Jesus College, Cambridge,' The 2nd Report of the Manuscripts Commission 
(London, 1871), 417-21. 
- 'Magdalene College, Cambridge,' The 5th Report of the Manuscripts Commis- 
sion. Pt 1 (London, 1876), 481-4. 
- 'St Catharine's College, Cambridge,'The 4th Report of the Manuscripts Commis- 
sion (London, 1874), 421-8. 
- 'Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge,' The 3rd Report of the Manuscripts Commis- 
sion (London, 1872), 327-9. 
- 'Trinity Hall, Cambridge,' The 2nd Report of the Manuscripts Commission (Lon- 
don, 1871), 121-3. 
Howell, T.B. (ed). Cobbett's Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for 
High Treason and Other Crimes .... 34 vols (London, 1809-28). 
Hume, Martin A.S. (ed). Calendar of Letters and State Papers Relating to English 
Affairs, Preserved Principally in the Archives of Simancas: Elizabeth. 4 vols (Lon- 
don, 1892-9). 
Keynes, F.A. By-Ways of Cambridge History. 2nd ed (Cambridge, 1956). 
Knight, Frida. Cambridge Music from the Middle Ages to Modern Times (Cambridge, 
Lamb, John (ed). A Collection of Letters, Statutes, and Other Documents, From the 
lvls. Library of Corp. Christ. Coll., Illustrative of the History of the University of 
Cambridge, During the Period of the Reformation, From A.D. MD., tO A.D. MDLXXU 
(London, 1838). 
Leathes, Stanley M. (ed). Grace Book A: Containing the Proctors'Accounts and Other 
Records of the University of Cambridge for the Years 1454-1488 (Cambridge, 
Lever, Katherine. 'Greek Comedy on the Sixteenth Century English Stage,' Classical 
Journal, 42 (1946), 169-74. 
Madan, Falconer and W.M. Palmer. Notes on Bodleian Manuscripts Relating to Cam- 
bridge. Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Octavo Series 52 (Cambridge, 1931). 


Pearch, E.C. 'College Accounts of John Botwright, Master of Corpus Christi, 1443- 
74,' Cambridge Antiquarian Society: Proceedings, 22 (1921), 76-90. 
Peck, Francis. Desiderata Curiosa: or, a Collection of Divers Scarce and Curious Pieces 
Relating Chiefly to Matters of English History (London, 1779). 
Peile, John. 'On Four rss Books of Accounts Kept by Joseph Mead, B.D., Fellow 
of Christ's College, with his Pupils between 1614 and 1633,' Cambridge Antiqua- 
rian Society: Proceedings, 13 (1909), 250-61. 
'The Plays acted before the University of Cambridge,' Retrospective Review, 12 
(1825), 1-42. 
Porter, H.C. Puritanism in Tudor Engl,nd (London, 1970). 
- Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge (Cambridge, 1958) 
Raine, James (ed). The Correspondence of Dr. Matthew Hutton, Archbishopof York. 
Suttees Society, 17 (London, 1843). 
Roston, Murray. Biblical Drama in England: from the Middle Ages to the Present 
Day (London, 1968). 
Ryan, Lawrence V. 'Neo-Latin Literature,' The Present State of Scholarship in 
Sixteenth-Century Literature. William M. Jones (ed) (Columbia, Missouri, 1978), 
Scott, R. (ed). Notes from the Records of St. John's College, Cambridge (privately 
printed, 1889-99). 
Searle, William George (ed). Grace Book F, Containing the Records of the University 
of Cambridge for the Years 1501-42 (Cambridge, 1908). 
Smith, George Charles Moore. 'Abraham Cowley and Lord Falkland,' Notes and 
Queries, 12th set, 9 (1921), 305-6. 
- 'The Academic Drama at Cambridge: Extracts from College Records,' Collections. 
Malone Society, vol 2, pt 2 (Oxford, 1923), 150-231. 
- College Plays Performed in the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1923). 
-'Latin Plays Acted at Cambridge,'/llodern Language Review, 6 (1911), 87-8. 
-'Plays Performed in Cambridge Colleges before 1585,' Fasciculus Ioanni Willis 
Clark Dicatus (Cambridge, 1909), 265-73. 
Smith, William James. Five Centuries of Cambridge Musicians, 1464-1964 (Cam- 
bridge, 1964). 
Steele, Mary Susan. Plays & Masques at Court During the Reigns of Elizabeth,James 
and Charles (New Haven, 1926). 
Stokes, Henry Paine. The Esquire Bedells of the University of Cambridge from the 
13th Century to the 20th Century. Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Octavo Series 
45 (Cambridge, 1911). 
- The Medieval Hostels of the University of Cambridge. Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, Octavo Series 49 (1924). 
Stratman, CarlJ. 'Dramatic Performances at Oxford and Cambridge, 1603-1642,' 
PhD thesis (University of Illinois, 1947). 


Tanner, R.J. (ed). The Historical Register of the University of Cambridge being a sup- 
plement to the Calendar with a record of university offices and distinctions to the 
year 1910 (Cambridge, 1917). 
Venn, John (ed). Cambridge University Grace Book A, Containing the Records of 
the University of Cambridge for the Years 1542-1589 (Cambridge, 1910). 
- Early Collegiate Life (Cambridge, 1913). 
- andJ.A. Venn (comps). Alumni Cantabrigienses: A BiographicalList ofallknown 
Students, Graduates and Holders of Office at the University of Cam bridge, from 
the Earliest Times to 1900; Pt 1.from the Earliest Times to 1751.4 vols (Cambridge, 
The Victoria History of the Counties of England. History of the County of Cambridge 
and the Isle of Ely. Vol 3: The City and Universay of Cambridge. J. P. C. Roach 
(ed) (London, 1959). 
Watson, George (ed). The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature. Vol 
1:600-1660 (Cambridge, 1974). 
Willis, Robert and John Willis Clark. The Architectural History of the University of 
Cambridge and of the Colleges of Cambridge and Eton. 4 vols (Cambridge, 1886). 
Wilson, F.P. (ed). 'Dramatic Records in the Declared Accounts of the Office of 
Works, 1560-1640,' Collections. Malone Society, vol 10 (Oxford, 1977). 


Scale of Yards 
?o ,?o aqo 



Map 1 Cambridge c 1445 (reprinted from Atkinson, Cambridge Described, following p 504) 

834 MAPS 

Map 2 Richard Lyne map of Cambridge, 1574 (from Cambridge University Library Map 
Room, by permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library) 


Map 3 John Hamond map of Cambridge, 1592 : Central Section (reproduced from a facsimile 
in Cambridge University Library) 

836 MAPS 

MAPS 837 


A I 

Key to Map 4 


A St Giles'Church 
B St Peter's Church 
C St Clement's Church 
D Holy Sepulchre Church 
E AllSaints'Church 
F St Michael's Church 
G Holy Trinity Church 
H Great St Mary's Church 
J King's College Chapel 
K St Andrewthe Great Church 
L St Edward's Church 
M St Bene't Church 
N St Botolph's Church 
O LittleSt Mary's Church 

P Guild-hall 
Q Tolbooth 


1 The Saracen's Head 
2 The Elephant 
3 The Dolphin 
4 The Sun 
5 The Crown 
6 The Blue Boar 
7 The Bear 
8 The Angel 
9 TheWrestlers 
10 The Falcon 
!1 The Eagle 
12 TheWhiteHorse 


Undated Documents 


c 1368-90 
Old Proctor's Book 
ff 26v-7" 

CUA: Collect. Admin. 3 

...Statutum nouum contra turbatores in vico scolarum die cinerum. 

Item monemus primo secundo & tercio sub pena excommunicacionis 
maioris ne quis decetero in vicis scolarum turbacionem aliquam pulsu 
tractu seu quouis alio modo faciat foueat aut procuret aut eodem die 
seu aliquo alio tempore fiant conuenticule seu concursus scolarium ,0 
alicuius facultatis per se vel facultatum simul simul ad disponendum 
eligendum vel nominandum eis capitaneum ducem Cancellarium 
procuratores vel bedellos seu quemcunque alium vel alios ductores vel 
officiarios quocunque nomine censeantur nec ad huiusmodi 
conuenticulas vel concursus faciendas campanas pulsent cornua vel ,5 
tubis clangent nec quouis alio quesito colore conuocent seu faciant 
congregari ac insuper in huiusmodi contrauenientes sentenciam 
ferimus in hiis scriptis super quo statuit dicta vniuersitas quod tails 
contraueniens statim auctoritate dicte vniuersitatis pro excommunicato 
per ecclesias denuncietur nec ab huiusmodi excommunicacione o 
abso|uatur quousque ciste vniuersitatis communi ratione huius 
excessus suam [(...)] communam soluerit dupplicatam: I adicientes 
quod quiscunque sibi tale nomen officij capitanij ducis Cancellarij 
procuratoris ve| bedelli seu quocunque alio nomine censeatur in tall 
comitiua omni gradu scolastico in ista vniuersitate habendo perpetuo 5 
sit indignus. 

11/simul simuh dittograpby 


St John's College Loose Bill 
single sheet* 

SJA: D57.136 

the expensys abowte ye play s 
In primis for vj yerdes of lynyng for ij playng cotes iij s 
Item for ii yerdes and iij quarter of yalowe blake and whyte cottun 
for ij payr of hosse xix d 
Item for other v yerdes for a nother playng cote ij s vj d 
Item for iij cotes makyng iij s Item to maysterartur ,o 
Item for pynnys ob for [(..)] "a  howde wyer 
Item for xij golden papers xij d & threde x d 
[Item other expensys vj d] 
[Item for a payer of hose and for mak] 
Item .s 

for makyng of ij payer of hose x d 

John Bale, Scriptorum ... Catalogus STC: 1296a 
pp 709-10" 
Thomas Artour, patria Nordouolgius, academia: Cantabrigiensis 
alumnus, & Thoma: Bylna:i in persecutione pro Dei ueritate, sub 
Vvulsij Cardinalis tyrannide, socius, inter ca:tera congesit, I 

Microcosmum, tragcdiam, 
Mundum plumbeum, tragcdiam, 


St John's College Register of lnventories 
ff 255v-6" 

SJA: C7.2 

An Inventorye of all the players cotes & garmentes lieng 
in the great chest in the masters outward chamber .! 


A cope of tawney silke 
xiij garmentes of diuers sortes 
ix payer of hose ij of them w/d0 doublettes ioyned to them 
ij payer of sloppes 
j blew cloke 
a bunche of stooles 
a bunche of fronters 




Item a border with other painted clothes 
Item [xix] rxxijtil cappes 
Item iiij visers 
Item ij dragons 
Item iij sheldes 
Item ij heades 
& iij berdes  

Players stuff in the masters myddelmost chamber./ 
in the great chest there. 


ffirst xxiij cotes & garmentes 
Item a pece of cloth of gold 
Item a bonne grace full of shoues of rede veluet 
Item A gowne 
Item v clokes 
Item v payer of hose 
Item iij payer of [silk] sloppes one of yem of silke 
Item a nette 
Item a myter 
Item iiij garmentes made of vestimentes 
Item certen golden letters bound to gyther 
Item iii calles 
Item a payer of rede satene sieves for a gentlewoman 
Item [a] ij frenche woddes 
Item a bunch of broken ghere/ 


StJohnCoege RegterofInventoHes 
f 255  

SA: C7.2 


A cote and shoppes for miles. 
A cote for phedria with yelo saten and blacke cotton 
[A] Item ij cotes with crosses for ij sogiers 
Item A new cote with white, blacke, and red gardes 
Item An olde cote [with] and shoppes with black and white gardes 

Item a silke cote for a yonge man 
Item a cloke for a parasite 
Item a litle silke cote for thraso seruante 
Item a cote for the immiche 



32,36/shoppes [or sloppes 


Post- 1642 Documents 

Trinity College Response to Order of Parliament 

TC: Box 29.351e 

Reverend Sir. According to an Order of the right honourable the Lords 
assembled in high Court of Parliament dated the 10 th of this present 
moneth and directed vnto you & the Seniors, vpon receipt of your 
letters I called the Seniors togither and acquainted them with your 
desire giving them a weekes time to read over the Statutes and Consider 
of such things as they conceived fitt to be reformed, and at the next 
meeting wee thought it Convenient that their Lordshipps should be 
humblie petitioned for the reformation of these things in our Statutes. 

f [lv] 's 

9. In the 24 Chapter. Though the Institution that the head lecturer 
& the rest of the Lecturers should in Christmas sett forth Comoedies 
and Tragoedies be not simplie to be misliked; Yet in regard that that 
Institution was never observed according to the intent thereof but in 
steede of Comcedies & Tragoedies vaine showes and Interludes tending 
to the disgrace of pietie and modestie and the promotion of vice and 
impudencie haue beene permitted, that either that chapter may be 
cancelled or that the saide abuses may be theirin prohibited. 


Town Treasurers'Books DOL." Bowtell 6 
nf (Extraordinary disbursements) 

Item for 2 speciall warrantes, at seuerall tymes to 
suppresse ye players,tin ye fayer time  

O0 02 O0 



Reminiscences and Allusions 

Letter from Roger Ascbam to Edward Raven 
f 49v (1 October) 

BL: Lansdowne 98 

...30 Antuerpiam venimus dij boni, non brabantiae sed totius Mundi 
ditissimum Emporium, splendida magnificaque structura sic eminet, 
vt eo modo superet reliquias omnes vrbes quas ego vidi, 
quemadmodum Aula Diui Ioannis Theatrali more ornata post Natalem 
se ipsam superat .... 

Letter from Roger Ascbam to Edward Raven 
f 50 (5 October) 

BL: Lansdowne 98 

...The Regent of flawnders hade left at Bruxelles a sort of faire lustie 
,ryoung 1 Ladies... 

f 50v 

...thei semide boies rather than Ladies excellent to haue plaide in 
tragedies, ther was not on welfavoryde emonges them save one yonge 
ladye faire ande well favorede .... 

f 56v (3 January) 

...the Chirches be mad like theatra, videlicet one seat hiher than a 
nother and round about be stages above as is at the Kinges Colledg 
buttrey dore videlicet in Chirstenmas the pulpet in the middes the table 
of the lord standes commonlie in the hiher end... 





51 0 for 30 Septembris 


Letter from William Soone 
Georg Braun: De Praecipuis totius vniversi vrbibus 
p 1" 

... Ianuarium, Februarium & Martium menses, vt noctis taedia fallant 
in spectaculis, populo exhibendis, ponunt, tanta elegantia, tanta 
actionis dignitate, ea vocis & vultus & motus moderatione, ea 
magnificentia, vt si Plautus, aut Terentius, aut Seneca reuiuisceret, 
mirarentur suas ipsi fabulas, maioremque, qum cum inspectante 
populo Romano agerentur, voluptatem, credo, caperent. Euripidem 
ver6, Sophoclem, & Aristophanem, etiam Athenarum suarum 
taederet .... 


Martin Marprelate, Tbe Epistle src: 17453 
sig B2v* 
...You haue bin a worthy writer as they say of a long time/your first 
book was a proper Enterlude/called Gammar Gurtons needle. But I 
thinke that this trifle/which sheweth the author to haue had some witte 
and inuention in him/was none of your doing: Because your bookes 
seeme to proceede from the braynes of a woodcocke... 

Martin Marprelate, Tbe Epitome STC: 17454 
sig C4v 

... Let me take you againe in such a pranck/and ile course you/as you 
were better to bee seeking Gammer Gurtons needle/then come within 
my fingers .... 

sig F4 

M. D. found Anthonie in Hodges breeches. 

There is a book ...There it is: what haue the puritans to doe where he found it? Let 
of this ,ame/ them answere to it. What if he founde it in hodge his breechs/seeking 
which M. 
doctor made as for Gammer Gurtons needle? is the reason worse then the rest of 
they say. his booke/because it is without authoritie. 

19,22/You, your, your, your: addressed to]ohn Bridges 


house of sleepe, being long since banished from philosophers and 
diuines; the allegorie is so plaine, as it were time lost to spend time 
to expound it, because it expounds it selfe so plainly: only I will 
obserue one thing, in which mine Author is thought to keepe an 
excellent decorum. For, making Discord and Fraud of the feminine 
gender, he still makes silence of the masculine; as the like pretie conceit 
ts in our Cambridge Comedie Pedantius, (at which I remember the 
noble Earle of Essex that now is, was present) where the Pedantius 
him selfe, examining the Grammaticall instruction of this verse. 
Ca:dant arma toga:, concedat laurea lingua:, vpon speciall 
consideration of the two last words, taught his scholler Parillus, that 
laurea, lingua sunt vtraque fceminina: generis, sed lingua potissimum, 
and so consequently silence might not by any means haue bene of the 
feminine gender. 



Thomas Nash, Strange News src: 18377 
sig Hlv* 
ooo 20 
Though I haue beene pinched with want (as who is not at one time 
or another Pierce Penilesse) yet my muse neuer wept for want of 
maintenance as thine did in Musarum lachrima:, that was miserably 
flouted at in M. Winkfields Comedie of Pedantius in Trinitie 
Colledge. 2s 

Thomas Nash, Have with You to Saffron Walden 
sig B4* (Epistle Dedicatory) 

STC: 18369 

Plie them, plie them vncessantly vnico Dick, euen as a Water-man 
plies for his Fares, and insinuate and goe about the bush with them, 
like as thou art wont to insinuate and go about the grizlie bushie beard 
of some sauage Saracen Butcher, and neuer surcease flaunting and 
firking it in fustian, till vnder the Vniuersities vnited hand & seale they 
bee enacted as Obso|a:te a case of Cockescombes, as euer he was 


I OW"Let arms yieM to peacefuloccupatlom; let the conqueror's wreath defer to the tongue." Parody 
of C, cero, de Consulato suo, fragment 8. 
12/"Laurel z, reath. atongue" are both of the feminine gender but especially "tongue. =' 
23,34/thine, thou: Gabriel Harvey 



in Trinitie Colledge, that would not carrie his Tutors bow into the 
field, because it would not edifie: or his fellow qui qua: codshead, that 
in the Latine Tragedie of King Richard, cride Ad vrbs, ad vrbs, ad vrbs, 
when his whole Part was no more, but Vrbs, vrbs, ad arma, ad arma. 

sigs M4-NI* 
Readers, be merry; for in me there shall want nolthing I can doo 0 
to make you merry. You see I haue brought the Doctor out of request 
at Court, & it shall cost me a fall, but I will get him howted out of 
the Vniuersitie too, ere I glue him ouer. What will you glue mee when 
I bring him vppon the Stage in one of the principallest Colledges in 
Cambridge? Lay anie wager with me, and I will; or if you laye no s 
wager at all, Ile fetch him aloft in Pedantius, that exquisite Comedie 
in Trinitie Colledge; where, vnder the cheife part, from which it tooke 
his name, as namely the concise and firking finicaldo fine School- 
master, hee was full drawen & delineated from the soale of the foote 
to the crowne of his head. The lust manner of his phrase in his Orations 20 
and Disputations they stufft his mouth with, & no Buffianisme 
throughout his whole bookes, but they bolsterd out his part with; 
as those ragged remnaunts in his foure familiar Epistles twixt him 
and Senior Immerito, Raptim scripta, Nosti manum & stylum, with 
innumerable other of his rabble routs: and scoffing his Musarum 25 
Lachryma:, with Flebo amorem meum, etiam Musarum lachrymis; 
which to glue it his due, was a more collachrymate wretched Treatise, 
than my Piers Pennilesse, being the pittifullest pangs that euer anie 
mans Muse breathd foorth. I leaue out halle; not the carrying vp of 
his gowne, his nice gate on his pantoffles, or the affected accent of 30 
his speach, but they personated. And if I should reueale all, I thinke 
they borrowd his gowne to playe the Part in, the more to flout him. 
Let him denie this (and not damne himselfe) for his life if hee can. 
Let him denie that there was a Shewe made at Clare-hall of him and 
his two Brothers, called;I 3s 

Tarrarantantara turba tumultuosa Trigonum, 
Tri-Harueyorum, Tri-harmonia. 

I I/Doctor: Gabriel Harvey 
26/'1 will weep for my love, even with the tears of the Muses." 
35/his two Brothers: John and Richard Harvey 


Squallet scena, silent lingua:, nec Musica garrit, 
Delicium ut nostrum Morlius interijt: 
Sed non interijsti, oculis, ore, auribus ha:res 
Nosque erimus lingua:, musica, scena tibi. 
Plaudite cui talis transacta est fabula vita: 
Posteritas semper quam facit esse novam. 
Wilhelmus Alabaster deflevit, 
Obijt anno Domini 1596. 18. Aprilis 

Gabriel Harvey, The Trimming of Thomas Nashe STC: 12906 
sig G3 

A Grace in the behalfe of Thomas Nashe. 




To all ballet-makers, pamphleters, press hanters, boon pot poets ... 
Then being Bachelor of Arte, which by great labour he got, to shew 
afterward that he was not vnworthie of it, had a hand in a Show called 
Terminus & non terminus, for which his partener in it was expelled 
the Colledge: but this foresaid Nashe played in it (as I suppose) the 20 
Varlet of Clubs; which he acted with such naturall affection, that all 
the spectators tooke him to be the verie same. Then suspecting himselfe 
that he should be staied for egregie dunsus, and not attain to the next 
Degree, said he had commenst enough, and so forsooke Cambridge, 
being Batchelor of the third yere .... 2s 

STC: 17834 

Francis Meres, Palladis Tamia 
sigs Oo3-3v 


...As these Tragicke Poets flourished in Greece, Aeschylus, 
Euripedes, Sophocles, Alexander Aetolus, Acha:us Erithria:us, 
Astydamas Atheniensis, Apollodorus Tarsensis, Nicomachus 
Phrygius, Thespis Atticus, and Timon Apolloniates; and these among 
the Latines, Accius, M. Attilius, Pomponius Secundus and Seneca: 3s 
so these are our best for Tragedie, the Lorde Buckhurst, Doctor Leg 
of Cambridge, Doctor Edes of Oxforde, maister Edward Ferris, the 
Authour of the Mirrour for Magistrates, Marlow, Peele, Watson, 
Kid, Shakespeare, Drayton, Chapman, Decker, and Beniamin 
Iohnson. 40 

1/linguae: corrected from leges ( ? ) 7/Wilhelmus...deflevit: &splay scrpt 


William Chace 

As M. Anneus Lucanus writ two excellent Tragedies, one called 
Medea, the other de Incendio Troia cum Priami calamitate: so Doctor 
Leg hath penned two famous tragedies, ye one of Richard the 3. the 
other of the destruction of Ierusalem. 
The best Poets for Comedy among the Greeks are these, Menander, 
Aristophanes, Eupolis Atheniensis, Alexis Terius, Nicostratus, 
Amipsias Atheniensis, Anaxandrides Rhodius, Aristonymus, 
Archippus Atheniensis I and Callias Atheniensis; and among the 
Latines, Plautus, Terence, Naeuius, Sextus Turpilius, Licinius 
Imbrex, and Virgilius Romanus: so the best for Comedy amongst vs 
bee, Edward Earle of Oxforde, Doctor Gager of Oxforde, Maister 
Rowley once a rare Scholler of learned Pembrooke Hall in Cambridge, 
Maister Edwardes one of her Maiesties Chappell, eloquent and wittie 
Iohn Lilly, Lodge, Gascoyne, Greene, Shakespeare, Thomas Nash, 
Thomas Heywood, Anthony Mundye our best plotter, Chapman, 
Porter, Wilson, Hathway, and Henry Chettle. 

sigs Oo5-5v* 
ooo 20 
As Georgius Buckananus lephthe, amongst all moderne Tragedies 
is able to abide the touch of Aristotles precepts, and Euripedes 
examples: so is Bishop Watsons Absalon. 
As Terence for his translations out of Apollodorus & Menander, 
and Aquilius for his translation out of Menander, and C. Germanicus 2s 
Augustus for his out of Aratus, and Ausonius for his translated 
Epigrams out of Greeke, and Doctor Iohnson for his Frogge-fight out 
of Homer, and Watson for his Antigone out of Sophocles, haue got 
good commendations: so these I versifiers for their learned translations 
are of good note among vs, Phaer for Virgils Aeneads, Golding for 30 
Ouids Metamorphosis, Harington for his Orlando Furioso, the 
translators of Senecaes Tragedies, Barnabe Googe for Palingenius, 
Turberuile for Ouids Epistles and Mantuan, and Chapman for his 
inchoate Homer. 

Hatcber Book 
f 55v* 

KCL: Misc. 74/1 

Doctor of Physick, dyed in the Colledge 1603. 
an excellent schollar, & a good Comoedian... 



Black Book cut.: Add. 34 
f 35* (27 August) 

The Comedie ... was a pastorall much like one which I have seene in 
Kings Colledg in Cambridge, but acted farr worse... 

f 37* (28 August) 

...The same daye after supper about 9. of the Clock they began to act 
the Tragedye of Aiax flagellifer, wherein their stage varried 3. times, 
they had all goodlie anticke apparrell, but for all that yt was not acted 
soe well by many degrees as I have seene yt in Cambridge... 

f 39v (30 August) 
There was an english playe acted in the same place... It was penned 
by Mr Daniell and drawne out of Fydus Pastor which was sometimes 
acted by Kinges Colledge men in Cambridge... 

Notebook o f John Harington 
f 30 

BL: Add. 27632 

A note of things sent to London the 29 t)' of Ianuary 1609 
The combat of Lingua made by 
a bundle of Comedies, rul'd: Thomas Tomkis of Trinity colledge 
in Cambridge. / 






Thomas Heywood, Apology for Actors STC: 13309 
sigs C3v-4" 
Do not the Vniuersities, the fountaines and well-springs of all good 
Arts, Learning and Documents, admit the like in their Colledges? and 
they (I assure my selfe) are not ignorant of their true vse. In the time 40 
of my residence in Cambridge, I haue seene Tragedyes, Comedyes, 
Historyes, Pastorals and Shewes, publickly acted, in which Graduates 


of good place and reputation, haue bene specially parted: this is held 
necessary for the emboldening of their Iunior schollers, to arme them 
with audacity, against they come to bee imployed in any publicke 
exercise, as in the reading of the Dialecticke, Rhetoricke, Ethicke, 
Mathematicke, the Physicke, or Metaphysicke Lectures, It teacheth s 
audacity to the bashfull Grammarian, beeing newly admitted into the 
priuate Colledge, and after matriculated and entred as a member of 
the Vniuersity, and makes him a bold Sophister, to argue pro et contra, 
to compose his Sillogismes, Cathegoricke, or Hypotheticke (simple 
or compound) to reason and frame a sufficient argument to proue his t0 
questions, or to defend any axioma, to distinguish of any Dilemma, 
& be able to moderate in any Argumentation whatsoeuer. 
To come to Rhetoricke, it not onely emboldens a scholler to speake, 
but instructs him to speake well, and with iudgement, to obserue his 
comma's, colons, & full poynts, his parentheses, his breathing spaces, ts 
and distinctions, to keepe a decorum in his countenance, neither to 
frowne when he should smile, nor to make vnseemely and disguilsed 
faces in the deliuery of his words, not to stare with his eies, draw awry 
his mouth, confound his voice in the hollow of his throat, or teare his 
words hastily betwixt his teeth, neither to buffet his deske like a ,0 
mad-man, nor stand in his place like a liuelesse Image, demurely 
plodding, & without any smooth & formal motion. It instructs him 
to fit his phrases to his action, and his action to his phrase, and his 
pronuntiation to them both. 

sig F4v* 

... Likewise, a learned Gentleman in his Apology for Poetry, speakes 
thus: Tragedies well handled be a most worthy kinde of Poesie. 
Comedies make men see and shame at their faults, and proceeding 
further amongst other Vniuersity-playes, he remembers the Tragedy 
of Richard the third, acted in Saint Iohns in Cambridge, so essentially, 
that had the tyrant Phaleris beheld his bloudy proceedings, it had 
mollified his heart, and made him relent at sight of his inhumane 
massacres. Further, he commends of Comedies, the Cambridge 
Pedantius, and the Oxford Bellum Grammaticale; and leauing them 
passes on to our publicke plays, speaking liberally in their praise, and 
what commendable vse may bee gathered of them .... 


Philip Kynder's Book 
f 205* 

Bodl. : Ashmole 788 

This Epistle prefixt before my Siluia [such] a latin comedie or pastorall 5 
translated from ye Archadia written at 18 yeers of age 

Henry Peacbam, Tbe Compleat Gentleman 
sigs E3v-4* 

STC: 19502 

But the diseases whereunto some of them are very subiect, are 
Humour and Folly (that I may say nothing of the grosse Ignorance 
and in-sufficiency of many) whereby they become ridiculous and 
contemptible both in the Schoole and abroad. Hence it comes to passe, 
that in I many places, especially in Italy, of all professions that of 
Pedanteria is held in basest repute; the Schoole-master almost in euery 
Comedy being brought vpon the Stage, to paralell the Zani, or 
Pantaloun. He made vs good sport in that excellent Comedy of 
Pedantius, acted in our Trinitie Colledge in Cambridge: and if I bee 
not deceiued, in Priscianus vapulans, and many of our English Hayes. 

1628 25 
Bali's Life of Preston Harcourt (ed): The Life of Doctor Preston 
pp 36-7* 
...there were many that had their eyes upon it, but Dr. Montaine 
especially, who was often heard to profess he would rather be Master 30 
of that college than Deane of Westminster. 
But Mr. Preston had another in his eye, Dr. Davenant, a gentleman 
well descended, and was a Fellow-commoner when undergraduat, but 
very painfull and of great capacity, & grew accordingly in learning & 
reputation, & for his worth & parts was already chosen Margaret 3s 
Professor, & read in the schools with much applause those excellent 
lectures upon the Colos I sians which now are printed; him Mr Preston 
pitched upon, but knew it must be carryed very privately; for the 
Montaine was already growne to some bigness, was one of parts, & 

13/them: schoolmasters 29/it: mastersbipof Queens" College 


first observed in acting "Miles Gloriosus" in the college, and had bin 
Chaplin to the Earle of Essex... 

William Prynne, HistHo-mastix 
sigs Rrrlv-2* 

STC: 20464a 

... If any here Object;That our Vniversities approve of private Stage- 
playes acted by Schollers in private Colledges: therefore these Playes 
are not so intolerably evill in their opinions. I answer; that our 
Vniversities though they tolerate and connive at, yet they give no 
publike approbation to these private Enterludes, which are not 
generally received I into all Colledges, but onely practised in some 
private houses, (perchance once in three of foure yeeres;) and that 
by the particular Statutes of those houses made in times of Popery, 
which require some Latine Comedies, for learning-sake onely, to bee 
acted now and then: Which Playes, as they are composed for the most 
part by idle braines, who affect not better studies; and acted (as Iohn 
Greene) informes us, by Gentle-bloods, and lusty Swash-bucklers, 
who preferre an ounce of vaine-glory, ostentation and strutting on the 
Stage, before a pound of learning; or by such who are sent to the 
University, not so much to obtaine knowledge, as to keepe them from 
the common ryot of Gentlemen in these dayes; like little Children 
whom their Parents send to Schoole, the rather to keepe them from 
under feet in the streets, which carefull Mothers greatly feare: their 
spectators for the most part being such as both Poets and Actors are; 
even such as reckon no more of their studies, then spend-all Gentlemen 
of their cast-suites: So the graver, better, and more studious sort 
(especially Divines, who by sundry Councels are prohibited from 
acting or beholding any publike or private Stage-playes, and therefore 
dare not to a approach them) condemne them, censure them, come 
not at them, (especially when they transgresse the rules of modesty 
and decency as ought times they doe:) Neither are these Playes so 
frequent now as they have beene in former times, by reason of those 
mischiefes, those expences of time and mony which they occasion, and 
that affinity they have with common Stage-playes, which all ages, all 
Christian, all prophane Authors of note, and these our Vniversities 
have solemnely condemned .... 

14/of for or (?) 


c 1635 
Leaue of, vaine Satyrist, & doe not tbinke 
f 44* 

Bod|.: Tanner 465 

Vpon Mr Cleveland who made a Song against the Doctors 
Leaue of, vaine Satyrist, & doe not thinke 
To staine our reuerend Purple with thy inke. 
Pull from thy verse those teeth, which are scarce worth 
The quibling Barbers paines to draw them forth. 
Thou do'st our tauernes, & thy Muse much wrong: 
Could they not all enflame aboue a Song? 
I doe beleeue, if you'l the truth rehearse, 
Your ale was midwife to your muddy uerse. 
Must gitterns now, & fiddles be made fitt, 
Be tun'd, & key'd to sweake a Iohnian witt? 
Must now thy Poims be made fidlers notes 
Puft with Tobacco through their sutty throats? 
Shake of that ill fac't crew. Ar't in a vaine? 
Putt on thy socks, & tread the stage againe. 
Had they bin on, (as all haue thought more meet,) 
They had done service to thy stinking feet. 
Are thy strong lines, & mighty cartrope things 
Now spunne soe small, they'l twist on fiddle strings? 
Canst thou proue Ballade-po& of the times? 
Canne thy proud fancy stoope to penny rimes? 
What glory's heere? vnlesse the Po& vaunts, 
His fidlers barely sing, but he re-cants. 




Letter from George Garrard to Edward, Viscount Conway 
and Killultagb PRO: SP16/331, Art. 14 
p 3* (4September, Hatfield) 

...That Night a Play was in Christchurche hall presented to his 
Maiestye, fritter for schollers then a Court, my Lord Canarvan flewe 
out against yt, sayd it was the worst, that euer he sawe, but One that 
he sawe at Cambridge... 



18/ vaine corrected from veine 

8.58 APPENDIX 3 

*Mr Cowley 

Letter from Robert Cresioell to Lucius Carey, 
Second Viscount Falkland Bodl. : Rawlinson Poet. 246 
f 27* (single sheet) (12 May, Trinity College) 
My Noble Lord 
Your Lordship hath highly fauored my vnworthynes both in your 
Remembrance & gift, the memory whereof will encrease my 
admiracion, of your Lordships singular humanity, & my affeccion to 
those studyes whereunto your Lordship glues both countenances 
& perfection. The great aduantage I haue made of this change, Diuinity 
for Poetry (besides the addition of the language & your Lordships 
fauor) makes me remember the Iudicious Lord Verulams pitty of the 
Heathen Theology, whose only Fathers were the Poets. I humbly 
thank your Lordship for this & other vndeserued courtesyes there, 
where I had only that & my boldnes to authorize my welcome. The 
like obligation I must acknowledg in the behalf of my ingenious 
chamberfellow,* albeit now absent. He hath been as yett a Poett in 
Decimo sexto, but is now enlarging the Edition :--An English Pastorall 
& a Latine Comedy presented here: We haue as yett receiued neither 
them nor himselfe .... 

Gervase Holies, Memorials 
f 84* 

Longleat: Portland Papers, vol xxIv 


William Holies ye eldest son of Captaine Francis Holies was borne 
at Barwicke vpon Twede ye (blank) day of (blank) in ye yeare. 1621 .... 
Being yet a childe he was brought by his father into Nottinghamshire, 
where he went to schole first at Mansfeld, and after at Newarke vpon 
Trent when Mr Poynton was remoued to yat Schoole. From thence 
he was sent about. 14. yeares of age to Pembroke Hall in Cambridge 
vnder the ouersight of Dr Lany his kinsman ye then Maister. There 
he continued neare seauen yeares, In which time he tooke the degree 
of Batchelor of Artes (as after during ye war he proceeded Maister 
vpon speciall grace in Oxford) and [kept his] performed his Acres with 
generall applause, and I receaued this testimony of him (since his 
death) from Dr Lany himselfe, That he esteemed him as good a 
Scholler as any was of his time in the [whole] vniuersity. 


f 87 

...He was naturally enclined to studiousnes, and what he read was 
commonly his owne, being the Maister of a very happy Memory. He 
had a rich and flourishing fancy, which certainly (when his judgement s 
had growne more ripe) would haue produced noble effectes. Many 
Poems he had wrote (and those worthy of longer life) both in Greeke, 
Latine, and English, with two Comoedies yat I haue seene (one in 
Latine, and ye other in English called ye Country Court) which all 
perished with him, at ye liast fell into such handes as I could neuer l0 
retriue any of them, and most likely are lost in this generall ruine .... 

John Milton, Apology 
p 14" 

Wing: M2090 


... But since there is such necessity to the hear-say of a Tire, a Periwig, 
or a Vizard, that Playes must have bin seene, what difficulty was there 20 
in that? when in the Colleges so many of the young Divines, and those 
in next aptitude to Divinity have bin seene so oft upon the Stage 
writhing and unboning their Clergie limmes to all the antick and 
dishonest gestures of Trinculo's, Buffons, and Bawds; prostituting the 
shame of that ministery which either they had, or were nigh having, 2s 
to the eyes of Courtiers and Court-Ladies, with their Groomes and 
Madamoisellaes. There while they acted, and overacted, among other 
young scholars, I was a spectator; they thought themselves gallant 
men, and I thought them fools, they made sport, and I laught, they 
mispronounc't and I mislik't, and to make up the atticisme, they were 30 
out, and I hist. Judge now whether so many good text men were not 
sufficient to instruct me of false beards and vizards without more 
expositors; and how can this Confuter take the face to object to me 
the seeing of that which his reverent Prelats allow, and incite their 
young disciples to act. For if it be unlawfull to sit and behold a 3s 
mercenary Comedian personating that which is least unseemely for a 
hireling to doe, how much more blamefull is it to indure the sight of 
as vile things acted by persons either enter'd, or presently to enter into 
the ministery, and how much more foule and ignominious for them 
to be the actors. 



Allusions to Ignoramus 

Ignoramus, by George Ruggle of Clare College, was performed for the royal visit of 
James  in Trinity College hall on 8 March 1615, and was repeated at the request of 
the king on 13 May. Reactions to the play were both immediate and long-lasting. Soon 
after the performance Richard Corbet of Oxford composed his 'grave poem' which 
touched off a literary combat further described in Appendix 5. The Trinity College 
play of Susenbrotus, performed at Royston in 1615-16, included an episode of'the 
blasoninge of Ignoramus armes,' which 'woonderfully discontented the Lawyers' (see 
p 552 and endnote). As late as 1632 John Pory noted the anniversary of 'that famous 
daye on which King Iames went first thither to heare Ignoramus' (p 638). A poem 
by Henry King, with the descriptive title 'To his Freinds of Christchurch upon the 
mislike of the Marriage of the Artes, acted at Woodstock,' also contains a significant 
allusion to Ignoramus. This poem circulated in manuscript, and was finally printed 
in 1657 in King's Poems, Elegies, Paradoxes (Wing: K501). (See Margaret Crum, The 
Poems of Henry King (Oxford, 1965).) 
Among more extended allusions, John Stephens composed an essay in verse, 'Of 
Reproof,' which he added to the second edition of his Essayes and Characters, 
Ironicall, and Instructive, printed in 1615 (srcT: 23250). He advertised the essay in his 
subtitle: With a new Satyre in defence of Common Law and Lawyers: Mixt with 
reproofe against their common Enemy. About two years later Robert Callis wrote a 
prose satire entitled The Case and Argument against Sir Ignoramus of Cambridge, 
finally published in 1648 (Wing: C303). 
Incidental uses of the word "ignoramus,' with or without conscious allusions to the 
original source, are too numerous to be gathered up in any systematic manner: five 
citations from the seventeenth century are listed by the o/D (Ignoramus, 2), following 
adefinition which claims that Ruggle's play introduced this word, with its modern 
connotations of ignorance or stupidity, to the English language. (For more infor- 
mation on this topic, see E.F.J. Tucker, Intruder into Eden: Representations of the 
Common Lawyer in English Literature 1350-1750 (Columbia, S.C., 1984), pp 100-1. ) 
Individuals along with political and institutional historians also remembered the 
performance of Ignoramus, embroidering the event with greater and greater 
significance with the passage of time. 



gallopping into the Towne, & When he came upon the stage, he 
commanded the Comedians to forbeare, for that My Lord cheif 
Iustice Was enformed that they had made a knavish peice of worke 
to disgrace the Lawyers, & would haue them appeare befor him to 
answere it. The Actors gaue ouer, as if they had not dared to proceed. 
Whereupon King lames ros out of his chaire, & beckened to them With 
his hand, & saying - Goe on Goe on, I Will beare you out. August 
28. 1634. 

Sir Fulke Greville, Five Years of King James Wing: W2886 
p 60* 
...The King goes to Cambridge. A breach about Ignoramus .... 
IN this yeate (1614) the King, by the entreaty of Somerset, determined 
to go to Cambridge, and there was entertained with great solemnity, 
but amongst the rest, there was a Play called by the name of 
Ignoramus, that stirred up a great contention betweene the common 
Lawyers and the Schollers, in so much as their flouts grew 
unsufferable, but at last it was stayed by my Lord Chancellour, and 20 
the explaining of the meaning. 

The supposed 
occasion of 
Mr. Se|den's 
writing against 
the Divine 
Right of Tithes. 

"Authour of 
Dr. Preston's 

Thomas Fuller, Church History of BHtain Wing: F2416 2s 
Book x, p 70 (7 March 1615) 
39. The KING comes to Cambridge in a sharp Winter, when all the 
world was nothing but Aire and Snow. Yet the Scholers Wits did not 
Freez with the Weather, witness the pleasant Play of IGNORAMUS, 3o 
which they presented to His Majesty. Yet whilst many laughed aloud 
at the mirth thereof, some of the graver sort were sad to see the 
Common Lawyers made ridiculous therein. If Gowns begin once to 
abase Gowns, Cloaks will carry away all. Besides, of all wood, the 
Pleaders Bar is the worst to make a Stage of. For, once in an Age, 35 
all Professions must be beholding to their patronage. Some a conceive 
that in revenge Master John Selden soon after set forth his Books of 
Tithes, wherein he historically proveth, That they were payable jure 
humano, and not otherwise. 

15/yeate for year 

Many write in 
Answer to his 


40. I cannot suspect so high a Soul, guilty of so low reflections, 
that his Book related at all to this occasion, but only that the latitude 
of his minde, tracing all pathes of learning, did casually light on the 
rode of this Subject .... 

c 1660 
Notebook of Thomas Gibbons 
f 85* 

Harley 980 

The comoedie of Ignoramus so abusiue against Lawyers and supposed 
to be made by Mr Rugg of clare hall in Cambridg is but a translation 
of a comedy in Baptist porta out of Italian intituled Trapulario as may 
be seen by the comedy it self extant in clare hall library with notes of 
Mr Ruggells theron of his contriuing & Altering therof. 

Roger Coke, A Detection of the Court and State of England 
Wing: C4973 
pp 75-6* 20 
The King this Year, about the beginning of March 1611/12, 
according to his usual methods, went to take his Hunting Pleasures 
at New-market, and the Schollars (as they called them) of Cambridge 
who knew the Kings humour, Invited him to a Play called Ignoramus, 25 
to ridicule (at least the Practice) of the Common Law: Never did any 
thing so hit the Kings Humour, as this Play did; so that he would have 
it Acted and Acted again, which was increased with several Additions, 
which yet more pleased the King. 
At this Play it was so contrived, that George Villiers should appear 0 
with all the advantages his Mother could set him forth; and the King 
so soon as he had seen him, fell into admiration of him, so as he became 
confounded between his Adlmiration of Villiers and the pleasure of 
the Play, which, the King did not conceal, but gave both Vent upon 
several occasions. This set the Heads of the Courtiers at work how 5 
to get Somerset out of Favour, and to bring Villiers in... 


Topical Poems 

Several topical poems are briefly noted here as contemporary allusions to Cambridge 
plays; as evidence of personal and critical responses to the plays; and, in some cases, 
as evidence of performance practices. Transcriptions of certain poems may be found 
in the following printed sources: 

Cooper: Charles Henry Cooper, Annals of Cambridge. 

Hawkins: George Ruggle, Ignoramus, John S. Hawkins (ed). 

Huth: Henry Huth (with William C. Hazlitt) (ed), Inedited Poetical Miscellanies 
1584-1700. Selected from Mss. Chiefly in Private Hands, 50 copies printed for pri- 
vate circulation (1870). This Huth Miscellany transcribes fifteen poems from cu_: 
Add. 4138. Bodl. : Firth d.7 is an independent nineteenth-century transcription of 
the same manuscript. For further information on the manuscript, see Ted-Larry 
Pebworth and ClaudeJ. Summers, 'Recovering an Important Seventeenth-Century 
Poetical Miscellany: Cambridge Add. ts 4138,' Transactions of the Cambridge Bib- 
liographical Society, 7 (1978), 156-69. 

Kellett: E.E. Kellett (ed), A Book of Cambridge Verse (Cambridge, 1911). 

Nichols: John Nichols, The Progresses, Processions, and Magnificent Festivities of 
King James the First. 

'Crum' designations refer to Margaret Crum (ed), First-Line Index of English Poetry 
1500-1800 in Manuscripts of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 2 vols (Oxford, 1969). 
By definition, only poems which survive in a Bodleian manuscript have a Crum de- 

1614-15: Ignoramus 

Many poems were composed in response to George Ruggle's Ignoramus, performed 
before James  on 8 March 1615, and again on 13 May. Since most of these poems 



That you may vnderstand this title, you shall knowe yat a booke so 
stiled Liber nouus &c was giuen to the kdng at his first being at 
Cambridge/An Oxford man (vt dicitur) thus translated it, as he saith. 

It is not yet a ffortnight since 
Lutelia entertain'd our Prince 
& vented hath a studied toye 
as long as was the siege of Troye 
And spent themselues for full flue dayes 
In speeches exercises playes 


Crum: I1853 (also I1841, I1844) 
Source of this transcription: BL: Add. 23723, ff 8v-11 

Cooper, vol 3, pp 76-9 
Hawkins, pp cvii-cxiv 

Kellett, pp 20-5 
Nichols, vol 3, pp 66-73 

The poem, by Richard Corbet of Oxford, circulated widely in manuscript and was 
first printed in Corbet's Certain Elegant Poems (1648), p 29 (Wing: C6270). It has 
been edited and annotated by J.A.W. Bennett and H.R. Trevor-Roper (eds), The 
Poems of Richard Corbett (Oxford, 1955), 12-18. The poem's chronological survey 
of events of the royal visit provided a pattern for the rest of the poems in this group. 
No poem with the title Liber nouus de Aduentu regis ad Cantabrigiam has been 
traced. However, this may refer to the poem 'De primo regis aduentu ad Cantabrig/am 
liber orthodoxus (incerto authore) [(et)] numeri incertissimi,' with the incipit 'Martis 
transierant breues Calendar,' which occurs in the same source (ff 6vb-7a). 


A madrigall confuting Oxford ballad. 

A ballad late was made 
but god knowes who's ye penner 
some say ye riming Sculler 
& others say't was ffenner, 
but those that knowe yat stile 
doe smelle it by the coller 
& doe mainetaine it was ye braine 
of some young Oxford scholler. 



6/Lutelia for Lutetia (cut: Add. 4138, f I) 


Crum: A2 
Source of this transcription: BL: Add. 23723, ff llva-12va 
Cooper, vol 3, pp 79-82 Kellett, pp 25-8 
Hawkins, pp cxv-cxviii Nichols, vol 3, pp 66-73 

This poem, attributed to (William) Lakes of Clare College, is purportedly a translation 
of 'Facta est cantilena,' preserved, among other places, in DOL: Bowtell 12, part 2, 
ff 47v-8 (Cooper, vol 3, pp 79-82); it is quite possible, of course, that the Latin poem 
is a translation of the English. 


A certaine modest and ingenuous replie of Cambrige framed by waye 
of excuse to certaine absurdities objected by Oxford vnhappilie to haue 
falne out at his Majesties first coming thither - obserued by others; 
confessed by themselues; lyked by neither; jnstied by either composed 
in meeter to be sung as lane shore but will generally serue for any Tune. 

Sistir though you supose vs spent 
in furnishing our plaies and showes; 


Crum: $765 (19th-century transcription) 
Source of this transcription: cuL: Add. 4138, ff 9v-12 


Newes from Cambridge 


1. Of all the vniuersities: 
that er'e man sawe with eyes, 
there is none with Cambrige may compare 
in Courtship she is passing feare: 
Shee's passing rare to entertayne 
the king, the Prince & all his traine./ 


2. Shee sent as farr as Chichester 
to fetch a braue Vice chancellor 
Shee sent to London cheif to drawe 
the learned Doctors of the lawe. 
Diuinitie and eke Phisick 
Hit storre at home was small belyke./ 

15/jnstied for justified (?) 


3. Shee washt the stones in euerie streete, 
least they defile the Courtiers feete, 
She skowr'd the sinks as I suppose 
to Cry good sauour to their nose. 
She made the pumps and spout to sing 
God saue the Courtiers of our king./ 

The Townes-men back't in scarlet redd 
Rann with nose blew, their heades well spredd 
the schollers cladd in sable blacke 
Did make the wind backward to crack 
Capps, hoods and hornes did sweetly sing 
well come the Courtiers of our king./ 

5. Vp start a speaker in the throng. 
hee spake not much yet was too-long 
so fine his stuff, so faire his hawe. 
He made the Courtiers almost spewe. 
He humm's, he hawes, he coughs, spettes, speakes: 
Speakes nothing well, but viuat Rex./I 

Then was his sacred Maiestie 
Conducted vnto Trinitie 
where 3. to 1. to mend the matter 
a nother made a speech too flatter. 
This speech of 3 partes did consist 
The King the Prince the Queen they mist./ 

7. There they presented on the stage 
a play yat doated with old age, 
where only one play well his parte 
An wonne the heauie Courtiers heart 
for 4 howres after t'was beganne 
the Epilogue came, and sayde t'was done./ 

8. On morne they went vnto St Maries 
where one among'st the rest miscarries 
for, thinking well for to dispute 
propoundes the question and falle's mute 







17/hawe changed frorn haires; for hewe (?) 


Nor did hee blush nor want excuse 
He followed but ye Cambrige vse./ 

The Cambrige vse it's excellent good 
to giue the Courtiers full content. 
to glue Content such was their care 
A horse might take the wall o'the Maire 
And none must then controlle an asse 
though he did sing the bonny lasse./ 


So Iointly do they all consent 
to giue the Courtiers full content 
to giue Content such was their care 
A horse might take the wall o', the Maire 
And none must then controule an asse 
though he did sing the bonny lasse./ 


There was not any in the towne 
but to the Courtiers would fall downe: 
the schoolers, townes-men, and their wiues 
Bestir'd their tongues, handes, leggs, and thighes 
In bed at board, and euerie thing 
to please the Courtiers of our King./ 


There was noe meate, that was no feast 
their dyet lodging and procreation 
was scottfree to all men of fashion. I 
there no man ,rpaid 1 for horse or beast 
No man hoe wife gaine said ought thing 
to please the Courtiers of our King./ 


The king thus being wellcommed 
was to his Chamber brought to bed, 
where I suppose he laie not long 
but he desired to be gonne. 
So vp he rose and thus did saye 
farewell I'le come hoe more this way./ 


He tooke his horse and rodd with speed 
yet cannot thus of hir be reede 
S'hee'l be still sending pupils vp 
to be a parson, deane, or Bishopp 






872 APPENDIX .5 
Source of this transcription: L: Add. 23723, ff 7a-7va 
Cooper, vol 3, pp 86-7 Nichols, vol 3, p 89 
Hawkins, pp xlii-xliv 
Other sources, including those cited by Cooper, Hawkins, and Nichols, give 'Venisti 
Cantabrigia' as the opening line. 

Note on Performance Practices: 

This first group of poems contains several allusions to performance practices. Poem 
A asserts that Ignoramus was '6 houres of god knowes what,' while Poem D asserts, 
evidently of the Trinity College play Melanthe by Samuel Brooke, that '4 howres after 
t'was beganne / the Epilogue came, and sayde t'was done.' Poem C contains an implicit 
criticism of Anthony Sleepe, who acted Leoniscus in Melanthe: 

though sleepe did ouer Act his parte, 
yet pleade the satyre passing well, 
As rough in showe, as ranke in smell./ 

Poem D, by contrast, asserts, probably of the same play and actor: 


There they presented on the stage 
a play yat doated with old age, 
where only one play well his parte 
An wonne the heauie Courtiers heart 


Poem A reveals that the Cambridge vice-chancellor, Samuel Harsnett, bishop of 
Chichester, took a seat directly on the stage, conceivably at the side of .lames : 

His Lordship here beganne to rage 
His Lordship lay vpon the stage 
His Lordship caus'de all to be marr'de 

Poem E contrasts the modesty of Oxford's vice-chancellor, who entertained the king 
in 1605, with the presumption of Cambridge's vice-chancellor: 



Oxford her vicechancelor 
did take his vsual place 
but Cambridge lay vpon the stage 
at pawne for further grace 




Poem C first defends the Cambridge vice-chancellor ('their father'), but then implies 
that he deserted the stage at the expense of his dignity: 

Accuse not our Deuines for Action 
or setting out an enterlude 
you know they follow must for faction 
wherefore their father doeth intrude, 
but why the stage then cumberd he? 
It was his parte to ouersee./ 

What if he then began to rage? 
their action fell into a swonne, 
what if he tumbled from ye stage, 
It was to pluck your Proctor downe, 
Oxford quoth hee I'le see thee falle, 
though Cambridge goe to ground withall.! 


Finally, Poem A suggests that Harsnett, following the pattern established by Elizabeth 
in 1564, employed the royal bodyguard to protect the hall during the performance; 
Harsnett, however, was mocked for his efforts, evidently because he used this show 
of force to threaten visitors from Oxford: 

his Lordship loued a life ye guarde 
& did invite these mightie men 
to what thinke you, two to an henne. I 


ffor he was faine to vse theire might 
to helpe to keepe the dore that night 
& well bestowde he thought his henne 
that they might tol-booth Oxford men 
he thought it did become a Lord 
to threaten with a big-beard worde. 



On 20 May 1615, a week after the second performance of Ignoramus at Cambridge, 
John Chamberlain wrote to his friend Sir Dudley Carleton (p 542): 

Ignoramus... hath so netled the Lawiers that they are almost out of 
all patience, and the Lordcheife Iustice both openly at the Kings bench 40 

32/big-beard for bug-beare (cut: Add. 4138, f 2v) 


and diuers others places hath galled and glaunced at schollers with 
much bitternes, and there be diuers ynne of court men haue made rimes 
and ballades against them, which they haue aunswered sharply 
enough .... 
The 'rimes and ballades' written by the Inns of Court men survive in the following 
poems, constituting parts of a debate in verse attributed to John a Stile, student of 
the common law at Gray's Inn, and John Dulman, a Cambridge student or clerk. Re- 
lated to this group is a prose letter which occurs in BL: Add. 23723, ff 8-8v. Only 
the last poem in the group of four is transcribed here; the rest confine themselves to 
the dispute over the common law. 


Vnto the Comedians of Cambridge who in theire Actes before the 
King abused Lawyers with an imposed Ignorance, in 2 ridiculous 
persons, Ignoramus the Maister and Dulman the clerke, Iohn a Stile 
student of the Common lawe wisheth sounder iudgment & more 
reuerent opinion of theire betters. 


ffaith gentlemen I doe not blame your witte 

Crum: F117 
Source of this transcription: BL: 23723, ff 13-14 
Cooper, vol 3, p 88 (partial transcription) Nichols, vol 3, p 75 (partial transcription) 
Huth, sigs K8v-L2 


Iohn Dulman to Iohn at Stile in Grayes Inne sends greeting 

Reverend Iohn Stile for stile we will not iarre 


Crum: R181 
Source of this transcription: L: Add. 23273, ff 14-15v 


The Replication of Iohn a Stile, unto the Comedians answer after 
whose reioynder he will demurr in Lawe for the insufficiency of the 

We are your betters in a better sence 
because we liue not on Beneuolence 


Dulman, you haue confest your error now 

rum: not listed 
ource of this transcription: Hun.: HM 198, pp 49-51 
ee note on this poem in the head-note above (p 866). 


The soldiers counterbuffe to the Cambridge Interludians. 

Though Iohn at stile hath erste replied to the 
Yet Dulman take this Counterbuffe from me 
Since both doe happe within the same vacation 
Which thou didst limitte to thine expectation. 

When first in Cambridge I had spent my prime 
& nexte at Innes of Courte bestowde some time 
& then employde my riper yeeres in warres 
pleas'de with such influence of three famous starres 
I thought my prime my time my yeeres well spente 
Whilste learning lawe & warres gaue such contente 
Vntill my latter age[e] desiring reste 
retir'de her selfe vnto her natiue neste 
Where among newes (some of more plaine importe 
some of more danger vnder shewe of sporte) I 
I hearde of two occurrents strange to tell 
both touching Cambridge-preachers of Gods spell 
ffirst that Paul Tomson clipped the king's coine 
Next that George Ruglers Interlude did ioyne 
Our lawes with ignorance of meere intente 
to taxe our king & Ciuill governmente 
As all kings figures on theire coines we see 
so lawes the stampes & printes of kingdomes be 
They that to wound these two would be so boulde 
woulde wounde the chiefe & third if so they could 
But leaving Tomson to his doome, or grace 
I'le turne to Ruglers & his players pace 
Whiles preachers & divines of setled age 
doe jumpe from Moses chayer to Mimicke stage 
& leaving pulpets (theire professions grace) 
turne Interludians on theire scaffoldes base 
one Momish scoundrell & one Cynicke slaue 
must quip & carpe at Lawe & Lawyers grave 

he made 








one Ignoramus & one Dulman foole 
(while ffortie dunces dote in Cambridge schole) 
must scoffe at Government they care not howe 
so theire Baboones & Atheists mocke & mowe 
Grave reverend Iudges Sages of our lawes, 
Oracles of truth cleering ech doubtfull clause 
Respecte not that base earth-scumme humble-bee 
that buzzing hummes rashe Ruglers ribaldrie 
A Neophyte, a Novice proud, a gull 
to drawe ould Br[s]itanes lawes to Cambridge skull. 
O god; o angels; o ye wisest men; 
What might ensue of that seditious pen? 
Had former times brought forth this rugged beare 
he soone had felte what kind of sinne this were 
Vetus Comedia was exilde at Rome 
who nowe but Cambridge doth reverse that doome? 
where Tragedies of Soveraigntie & State 
were staged acting kings & princes fate, 
where witty Comedies abhorring gall 
were exercised in ech Colledge hall 
There there (o shame) nought nowe in steade of these 
but Pasquilles grosse & carrion jestes doe please 
whose lofty Cothurnes Sophocles did passe 
she nowe turnes Tarleton with her Cumane asse 
Dulman & Ignoramus be her theames 
in steade of Phoebus & his tragicke threnes. 
O Cambridge Cowebridge like besmearde with shards 
to leave thy garden for such dunghill yardes 
what? Cambridge? yea yet oxford I adore 
for gravity, though Cambridge I for lore 
A Cambridge man, yea Cambridge was my mother 
But turnde a step-dame I must disavowe her 

Thine errors thus vnmasked Cambridge Mome 
Nowe rime & raile vntill the cowe come home 
Yet haue an eye (th'arte beste) to afterclappes 
Thou maiste be answered to thy paine perhappes 
Mindes are on fire. Repentance comes too late 
Wrong craves revenge Pedante ware thy pate. 






Crum: not listed 
Source of this transcription: Br: Add. 23723, ff 15v-17v 


The third group consists of three poems which defend the honour of the common law. 

A generall verdict of a grand Iurie, wherby ye comicall deuines of 
Cambrige are Coram Domino Rege conuicted as Idiots of an apparent 

Goe bastardes Goe to Cambrige schooles 

Crum: G129 (19th-century transcription) 
Source of this transcription: cur: Add. 4138, ff 6v-8v 

Huth, sigs I3v-I8 

Crum: M872 

A modest and temperate reproofe of the Schollars of Camebridg for 
sclandring Lawyers with that barbarous and grosse title Ignoramus. 
To the tune of Fortune my foe. 

My senses do o'erflow with heat and passion 

Source of this transcription: Bodl.: Rawlinson poet. 26, ff 34v-6 
C) Untitled 
A Cambridge scholler, late to London went 
Crum: not listed 
Source of this transcription: Br: Sloane 1489, ff 6-6v 
A) A piece of Ignoramus (ie, from act 1, scene S) 
Versus legales de Rosabella. 






Si possem vellem, [pro re] 
pro te Rosa ponere pellem 
Source of this transcription: BL: Add. 23723, f 7v 
B) Ignoramus Contra Scholasticos 
Iam plaga vos takeat ieerantas atque gibantas 
ooo l0 
Source of this transcription: Bodl. : Rawlinson poet 209, ff 25v-6 
1622-3: Fucus Histriomastix and Loiola 
A) Fucus Histriomastix 
On 12 March 1625 John Chamberlain wrote to his friend Sir Dudley Carleton: 'I send 
here a ri(me) made by one of kinges college in Cambridge vpon a play presented lately 
at Newmarket by his neighbours of Quenes college, yf you haue not seen yt alredy 
you will thincke yt worth the reading...' (Records, p 598). Apparently the rime was 
'On Fucus' by Henry Moll of King's College, on the performance ofFucus Histriomas- 
tix at Newmarket about 13 March 1623. 

On Fucus. 
A Comcdy acted before the King by some of Queens Colledge 
in Cambridge: 

The Queenes Colledge Play, from Cambridge away 
The King to the Court did call 
Because it was pitty, that a thinge so witty 
Should dye in a private Hall. 
They thought it no slander to ye Court for to wander 
Though men might Judge never so hard 
The King did command it, they could not withstand it 
And therefore went thitherward. 

Three coaches came empty to carry some twenty 
With bagge and baggage to boote 
And when they had done, 'twas twenty to one 
They had not come home on foote 




She went but six mile and gate not a smile 
And came her wayes home againe 
These were better seru'd, had what they deseru'd 
They were well laught at for theire paine. 

The King as they say at theire coming away 
Greate grace unto yem did show 
And gaue them ten pound to drinke his health round 
But I thinke it was not soe. 
That gift was too small to giue 'mongst them all 
For euery man for his share 
Dese[r]ued no worse then ten pound and a purse 
I'le be judg'd by them that were there. 

Now when you make more, bee aduised before 
Your lgnavia must not bee such 
Your Ingenium, your Iudicium 
Had neede bee twice as much. I 
And then last of all, your fift act was too small, 
At least you must make it soe bigge 
That when there's an end men need not attend 
As if they expected a Iigge. 

Now Trinity Colledge, you needs must acknowledge 
They were to you of good use 
For thus they did toyle to bee but your foyle 
And rayse your noble Muse. 
For they yat will looke without their owne booke 
Will quickly be brought to see 
And easyly know their's was but a shew 
And your's the Comcedy. 

Henry Molle 




Crum: T1218 
Source of this transcription: Bodl.: Rawlinson poet. 147, pp 4-7 (follows 'On 
Technogamia, A Comedy Acted at Oxford') 


B) Loiola 

Vppon the play at Cambridge 
Vbi mixta La:tis tristia, prophanis sacra 
Source of this transcription: Bodl.: Rawlinson poet. 117, f 25 
This poem is attributed to 'M. Grime M(...).' 

1631-2: The Rival FHends and The Jealous Lovers 

Peter Hausted's The Rival Friends, performed on 19 March 1632, and Thomas 
Randolph's The Jealous Lovers, performed the next day, were the cause of bitterness 
and rivalry even before they were performed. The rivalry was prosecuted after 
the performances, most obviously on the title-page of Hausted's The Rival Friends 
(Appendix 6:1). Randolph replied in his praevarication. 
The introductory pages of Randolph's The Jealous Lovers (1632) contain much 
commendatory prose and verse, some by the author, some by his admirers. A poem 
by Randolph himself preserves unique evidence for the identity of a principal actor 
in the production, Thomas Riley. As Bentley observes of Riley in Jcs, vol 5, p 985, 
'[s]ince Randolph speaks of him once as a lover, he may have played Tyndarus." 


Thomas Randolph's Oratio Praevaricatoria 

Praevarications were authorized comic speeches delivered in the course of commence- 
ment exercises, intended as burlesques of the serious academic ceremonies. Thomas 
Randolph apparently delivered his praevarication during the July 1632 masters" com- 
mencement. (Two poems on the commencement exercises held during the royal visit 
in March 1632 are 'Our King is come to Cambridge town,' Bodl. : Rawlinson poet. 
26, f 30 (Crum 01291); and 'Cambridge, though in thy praise we dare not write' 
(Crum C33).) 

... Ilia res Comica, qua: prim6 ante Regem acta est, amicos habuit, sed 
sine Rivalibus. Fuit optima Comoedia a priori, sed olet a posteriori. 
Nunc impressa est. Miror ego ejus hominis stomachum, qui talem 
librum edere potuit. Ego in illius laudes sic cecini. 



lam sileat lack Drum, taceat miracula Tom Thumb; 
Nec se gigantem jactet Garagantua tantum; 
Nec ferat insanus sua pra:lia Tamberlanus, 
Nec Palmerinus, nec strenuus Alborinus. 
Se quondam ratus sapientem Tom Coriatus, 
Et Don Quicksotto dicit; Sum nunc idiota 
Nunc metuit dia divortia Technogamia: 
Insignis Pericles non audet tam celebres res. 
Impiger Orlando jam non est tam furioso; 
Non te, Ieronymo, cogemus surgere lecto. 
Nemo dicat jam prudentes pascere Gotham 
Namque est doctorum comcedia scripta virorum, 
Qua: superat cunctas (tanta est fiducia!) laudes, 
Et jam securum petiit post pra:lia prelum 
Ignavum fucus pecus est, petit ilico lucos; 
Et factus blancum non saltat princum prancum. 
Dicunt hoc Puerile, Odium vicisse Senile, 
Hic est sensus non, et possis ludere checkstone. 

Iam peracta est fabula Plaudite 

Source of this transcription: 3L: Add. 44963, f 26 


The complete praevarication occurs in 3L: Add. 44963, ff 22v-6; the poem alone 
occurs in CUE: Add. 79, f 39. W. Carew Hazlitt (ed), Poeticaland Dramatic Works 
of Thomas Randolph, vol 2 (London, 1875), 671-80, prints the entire Oratio 
Praeva ricatoria. 
Still another attack on Hausted is the anonymous 'Have at you, sir,' entitled 'In 
defence of those Scholars, whom Mr Hausted calumniates in the Frontispice of his 
Rivall friends.' This poem occurs in 3i: Add. 44963, ff 10v-! 1. It is reprinted in Huth, 
sigs M6v-Tv, and thence by John Q. Adams, 'Peter Hausted's The Rivall Friends, 
with Some Account of his Other Works,'Journal of English and German Philology, 
ll (1912), 437-8. 

B) To his deare friend, Thomas Riley. 

I will not say I on our stage have seen 
A second Roscius; that too poore had been: 
But I have seen a Proteus, that can take 
What shape he please, and in an instant make 



1641-2: The Guardian 

On 12 March 1642 Abraham Cowley's The Guardian was presented to Prince Charles 
in Trinity College hall. Cowley later reported that the play had been written in haste 
and scarcely rehearsed (Records). In his prologue and epilogue for the play Cowley 
apologized for the lack of preparation, turning this fault into a neat poetic conceit. 
The prologue and epilogue were subsequently printed, together with 'The Echo' 
(Crum C5002 and C6683), as a royalist tract; the prologue and epilogue also survive 
in manuscript (Crum W2149). For more information on the printed tract, including 
a note on the pseudonym 'Francis Cole,' see Appendix 11, 1642. For an illustration, 
see Appendix 19. 

PRESENTED, I At the Entertainment of the Prince His I Highnesse, 
by the Schollers of Trinity Col- I lege in Cambridge, in March last, 
11642. I By Francis Cole. I LONDON: I Printed for lames Calvin, 
1642. I 


Who sayes the Times do Learning disallow? 
'Tis false: 'Twas never honoured more then now. 
When you appear (great Prince) the Night is done, 
You are our Morning Starre; shall be our Sunne. 
But our Scean's London now, and by the Rout 
We perish, if the Round-heads be about. 
For now no Ornament, the head must wear 
No Bayes, no Myter, scarce so much as hair. 
How can a Play passe safely? when we know 
Cheape side Crosse fals, for making but a show. 
Our only hope is this, that (it may be) 
A Play may passe, 'twas made extempore. 
Though other Arts poor and neglected grow, 
They'l admit Poesie, which was ever so. 
But we contemn the fury of these dayes, 
And scorn as much their Censure, as their praise. 
Our Muse (blest Sir) doth now on you rely, 
'Twould gladly live; but not refuse to die. I 
Accept our hearty zeal, a thing thats plaid 
Ear't was a play, and acted ere t'was made: 





Our Ignorance, but our duty too we show, 
I would all ignorant people would do so. 
At other times expect our wit or Art, 
This Comedy is acted by the heart. I 


The Play great Sir, is done, it needs must fear, 
Though you brought all your mercies here 
It may offend your Highnesse, we have now 
Three hours done Treason here for ought we know; 
But powr your Grace, can above Nature give, 
I, can give power to make Abortives live. 
In which if our bold wishes should be crost, 
'Tis but the life of one poore week that's lost: 
Though it should fall beneath your potent scorn, 
Scarce can it dye more quickly then t'was born. 

Source of this transcription: BL: Thomason Tract, E. 144(9), sigs A-A3 




Cambridge Play 

Play texts in this appendix have been divided into four groups: 

Group 1 : Surviving play texts certainly or probably performed at Cambridge. Two 
plays by Emmanuel College authors (Clytophon and Pseudomagia) are admitted by 
benefit of the doubt (see p 753). 

Group 2: Lost plays certainly, probably, or possibly performed at Cambridge. Plays 
reported by Nash and Harvey, perhaps in jest (Dunsfurens, Tarrarantantara turba, 
and Terminus et non terminus), are admitted by benefit of the doubt. 

Group 3: Plays written at Cambridge, but not performed and perhaps not meant for 
performance. Includes many plays, lost plays among them, written after performances 
ceased in a given college (eg, Christ's after 1567-8), or written by members of colleges 
not known to have staged plays at all (eg, Trinity Hall). 

Group 4: Plays sometimes attributed to Cambridge, but for which there is no 
evidence for performance there, or positive evidence against. 

The distinctions among these four categories are often not sharp. 

The following information - where available - is given for each play: 

Early printed edition(s) 

Modern edition (usually only one) 
Reference works (usually only two) 
Performance history 

Information or conjecture concerning performance histories is based on the 
Records, title-pages, cast lists, internal evidence in the texts, and university careers. 
Conclusions drawn by Chambers, Elizabethan Stage (Es) or Bentley,Jacobean and 


Caroline Stage (Jcs) are usually accepted unless specific objection is raised in a note 
to the entry. Normally, the modern edition named is that given by Annals of English 
Drama (,ED), unless a more recent edition is available. 
Printed title pages, transcribed in full by Greg, Bibliography of English Printed 
Drama to the Restoration (London, 1939-59), are here presented more briefly, with 
modernization of u/v and i/j; all information bearing on author, title, date, place of 
performance, and presence of dignitaries is retained. Greg also lists Stationers' Register 
entries, which are usually not noted here. 
Play manuscripts are listed in order of college, university library (Cambridge and 
Oxford), the British Library, and other libraries. Manuscripts are designated variously 
as fascicules, formal copies, or presentation copies; or given no designation at all. MSS 
given no designation are those which seem to have been made at some period later 
than the actual performance for an inherently antiquarian purpose: for example, a 
commonplace book into which a play text has been copied along with other literary 
works, or a manuscript anthology of various play texts. Formal copies or presentation 
copies are manuscripts normally containing only one play in a fine binding and 
roughly contemporary with the play production. Fascicules are manuscripts contain- 
ing only one play, of an informal character, perhaps not intended for binding orig- 
inally, and roughly contemporary with the play production. Some fascicules remain 
unbound and in their original covers; some have been subsequently bound, but pre- 
serve original covers or flyleaves; some have been collected with other fascicules to 
form a bound codex which serves as a play anthology. Clearly, the distinction between 
a formal copy and a neatly ruled and copied fascicule is a subjective one. The attempt 
is made to preserve a distinction because a fascicule seems most likely to represent 
the original state of the text, and may even have served as a performance text. 
Folio or page numbers are given for all title-page, colophon, and other transcrip- 
tions, except in the case of the five plays preserved in YUL: MS Vault/Shelves/Plays, 
Items 1-5. Although bound together in one codex and written in a uniform hand, 
the Items are separately paginated, and no page numbers are assigned to any title-page, 
each of which immediately precedes the first numbered page of the Item. Information 
on ownership has been recorded where that information reveals a specific interest in 
preserving evidence concerning Cambridge drama. 
Not listed among modern editions are facsimile editions of Latin play texts in the 
series Renaissance Latin Drama in England, Marvin Spevack and J.W. Binns (gen eds). 
Reference works are limited to Es or Jcs, and to AEn. s and cs, which should be 
searched either by author or by title, as appropriate, generally contain much more 
information about authors and plays than is given here. The AD reference is followed 
by the year under which Harbage and Schoenbaum have listed the play, and their es- 
timated limits where they considered the year in doubt. Differences of opinion over 
dates or other aspects of production are discussed in the notes. 
A synopsis is named where one is available in a standard article or book. Four ab- 
breviations have been used in references to synopses: 

888 APPENDIX 6:1 
Boas: Boas, University Drama. 
Bow: R.H. Bowers, 'Some Folger Academic Drama Manuscripts.' 
C-K: G.B. Churchill and W. Keller, 'Die Lateinischen Universitits-Dramen Eng- 

Mor: Louise B. Morgan, 'Latin University Drama.' 
Group 1: Surviving Play Texts 
AUTHOR: Thomas Watson 


- BL: Stowe 957 (fascicule of 30 leaves). (No title.) 
MODERN EDITION: John Hazel Smith (ed), A Humanist's "Trew Imitation': Thomas 
Watson's Absalom, Illinois Studies in Language and Literature, 52 (Urbana, 1964). 
REFERENCE WORK: AED 1540 (c 1535-44) 
SYNOPSIS: C-K, pp 229-32; Boas, pp 62-5, 352-65 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, c 1539-40 
NOTE: The college performance is described by Roger Ascham (1539-40). Boas, Uni- 
versity Drama, pp 63-4 and Appendix 1, does not accept that the Absalom play 
in Stowe 957 is Watson's play. 
AUTHOR: Samuel Brooke LANGUAGE: Latin 

- TCL: R. 3.9, ff 109-38v. F 110v: ADELPH E. Comoedia in Collegij Trinitatis aul 
bis public6 act .... Authore Domino Doctore Brooke Collegij Trinitatis .... 
Secund6 tempore coram Principe Charolo, et comite Palatino Anno Domini 1612. 
Actores in fabula Anno Domini 1611. (Cast lists.) 
- TCL: R. 10.4, ff 1-28v (Art. 1 : fascicule of 28 leaves). F 2: Adelphe. (Prologue and 
epilogue for 1662 performance on ff lv and 28v.) 

APPENDIX 6:1 891 

of it being laid downe before for the space of seaven yeares, in respect the fellowes 
had found themselues agreeved at it for theire abuse, and now againe revived by 
one Randolphe, one of the Schollers of the same house. 

MODERN EDITION : William C. Hazlitt (ed), Poeticaland Dramatic Works of Thomas 
Randolph, vol 1 (London, 1875), 1-34. 

REFERENCE WORKS: ./CS; AED 1626 (1625-6) 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College hall. cs argues, by reference to The Conceited 
Pedlar, for a performance date of All Saints', or 1 November. This was not, how- 
ever, a fast night. The nights of Ash Wednesday (the most prominent fast day in 
the calendar) and of its eve, Shrove Tuesday, either of which might be referred to 
as a fast night, were both used for plays. 

NOTE: The description of the play in Folger: V. b. 320 is notably similar to the claim 
of Randolph's Salting of 162 7: 'No salting here these many yeares was seene/ Salt 
hath with vs long out of season bene' (Roslyn Richek, 'Thomas Randolph's 
Salting...,' English Literary Renaissance, 12 (1982), 113). 

Band, Cuff, and Ruff 

AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

EARLY PRINTED EDITION: A Merrie Dialogue, betweene Band, Cuffe, and Ruffe: Done 
by an Excellent Wit, and Lately Acted in a Shew in the Famous Universitie of 
Cambridge. London, 1615. Greg 326; src: 1355-6 

- Bodl. : Lyel137, pp 124-6, 139. P 124: Cambridge. Speakers Bande. Cuffe. Ruffe. 
Antiquarian transcription. 
- BL: Add. 23723, ff 1-3v. F 1: Speakers Bande Cuffe Ruffe. 
- Folger: J.a.2, ff 25-5v. F 25: Ruff: Band: Cuff: 
- Bradford, West Yorkshire Archive Service: Hopkinson 32D86/17, pp [ 1-6]. F [ 1 ]: 
Comedye. Actores; Band, Ruffe, Cuffe Acted at Oxford ffebruari] 24: Anno 
Domini 1646. Antiquarian transcript by John Hopkinson of Lofthouse near Leeds. 

MODERN EDITION : In Charles Hindley (ed), The OM Book Collector's Miscellany, vol 2 
(London, 1872), np. Also in Thomas Berger and Suzanne Gossett (eds), Academic 
Entertainments in the Folger Manuscripts (Malone Society, forthcoming). 


892 APPENDIX 6:1 

PERFORMANCE HIS'gORY: unknown; possibly Trinity College, 1615 (year of publica- 

NO'rE: ES lists under the title Ruff, Cuff, and Band. Two editions were printed in 1615. 
The Stationers' Register entry of 10 February 1615 indicates that the play must have 
been composed before this date. The reported performance at Oxford 24 February 
1647 is not confirmed by other evidence and seems doubtful. 

Boot and Spur 

AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

- Folger: J. a. 1, ff 19-23v (fascicule of 5 leaves, f 23v blank). F 19: Boot & Spurre 
(added in later hand). 

MODERN EDITION: In Thomas Berger and Suzanne Gossett (eds), Academic Entertain- 
ments in the Folger Manuscripts (Malone Society, forthcoming). Also R.S. Thom- 
son (ed), 'Boote and Spurre: A Jacobean Qu&e from Folger MsJ. a. 1'(English Liter- 
ary Review, forthcoming). 

REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1612 (1611-20?) 

SYNOPSIS: Bow, p 118 


NOTE: The editors of the forthcoming Malone Society edition believe that this is either 
a Cambridge or an Oxford play, but that no evidence has been discovered to assign 
the play with confidence to one or the other university. It is assigned here to Cam- 
bridge on the grounds that Oxford is not known to have performed such 'shows,' 
whereas the tradition was firmly established at Cambridge. A reference in the text 
to Coryate's Crudities reveals that this play must have been composed after the pub- 
lication of that notorious book in 1611 and before Coryate's death in 1617. 

Can cer 
AUTHOR: unknown 

Cancer: Comoedia. London, 1648. Greg L21 ; Wing: H170 

894 APPENDIX 6:1 

Club Law 

AU'I'HOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

-- SJL: S.62 (447) (fascicule of 30 leaves paginated 7-67). (No title-page.) Imperfect: 
begins at end of act 1, scene 3. 

ODERN EDITION: G.C. Moore Smith (ed), Club Law: A Comedy Acted in Clare Hall, 
Cambridge, about I599-I600 (Cambridge, 1907). 

REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1599 (1599-1600) 

SYNOPSIS: Boas, pp 324-31 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Clare College c 1600; performance described by Fuller 

NO'rE: Smith, pp lv-lvi, observes: 'It does not seem to me impossible that Club Law 
should have been written by Ruggle, especially if it is to be dated in 1599 or 1600, 
after Ruggle had become domiciled at Clare. But it is impossible to use internal 
evidence to prove the common authorship of two works so utterly different as Club 
Law and Ignoramus, and we are left to the authority of Mr Hayward's MS., which 
may be valuable or may not.' Boas, University Drama, p 325, n 1, gives reasons 
for attributing both plays to the same author. (Further on 'Mr Hayward's MS,' see 
p 860.) 

Au'rHOR: William Ainsworth? 


-- EML: 185 (3.1.17), Art. 5 (8 numbered bifolia). F la: Clytophon. F 86: Gulielmus 
Bretonus possessor. Gulielmus Ainseworthus Scriptor. 


REFERENCE WORKS: ./CS; AED 1625 (c 1620-c 1630) 

PERFORMANCE HIS'I'ORY : unknown..cs suggests the possibility of Emmanuel College 
(Ainsworth's college), c 1625; see also Pseudomagia. 

896 APPENDIX 6:1 

REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1616 (1610-c 1616) 


NOTE: This was possibly the comedy performed at Caius College in 1615-16 
(Records)..cs provides an extensive discussion of Cruso's probable authorship of 
this play. 

Fraus Honesta 

AUTHOR: Edmund Stubbs 


EARLY PRINTED EDITION: Fraus honesta comoedia Cantabrigiae olim acta. 
Authore Mro Stubbe, Collegii Trinitatis socio. London, 1632. Greg L10; 
src: 23374 

- EML: 185 (3. I. 17), Art. 6 (9 numbered bifolia). F la: Fraus Honesta .... Scena est 
fflorentiae decimo die ffebruarij 1616. Authore magistro stubbe Collegi i Trinitatis 
socio./... F 9a: William Benton. (Cast list.) 
- TCL: R. 17.9, Art. 2 (fascicule of 18 leaves), ff 35-52v. (No title.) 
- TCL: R. 17.10, Art. l, ff 1-17v. F2: FRAVS HONESTA. Acta erat hzc Comedia 
decimo die Februari] Anno Domini 1618. Authore Magistro Stubbe, Collegi i 
Trinitatis socio. (Cast list.) 
- BL: Harley 2296, ff 151-67v (Art. 29: fascicule of 17 leaves). Title-page missing. 



SYNOPSIS: Masson, Life of Milton, vol 1, pp 221-4 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: first performance Trinity College hall 10 February 1619 (see 
Appendix 7 for cast list); second performance 24 September 1629 (for noble audi- 

NOTE: also called Callidamus et Callanthia. The date 1616 in the Emmanuel College 
Library copy is almost certainly an error. A possible intermediate performance c 
1621-2 is suggested by Joseph Mead's letter of 26 September 1629 (p 622), men- 
tioning a performance 'some 7 yeares since'; more likely Mead miscounted the years 
since its original performance. 

Gown, Hood, and Cap 
AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 


- Folger: J.a.2, ff 49v-50. F 49v: Gowne Hood Capp. 

MODERN EDITION: In Thomas Berger and Suzanne Gossett (eds), Academic Entertain- 
ments in the Folger Manuscripts (Malone Society, forthcoming). 

REFERENCE WORK: AED (Supplementary List I) 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: unknown; possibly performed in Trinity College hall in the 
second decade of the seventeenth century 

NOTE: References in the text to a Sophister (usually a Cambridge term) and to football 
'ath' leayes' (ie, at the Leys, a field behind Pembroke College: see Map 4) identify 
this as a Cambridge play. 

The Guardian 

AUTHOR: Abraham Cowley 

LANGUAGE: English 

EARLY PRINTED EDITION : The Guardian. A Comedie Acted before Prince Charles his 
Highness, at Trinity-Colledge in Cambridge, upon the Twelfth of March, 1641. 
Written by Abraham Cowley. London, 1650. Greg 693; Wing: C6673 

MODERN EDITION: A.R. Waller (ed), The English Writings of Abraham Cowley, vol 
2 (Cambridge, 1905-6), 159-242. 


PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College hall, 12 March 1642 (for royal audience) 

NOTE: Subsequently reworked and published as Cutter of Coleman Street (London, 
1663) (Wing: C6669): see English Writings, pp 259-341. Both versions are in 
Alexander B. Grosart (ed), The Complete Works in Verse and Prose of Abraham 
Cowley Now For the First Time Collected and Edited: With Memorial-Introduction 
and Notes and Illustrations, Portraits, &c., The Chertsey Worthies Library, vol 1 
(Edinburgh, 1881; rpt New York, 1967), 205-33 (Guardian), 173-204 (Cutter). 
For the prologue and epilogue, see also Appendixes 5, 1642; 11, 1642; and 19. 

900 APPENDIX 6:1 
AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

Folger: J.a. 1, ff 119-33v (fascicule of 15 leaves, f 133v blank). F 119: 1613. Hetero- 

MODERN EDITION: In David Lee Russell (ed), Stuart Academic Drama: An Edition of 
Three University Plays (New York, 1987). Also in Thomas Berger and Suzanne 
Gossett (eds), Academic Entertainments in the Folger Manuscripts (Malone Society, 


SYNOPSIS: Bow, p 121 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY." unknown; possibly 1613 

NOTE: The manuscript date of 1613 may reasonably be taken as the date of compo- 
sition and performance. The editors of the forthcoming Malone Society edition 
believe that this is either a Cambridge or an Oxford play, but that no evidence has 
been discovered to assign the play with confidence to one or the other university. 
It is included in this list because it survives in a manuscript collection containing 
other plays which may also have originated in Cambridge (ie, Boot and Spur, 
A Christmas Messe, Gigantomachia, and Risus Anglicanus). 

Hey for Honesty, Down with Knavery 
AUTHOR: Thomas Randolph LANGUAGE: English 
EARLY PRINTED EDITION: Hkovoq00ctktttct Hko,,oyctvttct. A Pleasant Comedie, 
Entituled Hey for Honesty, Down with Knavery. Translated out of Aristophanes 
his Plutus, by Tho: Randolph. London, 1651. Greg 699; Wing: A3685 
MODERN EDITION : William C. Hazlitt (ed), Poeticaland Dramatic Works of Thomas 
Randolph, vol 2 (London, 1875), 373-492. 
REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1627 (c 1626-c 1628) 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1627? 

NOTE: adaptation of Aristophanes, Plutus 
AUT.OR: Roger Morrell?; 
or William Pratt? 



- Bodl. : Douce234, ff 15v-40; additions ff 59-65. F 15v: HISPANVS ... Surnmus 
histriodidascalus Mr Pratt. In diem Comitialern anno dornini 1596. (Cast list.) 
SYNOPSIS: C-K, pp 297-300; Boas, pp 304-13 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, 9 February (Ash Wednesday) 1597? See 
Appendix 7 for cast list. 
NOTE: Two names occur on title-page: "(M)orrell' and 'Mr Pratt.' 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin 
- GeL: 125/62, pp 111-40. P 111 : Hymenaeus. 
- SJL: S.45 (435), i + 40 pages (first 20 leaves of a commonplace book). F i: 
Hymena:us. (Cast list.) 
MODERN EDITION: G.C. Moore Smith (ed), Hyrnenaeus: A Comedy Acted at St. John's 
College, Cambridge (Cambridge, 1908). 
sYNoPsis: C-K, pp 287-91; Boas, pp 134-40 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, c 1578-9. See Appendix 7 for cast list. 
NOTE: adaptation of Boccaccio, Decarneron, Tenth Novella, Day Four; suggested 
authors: Abraham Fraunce, Henry Hickman. The cast list is similar to that of 

904 APPENDIX 6:1 
by students of the college on 20 March (for royal audience). See below, The Rzval 
Friends, for incidents surrounding this play. 


AUTHOR: John Christopherson 


- SJL: H. 19 (284) (presentation copy of 55 unfoliated leaves). F [Iv]: 
qo0di. Contains a dedication to Cuthbert (Tunstall), bishop of Durham. 
- TCL: O. 1.37 (presentation copy of 61 leaves: ff 1-13, address to patron; ff 14-58, 
text; ff 59-61 blank). F 14: TQctyb,t Eqo0ti. Contains a dedication to William 
Parr, earl of Essex. 

MODERN EDITION: Francis Howard Fobes (ed and trans),Jephthah (Newark, 1928). 

REFERENCE WORKS: AED 1544 (C 1539--C 1544) 

SYNOPSIS: Boas, pp 45-60 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Performed - if at all - either in St John's College prior to 
1546 or at Trinity College soon thereafter: see Appendix 11, 1544. 

NOTE: In 1546 Christopherson left St John's to become a founding member of Trinity 
College. Then, during the reign of Edward Vl (1547-53), he resided as a Catholic 
exile in Louvain. In 1553, following the accession of Mary, he returned to Trinity, 
and was appointed third master, replacing William Bill. Conceivably, therefore, 
Jephthah was performed at St John's College a year or two before the foundation 
of Trinity College in 1546. As noted by Smith, College Plays, pp 4-5, the play could 
have been performed at Trinity College only during the first Christmas of its exis- 
tence, or after Christopherson's return upon Mary's accession. See Christopher- 
son's Latin version of Jephthah (p 937). 

AUTHOR: WalterHawkesworth LANGUAGE: Latin 
EARLY PRINTED EDITION : Labyrinthus. Comcedia habita coram Sereniss. Rege Iacobo 
in academia Cantabrigiensi. London, 1636. Grey LI4; sTc: 12956 

APPENDIX 6:1 905 

SJL: 1.8 (309), ff [33-67v] (second half of compilation: see also Leander). F 33: 
-- TCL: R.3.9, ff25-52v. F 26v: LABYRINTHVS ... Authore Magistro Haukesworth 
Trinitatis Collegii olim socio. (Cast list.) 
- CUL: Ee.5.16, Art. 3 (ff49-70v, followed by 4 blank leaves foliated iv-vii). F 49: 
Labyrinthus .... Authore Magistro Haukesworth Trinitatis Collegii quondam 
socio. (Cast list.) 
Bodl. : Douce 315 (fascicule of iv + 66 pages; text pp 1-61, pp 62-6 blank; title-page 
missing.) (Cast list.) 
Lam. : 838, Art. 5 (fascicule of 36 leaves, erratically foliated). F 1 : Laborintus. (Cast 
Warwick County Record Office: Newdegate CR136/B. 761 (fascicule of 26 leaves, 
unfoliated). F [1]: LABYRINTHVS. 
YUL: MS Vault/Shelves/Plays, Item 2 (36 leaves). LABYRINTHVS. Comcedia. 
Authore Magistro Hauksworth. Trinitatis collegii quondam socio. (Cast list.) 

MODERN EDITION: Susan Lesley Brock, "Walter Hawkesworth's Labyrinthus: An Edi- 
tion with a Translation and Commentary,' University of Birmingham PhD thesis, 

REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1603 (1603-6) 
sYtOPSlS: C-K, pp 308-13; Boas, pp 317, 320-1 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1602-3. See Appendix 7 for cast list. 
rOTE: adaptation of Giambattista della Porta, La Cintia (Venice, 1601). Ao lists a 
manuscript copy in Bodl. : Douce 43315, but this is a conflation of references in 
s to Douce MRS 43 and 315. In fact, Douce 43 does not contain a copy of the play. 
On a reported performance c 1622-3, see Appendix 11, 1622-3. 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin 
- Lam.: 838, Art. 4 (fascicule of i + 36 leaves). F lv: Lalia. 
MOt)ERN EOITION: G.C. Moore Smith (ed), Laelia: A Comedy Acted at Queens' 
College, Cambridge, Probably March 1st, 19 (Cambridge, 1910). 

APPENDIX 6:1 909 

evidently went forward. It was performed again, this time with the king in atten- 
dance, on 12 March. 

NOTE: originally composed by Hacket c 1616 (Appendix 3, 1675). Evidently revised 
for performance by Edmund Stubbs (Records, 1622-3; see also Jcs). A copy of the 
1648 edition in the Huntington Library (RB 247656) contains a complete cast list 
in a hand which also supplies the date 1665. Folger: V. b. 222, f 165v (rev) contains 
a transcription of the title page, including a partial cast list. See entry in Appendix 7 
for further information on the actors in this play. 

AUTHOR: unknown 


- Bodl. : Douce 234, ff 40v-58v. F 40v: MACHIAVELLUS ... Anno Domini 1597. 
Decembris 9. Imperfect: breaks off in act 5, scene 5. (Cast list.) 


SVNOPSlS: C-K, pp 300-3; Boas, pp 313-17 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, 9 December 1597. See Appendix 7 for 
cast list. 
NOTE: aED attributes this play to Nathaniel Wiburne on the evidence of a note of un- 
certain authority written by Douce in the Bodleian copy. 
A Masque Before Queen Elizabeth 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: English 
- CUL: Ff.5.14, f 141v. A maske before quen Elizabethe. 
MODERN EDITION: Marion Colthorpe, 'Anti-Catholic Masques Performed before 
Queen Elizabeth l,' Notes and Queries, ns 33 (1986), 316-18. 


APPENDIX 6:1 911 



PERFORMANCE HISTORY: unknown; AEO suggests Cambridge, 1612 

NOTE: date suggested by internal reference to Virginia. Two other plays with this title 
are Thomas Arthur's play of c 1522-3 (p 931), and a printed play of 163 7 by Thomas 
Nabbes (Greg 514). 


AUTHOR: Anthony Rudd? 

LANGUAGE: English 

- Hun.: HM 452 (fascicule of 24 leaves). F 1 : A mery and p(...) Misogonus ... 
Laurentius Bark0na. Ketthering die 20 Novembris Anno 1577. Imperfect; breaks 
off in act 4, scene 4. 

MODERN EDITION : Lester Ernest Barber (ed and trans), Misogonus (New York, 1979). 

REFERENCE WORKS: E$; AED 1570 (c 1560-77) 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1577? 

tqOTE: aEO suggests Anthony Rudd, Thomas Richards, or Laurence Johnson as pos- 
sible authors. Only the name of Johnson (Bariwna = son of John) appears as part 
of the formally planned title-page; since he was from Christ's, which had no plays 
by this date, and was writing at Kettering late in November, he may have been the 
scribe of the title-page rather than the author of the play. (The title-page is written 
in a different hand from the play.) Other names have been added to the Ms, as fol- 
lows: Anthony Rud(d) (f 1, near title); Thomas Rychardes and Thomas Warde 
(f I v, bottom); William Wylliams (f I I v); John Yorke (f 17). Rudd, Richards, and 
Ward were all from Trinity; Ward's matriculation Lent 1577 matches the year given 
on the title-page. A William Williams matriculated from Queens' 1571 ;John Yorke 
is unknown. (Barber, pp 11-25, provides a full discussion of authorship.) 

Naufragium Joculare 

AUTHOR: Abraham Cowley 


EARLY PRINTED EDITION : Naufragium ioculare, comcedia: publice coram academicis 

APPENDIX 6:1 913 
also next item). F 201 : The Pilgrimage to Parnassus. Outer leaf (f 200) contains the 
name of 'Edmunde Rishton Lancastrensis.' 
MODERN EDITION: In James B. Leishman (ed), The Three Parnassus Plays (1598-1601) 
(London, 1949). 
REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1599 (1598-9) 
SYNOPSIS: Boas, pp 336-8 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, Christmas?, c 1598-9 
NOTE: AED suggests that Owen Gwyn may have had a hand in the composition. 
Parnassus !!: The Return from Parnassus  
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: English 
- Bodl. : Rawlinson D.398, ff 207-20 (Art. 72: second part of quire of 10 bifolia; see 
also previous item). F 207: The returne from Parnassus. 
MODERN EDITION: In James B. Leishman (ed), The Three Parnassus Plays (1598-1601) 
(London, 1949). 
REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1600 (1599-1601) 
SYNOPSIS: Mullinger, University of Cambridge, vol 2, pp 522-6; Boas, pp 338-46 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, Christmas, c 1599-1601 
NOTE: Aet suggests that Owen Gwyn may have had a hand in the composition. (Re- 
ferences to Shakespeare and Jonson are cited on p xiv of this collection.) 
Parnassus m: The Return from Parnassus  
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: English 
EARLY PRINTED EDITION: The Returne from Pernassus: or the Scourge of Simony. 
Publiquely Acted by the Students in Saint Johns Colledge in Cambridge. London, 
1606. Grey 225; sTc: 19309-10 

914 APPENDIX 6:1 
- Folger: V. a. 355 (fascicule of 26 leaves). F 3: The progresse to Parnassus as it was 
acted in St lohns Colledge in Cambridge Anno 1601. (A Halliwell-Phillipps 
MODERN EDITION : In James B. Leishman (ed), The Three Parnassus Plays (1598-1601) 
(London, 1949). 
REFERENCE WORKS: E$; AED 1603 (1601-3) 
SYNOPSIS: Boas, pp 331-8, 341-6 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, Christmas, c 1601-3 
NOTE: AEO suggests that Owen Gwyn may have had a hand in the composition. Also 
called 'The Progress to Parnassus." 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin 
- EML: 68 (1.3.16), fi r 95--[124] (fascicule of 30 leaves). F 95: PARTHENIA. 
REFERENCE WORKS: JC$; AED 1626 (C 1625--C 1630 ?) 
SYNOPSIS: C-K, pp 319-23 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: unknown; Cambridge, c 16267 
NOTE: translation of Luigi Groto, II Pentimento amoroso; no known connection to 
Cambridge beyond manuscript context; EML: 68 also contains Pseudomagia and 

Pa Y/'R. 
Pastor Fidus 
AUTHOR: unknown 


TCL: R. 3.37, ff 35-87v. F 35: Pastor ffidus Tragicomcedia Pastoritia.//Gulielmus 

APPENDIX 6:1 915 
- CUE: Ff. 2.9, ff 17-4 lv (Art. 2: fascicule of 25 leaves). F 17: I! pastor fido, di signior 
Guarinj./ ... [Acted in] recitata in Collegio Reg[inali]rali 1 Cantabrigia. F 18v: 


REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1604 (1590-1605) 

SYNOPSIS: C-K, pp 318-19 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: King's College, c 1604 

NOTE: shares a preface with the second version of Leander. This play, also called 
Arcadia reformata, a translation of Battista Guarini, I1 pastor fido, is apparently 
alluded to in 'The Black Book' (Appendix 3, 1605). Although a William Quarles 
is named on the title-page of the Trinity College copy of this play, no such name 
can be traced to King's College. A William Quarles matriculated from St John's 
in 1564 and lived until 1618: perhaps he was the owner of this copy. Phineas 
Fletcher, who was active as a college dramatist in 1606-7 and wrote the 'piscatory' 
Sicelides in 1614-15, is a possible author. 


AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

EARLY PRINTED EDITION: Pathomachia: or, the Battell of Affections. Shadowed by a 
Faigned Siedge of the Citie Pathopolis. Written Some Yeeres since, and now first 
published by a Friend of the Deceassed Author. London, 1630. Greg 434; 
sTc: 19462 

- Bodl.: Eng. misc. e.5 (fascicule of vi + 48 pages). Flc0ov&xtc. Or loues 
loadestone. Imperfect: breaks off at p 48, in act 5, scene 2. 
- BL: Harley 6869, Art. 1 (fascicule of 25 leaves, foliated 1-24; text ff3-22v). F 3: 
l-I0oxt. Or loues Loadstone. Ff 1-2 and 23 may be original flyleaves; if so, 
f 1 contains a note which may be relevant: 'For Sir Robert Filmer in Westminster.' 
There is a blank, unnumbered leaf between ff23 and 24 which may also be an orig- 
inal flyleaf. 

MODERN EDITION: Paul E. Smith (ed), Pathomachia (Washington, DC, 1942). 

REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1617 (c 1616-17) 

APPENDIX 6:1 917 

MODERN EDITION: In Thomas Berger and Suzanne Gossett (eds), Academic Entertain- 
ments in the Folger Manuscripts (Malone Society, forthcoming). 

REFERENCE WORKS: AED (Supplementary List l) 

SYNOr'SlS: Bow, p 128 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: unknown; probably performed in Trinity College, possibly 
soon after 6-7 February 1611 

NOTE: The date of this play is suggested by a possible allusion in the text to the riot 
of 6-7 February 1611 : 'as for ye walls they had the falling sicknesse, the Windoes, 
had a great paine in them' (f 49). The tearing down of the Trinity College garden 
wall is mentioned often in the documentation, once in combination with broken 
glass: 'for ye damages of the walls & windows [then] broken' (p 455). 
In their forthcoming edition, Berger and Gossett identify 'Preist the Barbar' as 
Henry Preist, barber and scholars' servant, who died in 1638. Among other details, 
they report that his inventory at death records property in Great St Mary's, Holy 
Trinity, and St Botolph's parishes (CUA: VCP). Henry Preist was apparently the 
brother of James Preist the painter (p 660). See also 'Henry the paynter,' p 246, 
and endnote. 

AUTHOR: William Mewe 


- EML: 68 (1.3.16), ff 17--48v (Art. 2: fascicule of 32 leaves). F 17: 
PSEVDOMAGIA .... AVTHORE Magistro MEWE. Cantabrigiae collegij 
- "rCL: R.17.10, Art. 2, ff 18-39v. F 19: PSEVDOMAGIA. 
- Folger: V.b.222, ff 38-59v. F 38: PSEVDOMAGIA. F 59v: Authore: Magistro 
Mewe Colleg/j Emanuelis. 

MODERN EDITION: John C. Coldewey and Brian P. Copenhaver (eds and trans), 
Pseudomagia, Bibliotheca Humanistica & Reformatorica, 28 (Nieuwkoop: 1979). 

REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1626 (1618--C 1627) 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY : unknown; Jcs suggests the possibility of Emmanuel College 
(Mewe's college), c 1626-7; see also Clytopbon. 

- NRO: Finch Hatton 320 (formal copy of 45 leaves). F 1 : Richardus tertius. (Actio 
! only.) 
MODERN EDITION: RobertJ. Lordi (ed), Thomas Legge's Richardus Tertius: A Critical 
Edition with a Translation (New York, 1979). 


SYNOPSIS: Boas, pp 112-31 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College hall, by members of the college, on three 
successive nights, in March 1579 

NOTE: adapted from Hall's Chronicle and More's English Historyof Richard the Third 
(1557). Esand aED date the performance March 1580, but evidence from St John's 
College accounts strongly supports 1578-9. The attribution to Henry Lacy in 
Harley 6926 is doubtless incorrect; perhaps Lacy wrote out or commissioned a 
CLL: Kk.3.12 is supplied with a model title-page in preparation for printing at 
the University Press in 1582 by Anthony Cade. A colophon gives not only Cade's 
name, but also the date 1583 in Greek numerals, , q, zt, y, (as it is also 
given at the end of Bodl. : Lat. misc. e. 16). This anticipated printing never 

Risus Anglicanus 
AUTHOR: unknown 


Folger: J.a. 1, ff 24-43v (fascicule of 20 leaves). F 24: Risus Anglicanus. 


REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1620 (1614-25) 
SYNOPSIS: Bow, pp 118-20 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY : unknown; c |6207 
NOTE: not entirely certain for Cambridge 

920 APPENDIX 6:1 
The Rival Friends 

AUTHOR: Peter Hausted 

LANGUAGE: English 

EARLY PRIN'I-ED EDI'I-ION : The Rivall Friends. A Comcedie, as it was acted before the 
King and Queens Majesties, when out of their princely favour they were pleased 
to visite their Universitie of Cambridge, upon the 19. day of March. 1631. Cryed 
downe by boyes, faction, envie, and confident ignorance, approv'd by the 
judicious, and now exposed to the publique censure, by the authour, Pet. Hausted 
Mr. in Artes of Queenes Colledge. Non tanti est ut placeam insanire. London, 
1632. Greg 465; src: 12935 

MODERN EDITION: LaurensJ. Mills (ed), Peter Hausted's The RivalFriends, Indiana 
University Publications, Humanities Series, 23 (Bloomington, 1951). 


SYNOPSIS: J.Q. Adams, 'Peter Hausted's Rivall Friends, with Some Account of his 
Other Works,' Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 11 (1912), 443-6. 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: prepared for 8 March 1632, but postponed on word of an 
accident befallen the chancellor, Lord Holland;performed in Trinity College hall 
by students of Queens' College on 19 March. Intense rivalries surrounding the play 
and its competitor, Thomas Randolph's The Jealous Lovers, led to the suicide of 
Vice-chancellor Henry Butts on 1 April (pp 641-3). 

NO'r E: A cast list has been penned into BL: 644. b. 45, a printed book apparently owned 
by Thomas Alston (see also Ignoramus). 

AU'rHOR: William Alabaster 


Roxana tragaedia, olim Cantabrigiz, acta in Col. Trin. Nunc primum in lucem 
edita, summaque cum diligentia ad castigatissimum exemplar comparata. Cui 
accesserunt etiam argumenta. London, 1632. Greg Lll; src: 249 

Roxana tragaedia a plagiarij unguibus vindicata, aucta, & agnita ab authore 
Gulielmo Alabastro. London, 1632. Second edition. Greg L11; src: 250 

APPENDIX 6:1 921 

EML: 185 (3.1.17), Art. 4 (7 numbered bifolia). F la: Roxana. F 7by: Authore 
Doctore Alablaster, Collegij quondam Trinitatis Socio. 
- TCL: R.17.10, Art. 3, ff 40-53v. F 40: ROXANA. F 52v: Authore Doctore 
Alabaster Collegij quondam Trinitatis socio. 
CUL: Ff.2.9, ff 1-16 (Art. 1: fascicule of 16 leaves). F 1: ROXANA. 
Lain.: 838, Art. 3 (fascicule of 19 leaves). F 1: Roxana. F 19v: finis Roxana: 
YUL: MS Vault/Shelves/Plays, Item 5 (22 leaves). ROXANA. Tragcedia, Maronem 
/Eneas, eternat Vlysses Homerum; Lauro Alabasterum merit6 loxana coronat. 

MODERN EDITION: none (see note) 

REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1592 (1590--C 1595) 

S'eNOPSlS: C-K, pp 252-5; Boas, pp 286-8 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, c 1592 

NOTE: Adaptation of Luigi Groto, La Dalida. The first of the two 1632 editions was 
published anonymously, and presumably without authority, for in the title-page 
to the second edition Alabaster claims to have rescued his work from the clutches 
of a plagiarist. 
The half-title of the second edition (src: 250) contains eight small woodcuts, one 
of which shows a theatrical performance in progress (Appendix 19). This woodcut 
was noted by Wolfgang Keller, 'Bild einer englischen Theatervorstellung aus dem 
Jahre 1632,' Shakespeare Jahrbuch, 34 (1898), 324-5. Boas, University Drama, 
p286, n 2, remarks: 'The scene cannot be identified, so far as I can see, with any 
of the episodes in Roxana." Similarly, the scene does not conform to any known 
Cambridge theatre (Introduction, p 717). Perhaps it is a conventional representa- 
tion of a professional theatre in London. 
Folger: V.b.222, ff 29-37v (f 28: ROXANA. Egerunt alumni Sanctae et 
Individuae Trinitatis) is an English translation : see Ethel Rosenberg Kaplan (ed), 
'William Alabaster's Roxana: A Critical Edition of the English Version with Parallel 
Latin Text,' Harvard University PhD thesis, 1980. 


AUTHOR: Samuel Brooke 


EML: 185 (3.1.17), Art. 1 (11 numbered bifolia). F la: Scyros. Fabula pastoralis acta 

APPEIq D|X 6:1 925 

REFERENCE WORKS: JC$; AED 1618 (1618-19) 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, Christmas, 1618 

AUTHOR: John Chappell? 


Bodl. : Rawlinson poet. 195, ff 79-98v (fascicule of 20 leaves, ff 79v, 80, 97v, 98 
blank). F 79: Susenbrotus comcedia. Acta Cantabrigia: in Collegio Trinitatis coram 
Rege Iacobo, & Carolo Principe. Anno 1615. 
Hun. : EL 1125 (fascicule of i + 17 leaves). F i verso: FORTVNA. Cantabrigia 
is a speaker in both prologue and epilogue. 



SYNOPSIS: Mot, pp 77-8 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: evidently performed by students of Trinity College at 
Royston, 12 March 1616, before King James and Prince Charles (for royal audience) 

NOTE: Even though the title-page asserts that Susenbrotus was performed before the 
king and prince at Trinity College, this is presumably the play performed at 
Royston. According to college accounts for 1616, Mr (John) Chappell went to the 
court in connection with a play; he is therefore presumed to be the author. The 
date 12 March 1615 (ie, 1616) is given in the text (act 4, scene 3). The two different 
titles, Susenbrotus and Fortunia, seem equally well attested. 
Four 'blazons' which constitute part of the text and one, of Ignoramus, which 
does not, occur in BL: Add. 34218, f 163v (discussed p 1243). 

AUTHOR: William Johnson LANGUAGE: Latin 
EL: 52 (1.2.32) (formal copy of 28 leaves, SiRS al-g4). SiR al : Valetudinarium. 

APPENDIX 6:1 927 

Wine, Beer, and Ale 

AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

EARLY PRINTED EDITION : Wine, Beere, and Ale, Together by the Eares. A dialogue, 
written first in Dutch by Gallobelgicus, and faithfully translated out of the originall 
copie, by Mercurius Brittannicus, for the benefite of his nation. Horat. Siccis omnia 
ham dura Deus proposuit. London, 1629. Greg 426; STC: 11541-2 

- Edinburgh University Library: Laing ni.493, ff 57-66 (fascicule of 10 leaves). 
(No title.) 

MODERN EDITION: James Holly Hanford (ed), '"Wine, Beere, Ale, and Tobacco": A 
Seventeenth Century Interlude,' Studies in Philology, 12 (1915), 1-54. 

REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1625 (1624-6 ?) 

NOTE: JC makes an argument for Cambridge, though the evidence is admittedly slim. 

Work for Cutlers 

AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

EARLY PRINTED EDITION: Worke for Cutlers. Or, A Merry Dialogue betweene Sword, 
Rapier, and Dagger. Acted in a shew in the famous Universitie of Cambridge. Lon- 
don, 1615. Greg 331; STC: 25981 

MODERN EDITION: Albert Forbes Sieveking (ed), Workefor Cvtlers (London, 1904). 

REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1615 (1614-15) 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: unknown; Trinity College, 1615? 

NOTE: This play must have been composed after the Star Chamber decree against duel- 
ling of 26January 1614 (to which reference is apparently made in the text), but be- 
fore its entry in the Stationer's Register on 4 July 1615. 

928 APPENDIX 6:2 
AUTHOR: unknown 


- EML: 185 (3.1.17), Art. 2 (11 numbered bifolia). F la: Zelotypus. (Cast list.) 
- TCL: R.3.9, ff 55-78v. F 55: ZELOTYPUS. (Cast list.) 
- Durham Cathedral, Dean and Chapter Library: Hunter 76, Item 6 (fascicule of 23 
leaves). F 1: ZELOTYPVS. 


sYNoPsis: C-K, pp 313-17 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, c 1605-6. See Appendix 7 for cast list. 
NOTE: Smith, College Plays, p 102, suggests Francis Rollenson as possible author; this 
attribution, however, is based solely on Rollenson's appearance at the head of the 
cast list. 

Group 2: Lost Cambridge Plays 
This list contains only plays known or thought to have been performed. Lost 'closet' 
plays are included in the list which follows this one. 

AUTHOR: Thomas Cecil LANGUAGE: Latin 
EVIDENCE: named in CUL: Add. 2677 (Art. 1), see p 538; described by Chamberlain 
in his letter of 16 March 1615 (Records, p 540) 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College hall, by students of St John's, 
7 March 1615 

Anglia Deformata et Anglia Restituta 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin 
EVIDENCE: named in Trinity College accounts for 1553-4 
VRFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, Christmas 1553-4 
qOTE: possibly a show with no text 


De Crumena Perdita, or Crumenaria 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin 
EVlOENCE: named in Trinity College accounts for 1554-5, 1565-6 
eRFORMANCE HISTORY: 'De Crumena perdita': Trinity College 1554-5; 
'Crumenaria': same college 1565-6 
NOTE: Possibly these were two different plays, aEo suggests that the author was 
Matthew Hutton, though Andrew Oxenbridge, also in charge of the play in 
1554-5, may have been co-author or co-producer. 

AUTHOR: EdwardHalliwell LANGUAGE: Latin 
EVIDENCE: play named in various documents 1563-4; Halliwell named as author in 
'Hatcher's Book' (p 243) 
swoPsIs: Boas, p 94 (conjectural) 
VERFORMANCE HISTORY: King's College chapel, 7 August 1564 

930 APPENDIX 6:2 
Duns Furens: Or Dick Harve in a Frensie 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin? 
EVIDENCE: reported by Thomas Nash, Have With You to Saffron Walden (1596) 
(Appendix 3) 
REFERENCE WORK: AED 1586 (1580-7) 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: evidently Peterhouse, c 1586 
NOTE : Nash states that at the time of the play Andrew Perne was either vice-chancell0r 
or deputy vice-chancellor, offices he held in 1580-1 and 1585-6 respectively. 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin? 
EVIDENCE: named as a comedy in Edmunds-Covill adultery case of 1595-6 (p 367) 
NOTE: Smith, College Plays, p 99, lists Fatum Vortigerni with the note, '? Acted at 
Cambridge, c. 1595-1600.' AED, however, assigns Fatum Vortigerni to Thomas 
Carleton, English College at Douai, performed 22 August 1619. Fatum Vortigerni, 
moreover, is distinctly not a comedy. 
Laelia Modenas 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin 
EVIDENCE: named in Queens' College inventory of 1546-7 
NOTE ." This may be the same play, or merely one from the same source, as the anony- 
mous Laelia produced by the same college in 1594-5 (pp 905-6). 

AUTHOR: Thomas Arthur 
EVIDENCE: reported by Bale (Appendix 1) 
REFERENCE WORK: AED 1525 (1520-32) 


PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, early 1520s? 
NOTE: Credence is given to Bale's report by a reference to Arthur in a loose bill, prob- 
ably from the early 1520s (Appendix 1). 
Mundus Plumbeus 
AUTHOR; Thomas Arthur LANGUAGE: Latin 
EVIDENCE: reported by Bale (Appendix I) 
REFERENCE WORK: AED 1525 (1520-32) 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: St John's College, early 1520s ? 
nOTE: Credence is given to Bale's report by a reference to Arthur in a loose bill, prob- 
ably from the early 1520s (Appendix 1). 
Puer Vapulans 
AUTHOR: Michael Murgatroid LANGUAGE: Latin 
EVIDENCE: named in Jesus College accounts of 1581-2 
REFERENCE WORK: AED 1582 (1581--2) 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Jesus College, 1581-2 
Re Vera 
AUTHOR: GeorgeRuggle? LANGUAGE: Latin? 
EVIDENCE: named as 'Revera" or 'Verily' in a reported notation in a manuscript now 
lost (Appendix 3, before 1741) 


934 APPENDIX 6:3 

aUtHOr: Thomas Pestell? 


evidence: reported by John Nichols, The History and Antiquities of the County of 
Leicester, vol 3 (London, 1804), part 2, p 927, col 2 

REFERENCE WORKS: IC$; AED 1632 (1631-2) 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: apparently prepared by Queens' College for 7 March 1632 
(for royal audience), but cancelled on news of an accident befallen Lord Holland, 
chancellor of the university. The cast list is printed by Nichols (see Appendix 7). 

NOTE: Nichols reports: 'By the favour of one of his immediate descendants I have 
now before me a volume of MS Poems by Mr. Pestell; among which is a Latin com- 
edy, dated 163 I, under the title of "Versipellis ;" which appears to have been acted 
(probably at Cambridge) by the following gentlemen, whose names are added to 
the Dramatis Persona::..." This manuscript has never been traced. 

Group 3: Cambridge play texts not performed (extant and lost) 
Translations undertaken as academic exercises have not been considered for inclusion 
in this list. 

The Benefice 
aUtHOR: Robert Wild 

LanGUaGE: English 

- 8L: Lansdowne 807, ff 78-88 (Art. 4: fascicule of I 1 leaves; title-page missing, 
ff 87 and 88v blank). Imperfect: begins act 3, scene 4. F 88: Robert Wild. 
- Folger: V.a.232 (text is pp 1-33 of codex of iii + 93 leaves). P I: The Benefice. 
P 33: Authore Roberto Wild. 

MODErn EDITIOn: none; printed in 1689 (Greg 836; Wing: W2123) 


NOTE: aED suggests 1641. This seems too late for any college production except 
perhaps at Trinity. Wild, however, was from St John's, and the last play known 

956 APPENDIX 6:5 
AUTUOR: Thomas Sparrow 


- Bodl. : Rawlinson poet. 77 (presentation copy of ii + 47 leaves; ff46-7 blank). 
(f 2v) signed Thomas Sparrowe. 
REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1634 (1630-407) 
NOTE: AE) suggests St John's College, the author's college; however, the last play 
known at St John's was performed in 1618-19. 
Country Court 
AUT.OR: WilliamHolles LANGUAGE; English 
EVIDENCE: See Appendix 3, 1640. 
REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1640 (1635-43) 
NOTE: Holies was from Pembroke College; it seems doubtful that his college pro- 
duced plays at this late date. 
Destruction of Jerusalem 
See Solymitana Clades 
AU'rHOR: WilliamGoldingham LANGUAGE: Latin 
- CUL: Mm. 1.24 (presentation copy of i + 33 leaves (ff 26-33 blank), followed by 
42 blank leaves supplied at time of binding). F 1 : HERODES TRAGOEDIA. Con- 
tains dedication to Thomas Sackville by William Goldingham. 

APPENDIX 6:4 939 


REFERENCE WORKS: ES; AED 1581 (publication); performance c 1583 

NOTE: This Thomas Watson, an Oxford man, must be distinguished from the Bishop 
Thomas Watson who was author of the Cambridge play Absalom. AEO suggests 
Cambridge, following evidence gathered by G.C. Moore Smith (ed), Gabriel 
Harvey's Marginalia (Stratford-upon-Avon, 1913), 166: 'Huc Vatsoni Antigone, 
magnific6 acta solenni ritu, et vet6 tragico apparatu: cure pulcherrimis etiam 
pompis, et accuratissimis thematibus.' Elsewhere Harvey uses virtually identical 
language concerning Gascoigne'sJocasta: 'Gascoigni Jocasta, magnific6 acta solenni 
ritu, et vet6 tragico apparatu. Ut etiam Vatsoni Antigone: cuius pompae seriae, et 
exquisitae" (Virginia F. Stern, Gabriel Harvey: His Life, Marginalia and Library 
(Oxford, 1979), 174; 174, n 72;212. ) Neither reference constitutes evidence of a 
performance of this play at Cambridge. It seems unlikely in any case that during 
this or any other period Cambridge would have put on a play written by an Oxford 

Cornelianum Dolium 



EARLY PRINTED EDITION: Cornelianum Dolium: Comdia lepidissima, optimorum 
judiciis approbata, & theatrali corypho, nec immerito, donata, palma chorali 
apprime digna. Auctore, T.R. London, 1638. Greg LI6; sTc: 20691 


NOTE: 'T. R.' may or may not be Thomas Randolph. See Jcs and AEI for opinions con- 
cerning authorship. 
The Drinking Academy 
,UTHOR: Thomas Randolph LANGUAGE: English 
- Hun.: HM 91 (fascicule of 20 leaves). F 2: The drinking Academy Or Cheaters 
Holy Day. 

940 APPENDIX 6:4 
MODERN EDITION : Samuel A. Tannenbaum and Hyder E. Rollins (eds), The Drinking 
Academy (Cambridge, Mass., 1930). 
REFERENCE WORKS: JCS; AED 1629 (1623--31) 
VEaFOaMANCE HISTORY: first produced at Westminster School 
NOTE: also called 'The Prodigal Scholar' and 'The Cheater's Holiday'; conceivably 
performed at Cambridge after Randolph's admission to Trinity College on 8 July 
1624, but for this there is no evidence. 
fovis et funonis nuptiae 
AUTHOR: unknown LANGUAGE: Latin 

- TCL: R. 10.4, ff 53-63v (Art. 3: fascicule of i + 11 leaves). (No title.) 


REFERENCE WORKS: .ICS; aED (Supplementary List I) 

NOTE: Listed by aED (Supplementary List ) as a play of uncertain auspices. Since all 
other plays in R. 10.4 are Cambridge plays, this play also may be from Cambridge. 

Julius Caesar 

AUTHOR: Thomas May 


REFERENCE WORKS: .ICS; AED 1616 (c 1613-c 1630) 

NOTE: MS reported, but now apparently lost: 'The evidence for the authorship or even 
the existence of this play is so slight as to make speculation concermng its date futd 
Ocs). ED suggests Sidney Sussex College; however, this college is not known to 
have produced plays. 


AUTHOR: unknown 

LANGUAGE: English 

- Victoria and Albert Museum: Dyce Collection, Press mark D25. F.48 (fascicule of 
i + 24 leaves). (No title.) F 24: Timon Epilogue. 



Full cast lists for twenty-five college performances survive in play manuscripts, 
printed texts with manuscript annotations, and other sources. In addition, actors can 
sometimes be identified from the Records or material in the Appendixes: 

Plautus, Miles Gloriosus, c 1522-3 (pp 93-4): Stephen Gardiner played Periplec- 
tomenus; William Paget, Miliphidippa; and Thomas Wriothesley, Palestrio. All were 
from Trinity Hall. 

Thomas Kirchmayer (Naogeorgus), Pammachius, Christ's College, 1544-5 (p 137): 
John Crane and Nicholas Greenwall played unknown roles. 

Edward Halliwell, Dido, King's College, 7 August 1564 (p 243): Thomas Preston 
played an unknown role, possibly Aeneas. 

Plautus, Miles Gloriosus, Queens' College, c 1591-2 (Appendix 3, 1628): George 
Montaigne played Pyrgopolynices, the braggart soldier. 

Laelia, Queens" College, 1 March 1595 (p 356): George Meriton and George Mon- 
taigne may have had parts. 

Thomas Randolph, The Jealous Lovers, 20 March 1632: Thomas Riley played some 
role, apparently Tyndareus (see Appendix 5). 

Note: Oliver Cromwell almost certainly did not play the role of Tactus the king in 
a performance of Thomas Tomkis' Lingua in 1616-17 (Appendix 11). 

Surviving cast lists are presented here in the chronological order of play perfor- 
mances. Original spellings of the names of characters and of the last names of actors 
are preserved, but the lists are not otherwise intended as facsimiles of the originals: 
all abbreviations have been silently expanded. The given name of the student actor, 
if identified, is supplied in round brackets after the last name. If the form of the 


surname found in the University Index is substantially different from that given in 
the base manuscript, the index form is also supplied in the brackets. Doubt concerning 
the identification of a named student actor with a known member of the university 
is expressed by a question mark after the supplied name of the known member. See 
the University Index for further information. Because student actors of various col- 
leges took part in Ignoramus, the cast list included the college affiliations as well as 
surnames in most cases, but where the college was not named, it has been supplied 
in round brackets. 
The titles "Dominus" (found abbreviated as "D," 'Ds,' or 'Dnus') and 'Sir' (found 
abbreviated as 'Sr') refer to students who have received the BA degree. 'Mr' usually 
refers to a student with the SA degree, although it is often assigned to students who 
had not yet earned any degree but had been admitted as fellow commoners or pen- 
sioners of a college. The less familiar titles 'recens' and 'sophista' have been silently 
expanded and are defined in the Latin Glossary; they refer to students not yet awarded 
the BA degree. Corrections or supplementary information are occasionally taken from 
sources other than the base text: all such instances are recorded in the notes. If a play 
was performed more than once and separate cast lists survive for the performances, 
arabic numerals are added in brackets after the title to distinguish them, eg, Leander (1) 
and Leander (2). A roman numeral after the title, however, indicates one part of a 
multi-part play, eg, Richardus Tertius . Names of characters not matched to names 
of actors are omitted. 
Three previously unknown cast lists penned into printed books were discovered 
while these lists were being prepared (see Ignoramus and Loiola); two such lists were 
known previously (see Melanthe and The RivalFriends). A systematic search of copies 
of printed plays might yield more such lists. 
Cast lists have been published and analysed by the following authors or editors; 
while these published lists have been closely consulted, they are not followed here 
in all cases, nor are differences generally noted: 

Boas, University Drama, pp 393-401: Hymenaeus, Richardus Tertius, Hispanus, 
Silvanus, Machiavellus, Leander (1 and 2), Labyrinthus. 

R.H. Bowers, 'Some Folger Academic Drama Manuscripts,' pp 125-8: Cancer (also 
analysed by Bentley, Jcs, vol 5, p 1298). 

Charles Henry Cooper, 'The Actors in Dr Legge's Tragedy ofRichardus Tertius, per- 
formed at St John's College, at the Bachelors' Commencement, 1579-80,' cas Com- 
munications, 1 (1859), 347-57. 

John Nichols, History and Antiquities of the County of Leicester, vol 3, pt 2 (London, 
1804), 927: Versipellis. 


Smith, College Plays, pp 74-88: Locus, Corpus, Motus; Zelotypus; Adelphe (1 and 2); 
Scyros; Melamhe; Ignoramus; Fraus Honesa; Loiola; Paria; Versipellis (from 
Nichols); The Rival Friends; Valetudinarium. 

Smith (ed), Fucus Histriomastix (Cambridge, 1909), pp viii-xi, 1-2: Fucus Histrio- 


SPONSOR: StJohn'sCollege DATE: 1578-9? 

SOURCE: SJL: S.45(435) 

Fures / 
Bajuli t 

Richardus Tertius ! 
SPONSOR: St John's College 
SOURCE: EML: 71(1.3.19) 
OTHER CAST HST: Bodl. : Tanner 306(1 ) 

Elizabetha Regina 
Cardinalis, Archiepiscopus 

Mr Highman (Henry Hickman?) 
Mr Palmer (John) 
D Smith (Griffin) 
D Titley (Peter) 
Mr Bayley (William) 
Mr Robinson (John?) 
Mr Gargraue (Thomas) 
Ds Pilkington (Thomas) 
Mr Sedgwich (Edward) 
Ds Morcell (Roger Morrell?) 
D Harris (William) 
D Alney (Henry) 
France (Abraham) 
Harrison (John) 
Rockley (John) 
Micocke (John) 
Mr Foxcroft (Richard) 

DATE: 1578-9 

D Shephard (Leonard) 
Mr Fox (John ?) 


Eduardus rex quindecim 
Richardus dux Giocestrensis 
Dux Buckinghamiae 
Episcopus Eliensis 
Ancilla Reginae 
Servus ducis Glocestrensis 
ciuis Londinensis 
Archiepiscopus Eboracensis 
I Richardus paruulus 
muti Graius 

Mr Whaley (Markham ?) 
Lord W Howard (William) 

Mr Palmar (John) 
Mr Stringer (Philip) 
Mr Wilkinson (William) 
Mr Booth (Robert) 
Mr Hodson (Samuel) 
Mr Hill senior (James) 
Mr Bayly (William) 
Mr Stanton (Laurence) 
D Pilkington (Thomas) 
Mr Robinson (John ?) 
D Punter (Henry) 
Mr Knox (Eleazar or Nathaniel) 
D Fraunce (Abraham) 
D Howland (James) 
D Helowe (Christopher Heylie) 
Mr Kendall (John) 
Ds Reiner (Robert) 
Rhodes medius (Peter) 
Mr Bowes (Henry?) 
Woodcocke (Thomas) 

NOTE: EML: 71 has been chosen as base text because it contains cast lists for all three 
parts of the trilogy. The second occurrence of the character Hawardus (as 
'Howardus'), with the same actor, is ignored here. 

Richardus Tertius u 

SNSOR: St John's College 

DATE: 1578-9 

SOURCE: EML: 71(1.3.19) 

Richardus dux Glocestrensis 
Dux Buckinghamiae 
Pretor Londinensis 
Fitz William 
Doctor Shawe 
Ciuis primus 
Ciuis secundus 

Mr Palmar (john) 
Mr Stringer (Philip) 
Mr Bayly (William) 
Mr Almy (Henry Alney?) 
Mr Webster (Richard) 
Mr Clayton (Richard) 
Ds Morrell (Roger) 
D Fraunce (Abraham) 


Muti } Episcopus 

Richardus Tertius !!! 

SPONSOR: St John's College 

SOURCE: EML: 71(1.3.19) 

Richardus Rex 
Dux Buckinghamius 
Elizabetha Regina 
Filia Eduardi regis major 
Episcopus Eliensis 
Ludouicus medicus 
Anna regina vxor Richardi 
Nuntius primus 
Nuntius secundus 
Nuntius tertius 
Nuntius quartus 
Henricus comes Richmondiae 
Comes Oxonij 
Dux Norfolciensis 
Rhesus Thomae Wallicus 
Filius Stanleius 
Dighton carnifix, a big sloven 
Comes Northumbriae 


Mr Smith (Abel) 
Foggs (Charles or Hugh) 
Ds Reiner (Robert) 
Ds Methen (John Meighen?) 

DATE: 1578-9 

Mr Palmer (John) 
Mr Stringer (Philip) 
D Shepard (Leonard) 
D Titley (Peter) 
D Pilkington (Thomas) 
Mr Stanton (Laurence) 
Mr Foxcroft (Richard) 
Mr Snell (Francis) 
Mr Robson (Simon) 
Mr Gargraue (Thomas) 
Mr Sedwich (Edward) 
D Hill (Otwell) 
Hoult (John, Ralph, or Richard) 
Mr Bayly (William) 
Mr Robinson (John ?) 
Ds Morrell (Roger) 
Mr Hickman (Henry) 
Mr Digby (Everard) 
Mr Hill senior (James) 
Mr Linsell (Daniel?) 
Ds Harris (William) 
D Harrison (John) 
Mr Robinson (John ?) 
Mr Hodson (Samuel) 
Mr Constable gentleman (Henry) 
Redferne (Elys) 
Mr Ducker (Gabriel) 

SPONSOR: St John's College DATE: 1596--7? 


SOURCE: Bodl. : Douce 234 



SPONSOR: St John's College 

SOURCE: Bodl. : Douce 234 



SPONSOR" St John's College 

SOURCE: Bodl.: Douce234 


D Wiburne (Nathaniel) 
D Wilkington (Thomas Walkington) 
D Pollard (Michael) 
D Worship (William) 
D Newton (Robert) 
Sophista Rollenson (Francis ?) 
Recens Grace (John) 
Sophista Newman (Robert?) 
Sophista Heblethwayte (Thomas) 
recens Audaly (John) 
recens Casse (Edmund) 
Recens Anderton iunior (Thurston) 

DATE: 1596-7 

D Rollinson (Francis) 
D Newton (Robert) 
Martiall (Hamlet) 
Heblethwayte (Thomas) 
Audelie (John) 
Grace (John) 
Casse (Edmund) 

DATE: 1597--8 

D Myllwarde (John or Matthias) 
recens Anthonye (John ?) 
D Lane (Robert) 
D Rollinson (Francis) 
Mr Wiburne (Nathaniel) 
recens Grace (John) 
D Pollard (Michael) 

lorarij } 
Prologus/ Argumentum 
Leander (1) 
SPONSOR: Trinity College 
SOURCE: BL: Sloane 1762 

sophista Staniland (Nicholas) 
sophista Stanton (Lancelot) 
recens Smith (Abraham) 

DATE: 1598-9 or 1599-1600 

OTHER CAST LISTS: EML: 50(1.2.30); TCL: R.3.9 


Ds Kitchin (Thomas) 
Mr Hawksworth (Walter) 
Ds Booth (Thomas) 
Mr Chamley (Richard Cholmley) 
Mr Barnard (John) 
Mr Hassall (Thomas) 
Mr Parker (James) 
Tauerner (John) 
Ds Rosse (Gabriel) 
Ds Hinton (Benjamin) 
Mr Kercher (Robert) 
Mr Freeman (George) 
Ds Greeue (William) 
Forrest (Miles) 
Mr Crompton (Thomas) 

NOTE: BL: Sloane 1762 has been chosen as base text for Leander (1 and 2) because, 
like TCL: R.3.9 but unlike EML: 50(1.2.30) and CUL: Ee.5.16, it contains cast lists 
for both performances; it has been chosen over TCL: R.3.9 because internal evidence 
suggests it was originally copied before the second performance of Leander had 
taken place. 

Leander (2) 
SPONSOR: Trinity College 
SOURCE: BL: Sloane 1762 

DATE: 1602-3 



Mr Kitchin (Thomas) 
Mr Hawkesworth (Walter) 
Mr Cropley (John) 
Mr Hassall (Thomas) 
Blaxton (Joshua) 
Mr Liechfield (Edward) 
Mr Freeman (George) 
Bing (William) 
Mr Gardiner (Francis) 
Ds Tauerner (John) 
M Hinton (Benjamin) 
Mr North (Thomas ?) 
Twaites (Mark) 
Goldingham (Edward) 
Ds Simpson (Edward) 
Mr Verney 
Mr Forrest (Miles?) 

NOTE: On choice of base text, see note to Leander (1). 


SPONSOR: Trinity College 

DATE: 1602-3 


OTHER CAST LISTS: CUL : Ee. 5.16; Bodl. : Douce 315; Lam. : 838; YUL: MS Vault/Shelves/ 
Plays, Item 2 

Puer Tiberij 
Don Piedro Pacheco d'Alcantura 

Mr Haukesworth (Walter) 
Mr Verney 
Goldingham (Edward) 
Mr Tauerner (John ?) 
Dnus Forrest (Miles ?) 
Dnus Twaites (Mark) 
Bing (William) 
Cademan (Thomas) 
Dnus Blaxton (Joshua) 
Mr North (Thomas?) 
Dnus Simpson (Edward) 
Nidd (Leonard) 
Mr Kitchin (Thomas) 



Mr Freeman (George) 
Wilkinson (Thomas?) 
Mr Hassall (Thomas?) 

NOTE: TCL: R.3.9 has been chosen as base text because it contains cast lists for many 
plays (Ricbardus Tertius 1, Leander (1 and 2), Zelotypus, Adelpbe (1 and 2), and 
Scyros) and therefore has an appearance of authority. Wilkinson, who played 
Citharaedus, was a college musician: see Appendix 13. 

Locus, Corpus, Motus 

SPONSOR: Trinity College DATE: 1604--5? 

SOURCE: Bodl. : Tanner 306(1) 


Ds Moore (Benedict?) 
Coote (Thomas) 
Cademan (Thomas) 
Mansell (John ?) 
Leedes (Samuel) 
Stockdall (Jeremy) 

SPONSOR: St John's College 


OTHER CAST LIST: EML : 185(3.1.17) 

Puerj duo } 

DATE: 1605-6? 

Mr Rollinson (Francis) 
Hinchman (Richard ?) 
Ds Smith (Thomas) 
Layfeild (Thomas) 
Gibson (Abraham) 
Store (Benjamin) 
Ds Miller (Robert ?) 
Sampson (Richard) 
Mr Holt (Jeremiah) 



Mr Paramour (Richard or Thomas) 
Mr Clifton (Gervase) 
Mr Grace (John) 
Mr Taylor senior (Richard ?) 
Mr Layne (Robert) 
Mr Henshawe (Thomas ?) 
Mr Porter (Talbot?) 
Mr Casse (Edmund) 
Barret (William) 
Ds Maud (Edward) 
Haslhurst (Peter) 
Walton (Nicholas) 
Fenston (Thomas Funston) 

NOTE: TCL: R.3.9 has been chosen as base text because of its apparent authority among 
cast lists: see note to Labyrinthus cast list (p 950). EL: 185(3.1.17): 'Mr (Zachary) 
Taylor iunior'; 'Habersley'; 'Funston.' 

Adelphe (1) 

SPONSOR: Trinity College DATE: 1611--12 





Ds Coote (William) 
Mr Walpoole generosus (Robert) 
Mr Chappell (John) 
Titley senior (Samuel) 
Hackett (john) 
Mr Kinaston (Francis) 
Stubbs (Edmund) 
Fitzgefferye (Henry) 
Ds Facon (Robert) 
Pearce (Stephen) 
Mr Sleepe (Anthony) 
Mr Remington generosus (Robert Barne 
Mr Coote (Thomas) 
Mr Hilles (Richard) 


NOTE : TCL : R. 3.9 has been chosen as base text because of its apparent authority among 
cast lists: see note to Labyrinthus cast list (p 950). 3L: Add. 44963 specifies 'Coote 
senior' for the actor playing Albinus; it also identifies the prologue as Mr Hilles 
(TCL: R.3.9 does not name the prologue). 


SPONSOR: Trinity College DATE: 1612--13? 

SOURCE: Folger: J. a.2 

Gallus puer 

Sir Faulcon (Robert) 
Mr Coote (Thomas or William) 
Sir Goolfinch (Thomas) 
Mr Chappell (John) 
Mr Coote (William or Thomas) 
Mr Hickes (William) 
Sir Wilson (George, John, or Timothy) 
Sir Filmore (Edward?) 
Mr Blaxston (Joshua) 
Sir Dorington (Richard) 
Mr Thopham (Anthony) 
Greeke (Thomas) 
Mr Sleepe (Anthony) 
Pears (Stephen) 
Mr Walpole (John or Robert) 
Mr Rimmington (Robert Barne Remington) 

Adelphe (2) 

SPONSOR: Trinity College 

DATE: 1612-13 




Ds Facon (Robert) 
Mr Walpoole generosus (john) 
Mr Chappell (John) 
Mr Butler (Henry) 
Ds Hackett (John) 



Mr Coote (William) 
Stubbs (Edmund) 
Ds Goldfinch (Thomas) 
Holmes (Walter) 
Meredith (Richard) 
Mr Sleepe (Anthony) 
Ds Greeke (Thomas) 
Loyde (Robert) 
Mr Hilles (Richard) 

NOTE: TCL: R.3.9 has been chosen as base text because of its apparent authority among 
cast lists: see note to Labyrinthus cast list (p 950). BL: Add. 44963 specifies 'Mr 
Coote junior' for the actor playing Flamminius; it also identifies the prologue as 
Mr Hilles (TCL: R.3.9 does not name the prologue). 

SPONSOa: Trinity College 

DATE: 1612-13 

OTHER CAST LISTS: EML: 185(3.1.17); TCL: 0.3.4; TCL: R. 10.4; TCL: R. 17.10; CUL: 
Ee.5.16; YUL: MS Vault/Shelves/Plays, Item 4 


Ds Facon (Robert) 
Ds Goodin (.John or Ralph) 
Hackluit (Edmund) 
Ds Greeke (Thomas) 
Mr Chappell (John) 
Mr Coote iunior (William) 
Mr Wallpoole (John) 
Stubbes (Edmund) 
Ds Hackett (John) 
Chester (Grenado) 
Mr Hunt (Josias or Roger) 
Mr Sleepe (Anthony) 
Ds Gooldfinch (Thomas) 

NOTE: TCL: R. 3.9 has been chosen as base text because of its apparent authority among 
cast lists: see note to Labyrinthus cast list (p 950). TCL: O. 3.4 has 'Mr Walpoole 
iunior,' 'Mr Hunt iunior,' and 'Falcon.' 


rOTE: Of the several students surnamed King then resident at Queens', only James 
and Thomas seem to have been BAS at the time of this play. Henry Clovel was not 
BA until 1623-4. 


svorsog: Trinity College 

DATE: 1622-3 

SOUgCE: TCL: R. 17.9 

OTHER CAST LISTS: Durham Cathedral, Dean and Chapter Library: Hunter 26, Item 
1 ; Folger: V.b.222, f 165v (rev); Hun. : RB 247656; 'UL: mS Vault/Shelves/Plays, 
Item 3 

Mutus seu Faustinus 
Mounsier Michael 
Capitano Vander Pons 
Nicholas Machiauellus 
Ca:ca obedientia 
Index expurgatorius 

Mr Rhodes (John) 
Thornton (Thomas ?) 
Edgly (George) 
Mr Alcock (William) 
Powel (Thomas) 
Mr Goring (George?) 
Mr Bulkley 
Sr Mercer (Francis) 
Harrison (John) 
Mr Hackluit (Edmund) 
Dighton (William) 
Mr Hinton (Samuel) 
Sr Legat (John) 
Sr Hersent (Peter) 
Cartwright (Thomas) 
Mr Ra(msey) (Robert) 
Mr Geares (John) 
Sr lones (Robert?) 
Priest (Henry) 
Mr Stasmore (Thomas Staresmore?) 
Mr Oxford 
Mr Nelham 
Mr Dalton 
Mr Coot (Charles) 
Mr Goring (George?) 


College, Cambridge, c 1594-c 1615: Archival and Biographical Evidence,' Music 
& Letters, 68 (1987), 128-40; Ian Payne, 'The Musical Establishment at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 1546-1644, cas: Proceedings, 74 (1987, for 1985), 53-69; and 
from information supplied by Mr Payne.) 


SPONSOR: Trinity College DATE: 1627--8 

SOURCE: EML: 68(1.3.16) 

Fuluius seu Fulgentius 

Mr Bristoe (Litton) 
Fotherbye (Charles) 
Bacon (Richard ?) 
Shawe (George) 
Mr Hearsante (Peter) 
Mr Thorneton (Thomas) 
Winkefeilde (Thomas) 
Munseye (William) 
Ds Loe (William) 
Mr Wincop iunior (John) 
Mr Horseye (George) 
Ds Swan (John or Thomas) 
Wiatte (Dudley) 
Mr Mercer (Francis) 
Rilye (Thomas) 
Snead (William) 
Mr Suckline (John ?) 
Mr Driwood (George) 

Versipellis (text lost) 

SPONSOR: Queens' College 

DATE: 1631-2? 

SOURCE: Nichols, History... of Leicester 

Ds Bryant (Oliver?) 
Flout (John) 
Ds Woodhall (Horatio Woodhouse ?) 
Ds Bea-Richards (Edward Beale ?) 
Freear (Michael) 


Ds Rogers (Samuel) 
Mr Harflett (Charles) 
Iocelin (Simon) 
Overton (Richard) 
Mr Kemp (Edward) 
Mr Rogers (John) 
Ds Cantrell (Thomas) 
Ramsbottom (Thomas) 
Ds Johnson (William) 
Bradler (Peter Bradley) 
Wills (William Wells) 
Ds Carlisle (Thomas) 
Person (John) 
Pestell (Thomas) 
Ds Allen senior (Robert or Thomas) 
Crofts (William) 

NOTE: This cast list survives only in an antiquarian transcription giving actors' names 
but no character names. The name 'Bea-Richards' presents a problem, and it is 
difficult to identify the person to whom it refers. 

The Rival Friends 

SPONSOR: Queens'College 

DATE: 1631-2 

SOURCE-" BL : 644. b. 45 (printed book) 

Sacriledge Hooke 
Mistris Vrsely 
Iacke Loueall 
Bully Liuely 

Mr Brian (dchard) 
Mannering (?) 
Romsbotom (Thomas) 
Sr Rogers (Samuel) 
(.)r Lin 
Mr Kempe (Edward) 
Mr Stanninow (James) 
Sr Hills (Heigham, John, or Ralph) 
Mr Hausted (Peter) 
Sr Cantrel (Thomas) 
Mr Cotterel (Charles) 
Freer (Michael) 
Mr Rogers (John) 


Nodle Emptie 
William Wiseacres 
Mr Mungrell 
Zealous Knowlittle 
Tempest All-mouth 
Arthur Armestrong 
Stutchell Legg 
Ganimed Fillpott 
Hugo Obligation 

Piercen (John) 
Tiffin (Benjamin) 
Mr Harflet (Charles) 
Mr Hards (Peter) 
Sr Woodhouse (Horatio) 
Hausted (William) 
Kidbie (John) 
Richardson (Joseph or Lambert) 
Hausted (William) 
Sr Carlile (Thomas) 
Hills (Heigham, John, or Ralph) 
Slate (Edward Slater?) 
Mr Chaundler (Daniel) 
Rogers (Samuel) 

NOTE: The printed cast list is annotated with a list of actors' titles and names in the 
left margin and a more selective but more heavily annotated list in the right margin. 
Only the list in the left margin is reproduced here; some given names, however, 
are supplied from the list in the right margin. For a description of the complete 
list, see LaurensJ. Mills (ed), Peter Hausted's The Rival Friends, Indiana University 
Publications, Humanities Series, 23 (Bloomington, 1951), 122. 


SPONSOR" Queens' College DATE: 1637--8 

SOURCE: SJL: S.59(444) 


Mr Wells (William) 
Marsh (Richard or Tobias) 
Mr Frear (Michael) 
Ds Iones (John) 
Richardson (John) 
Lightfoot (George) 
Maldon (Daniel) 
Mr Iohnson (William) 
Ds Whitloe (Edward) 
Whitehead (Jasper) 
Ds Stanhop (George) 
Ds Lynsell (Thomas) 
Ds Sleighton (Robert) 



Mr Rogers (Samuel) 
Mr Walpole (Arthur) 
Sandall (Benjamin) 
Mr Pestill (Thomas) 
Whiniates (Robert) 


















play ? 

play requested 








Terence t 
Plautus t 
Miles Gloriosus 
Plautus t 

Cheke & Smith 




















Greek dialogue 
Greek comedy 
Greek comedy 
Latin tragedy 






Greek comedy 




Ravisius Textor 


Perne & Yale 
Laelia Modenas? 
Yale, Alexander, & Hutton 

Ad  lplooe 









Shrove Tuesday 

1 January 














Gammer Gurton's Needle? 

Trojan Women 

Threkeld, Temple, & Day 
bachelors & scholars 







2 February 


Christmas ? 

1 January 




English ? play 
Latin play 




Burr ? 

Anglia Deforrnata 
De Crurnena Perdita 
Oxenbridge & Hutton 

Winning o fan Hold 
Barley, Gray, & Boyes 









11 February 









play or show 
play or show 
play or show 

English plays 







Shacklock & Redman 
Legge & West 

Sapientia Solomonis 

Trojan Women 

























Tower & Some 
John the Baptist 
Bale or BuchananI? 
Chapman & 
Christus Triumphans 
Browne & Wilkinson 












6 August 

7 August 

8 August 

9 August 
10 August 











Latin tragedy 
(not performed) 



Legge & Bingham 
Waller (& Rudd ?) 

Kelke et al 
Halliwell t 
Ajax Flagellifer 
Masque Before Elizabeth 
Legge & Forde 
Browne & Cooke 
Parkinson & Powell 


Legge & Powell 
Wilkinson & Cooke 








Gibson & Davyd 
Legge & Gibson 
Powell & Dunning 
Gilpin & Bill 
Buchanan* ? 

Redman & Stanhope 
Aldrich & Wilkes 
Hayt & Ellis 
Stanhope & Doddinge 
Bedwell & Ashburne 
Cosin & Bennet 








late July 

6 February ? 

TC play 
TC play 
Qu play 
Qu comedy 
TC play 
TC play 
cc show 
PH plays 
QU play 
s plays 
cc comedy 
QU play 
cc comedies 
JE comedy 
Univ? play 
(Audley End) 
cc comedies 
oc play 
:c plays 
KC show 
sJ play 
sJ tragedy 

TC plays 
JE comedy 

QU comedy 
sJ play 
TC play 
TC comedy 

TC play 
CC comedy 
JE comedy 

cc plays 
PB satire 
s tragedy 
TC plays 
sJ comedy 



Plautus t 
Forcettt t 

Puer Vapulans 
Murgatroidt t 


Plautus t 









1 March 

26-8 February 
26-8 February 

13 January 
9 December 
















Duns Furens ? 
Terminus et Non 
Terminus ? 
Nash & another** 

Miles Gloriosus ? 

Montaigne & 


Morrell or Pratt* ? 









9 March TC 
10 March TC 
13 March KC 
13 May CL 

Audit TC 
2 February TC 
3--9 February TC 
12 March TC 
Christmas SJ 
10 February TC 


31 January 
26 February? 
26 February? 



English comedy 
Latin pastoral 
English comedy 
Latin comedy 

Latin comedy 
Latin comedy 
Latin comedy 

Latin comedy 
English play 
English play 
English play 


12 March TC play 

13March? QU 
10December? TC 
l November? TC 

1 November? TC 

Latin comedy 
(not performed) 


Ignoramus (2) 
Euribates ? 
Cruso* ? 

Chappell** ? 
Stoicus Vapulans 
Fraus Honesta (1) 

Fucus Histriomastix ( 1 ) 
Loiola (1) 
Hacket (& Stubbs ?): 
Loiola (2) 
Hacker (& Stubbs?): 
Fucus Histriomastix (2) 

The Conceited Pedlar 


College Plays by 
Non-Cambridge Authors 

Classical play titles named in the Records are listed in the Index and cross-referenced 
to their authors; because classical plays were available in numerous manuscripts and 
printed editions, no bibliographical information is offered here. The following notes 
concern plays by sixteenth-century authors which were performed in Cambridge 
colleges. The earliest such play, Thersites, was performed in 1542-3, the latest, 
Jephthes, in 1566-7. (A humanistic translation of a classical play may have been put 
on in 1559-60: see p 208 and endnote.) Many of the plays are discussed by Lily B. 
Campbell, Divine Poetry and Drama in Sixteenth-Century England (Berkeley 
and Los Angeles, 1959). Only such references as are necessary to establish basic 
identifications are given here. 

References cited: 

Adams: H.M. Adams (comp), Catalogue of Books Printed on the Continent of 
Europe, 1501-1600, in Cambridge Libraries, 2 vols (Cambridge, 1967). 

re.c: The British Library General Catalogue of Printed Books to 1975 (London, 

mvc: Catalogue gnral des livres imprims de la Bibliothque Nationale (Paris, 

Bradner: Leicester Bradner, 'List of Original Neo-Latin Plays Printed before 1650,' 
Studies in the Renaissance, 4 (1957), 55-70. 

Creizenach: Wilhelm Creizenach, Geschichte des Neueren Dramas, 2nd ed, 3 vols 
(Halle, 1911-23). 

L-G: E.S. Leedham-Green, Books in Cambridge Inventories: Book-Lists from Vice- 
Chancellor's Court Probate Inventories in the Tudor and Stuart Periods, 2 vols 
(Cambridge, 1986); all page references below are to vol 2. 


McFarlane: I.D. McFarlane, Buchanan (London, 1981); references are to numbered 
list in Appendix A. 

Shaaber: M.A. Shaaber, Check-list of Works of British Authors Printed Abroad, in 
Languages other than English, to 1641, Bibliographical Society of America (New 
York, 1975). 

Acolastus, by Willelm Gnapheus (called Fullonius) 
PER:ORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1560-1 
FIRST EDITION: A colastus. De filio prodigo cornoedia Acolasti titulo inscripta, autbore 
G. Gnapbeo (Antwerp, 1529) 
REFERENCE WORKS: Bradner; Adams G775, etc 
ALTERNATIVE SOURCE: De filio prodigo comoedia, Acolasti titvlo inscripta, autore 
Guielrno Gnapbeo, in Willelm Gnaphaeus (ed), Comoediae ac tragoediae aliqvot 
ex novo et vetere testarnento desvrnpte (Basel, 1541) 
REFERENCE WORKS: Bradner; Adams G778 
MODERN EDITION: G. Gnapheus, Acolastus: A Latin Play of the Sixteenth Century, 
W. E.D. Atkinson (ed), University of Western Ontario, Studies in the Humanities, 
3 (London, Ont., 1964) 
NOTE: L-G, p 386, lists five copies of Acolastus. Translated into English 1540 (src: 

Asotus, by George Macropedius 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1565-6 
FIRST EDITION: Asotus evangelicus, seu evangelica de filio prodigo parabola i Georgio 
Macropedio cornice descripta (Gerardus Hatardus: Bois le Duc, 1537) 
REFERENCE WORKS: B radner; Btc: 11712. aa. 1 (2.) (defective; breaks off in act 1, scene 
4). Second edition (Antwerp, 1540): Btc: 11712.b.42 



PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1566-7 

NOTE: It is likely that this title refers either to Jephthah by John Christopherson or 
toJephthes by George Buchanan. McFarlane (p 385, n 19) considers Buchanan's 
play an unlikely candidate, preferring Christopherson's. Christopherson, however, 
though a former master of Trinity College, had been a militant persecutor of pro- 
testants under Mary; the college may not have been eager to honour his memory 
with a revival of his play, whether in the Greek or the Latin version (see pp 904, 

Jephtbes, by George Buchanan 

FIRST EDITION: lephthes sive votum tragoedia (Paris, 1554) 

REFERENCE WORKS: Bradner; McFarlane 37; Shaaber B729. Second edition (1557): 
McFarlane 38, Shaaber B730 

ALTERNATIVE SOURCE: lephthes, sie votum, tragoedia, in George Buchanan, 
Psalmorum Dauidis paraphrasis poetica, authore G. Buchanano. eiusdem Buchanani 
tragoedia lephthes (Paris, 1566 ?) 

REFERENCE WORKS: McFarlane 125, Adams B1447, Shaaber B759. McFarlane, Adams, 
and Shaaber list numerous subsequent editions, including a securely dated edition 
of 1566 (McFarlane 126) 

MODERN EDITION AND TRANSLATION: George Buchanan Tragedies, P. Sharratt and 
P.G. Walsh (eds) (Edinburgh, 1983) 

NOTE: Discussed by McFarlane, pp 190-205. Smith, College Plays, p 103, suggests 
that Roger Ascham may have witnessed a performance of George Buchanan's 
Jephthes at this time (Records, 1539-40). L-G, p 108, lists one copy of the Psalms 
with Jephthes, along with eight copies of Buchanan's Psalms which may have 
included Jephthes. 

Jobn Babtiste 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1562-3 

NOTE: Two candidates for this play are Baptistes, by George Buchanan, andJoban 
Baptystes Preachynge, by John Bale, who, although a Cambridge graduate, had left 


MODERN EDITION: Thomas Naogeorg, Simtlicbe Werke, Hans-Gert Roloff (ed), 
Ausgaben deutscber Literatur des xv. his xvm. ]abrbunderts, vol I (Berlin, 1975); 
extensive bibliography. 

NOTE: First and subsequent editions contain Kirchmayer's dedication to Thomas 
(Cranmer), archbishop of Canterbury. JEL: B. 6.63 is extensively annotated, but in 
a manner different from that implied by Parker (p 134). L-G, p 566, lists one copy. 

Philanira, by Claude Roillet 
PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1564-5 
FIRST EDITION: Pbilanira, in Claudii Roilleti Belnensis varia poemata (Paris, 1556) 
REFERENCE WORKS: Bradner; Adams R667 

Sapientia Solomonis, by Sixt Birck (called Xystus Betuleius) 

PERFORMANCE HISTORY: Trinity College, 1559-60 

NOTE: Sixt Birck's Sapientia Solomonis was published in 1547; a revised version 
of the play was performed for Queen Elizabeth at Westminster School in 1566. It 
is not certain whether Birck's edition or the revised version was performed at Cam- 

FIRST EDITION: Sapientia Solomonis, drama comicotragicum Xysto Betuleio Augustano 
autore, in Johannes Oporinus (ed), Dramata sacra, comoediae atqve tragcedbe 
aliquot  veteri testamento desumptae ... magna parte nunc primfm in lucern edit,e, 
vol 2 (Basel, 1547) 

REFERENCE WORKS: Adams D883; Bradner lists edition of 1591 only. 

MODERN EDITION : Sixt Birck, Simtliche Dramen, Manfred Brauneck (ed), vol 3 (Ber- 
lin, 1980); for bibliography, see vol 2, p 515. 

SEE ALSO: Elizabeth Rogers Payne (ed), Sapientia Solomonis; Acted before the Queen 
by the Boys of Westminster School, January 17, 1565/6. Edited from B.M. Add. Ms. 
20061, with Introduction, Notes, and Collation with the original version of the play 
by Sixt Birck, printed in 157, Yale Studies in English, 89 (New Haven, 1938). 


V- I niuersities of Cambridge and Oxford, and else-where I 
[McKerrow 301 ] I At London printed for N. L. and lohn Trundell. 
I 1603. 

(Of the two surviving copies of the 1603 edition, only the one in the Huntington 
Library preserves the title-page: a photo-reproduction of the title-page can be found 
in G.R. Hibbard (ed), Hamlet, The Oxford Shakespeare (Oxford, 1987). 
Pondering the validity of the title-page claim and the unlikelihood of a performance 
in either Cambridge or Oxford in 1603, Frederick S. Boas, '"Hamlet" at Oxford:New 
Facts and Suggestions," Fortnightly Review, ns 94 (1913), 252, asks: 'Why should not 
Hamlet, as it appears in the First Quarto, have been written between 1592 and 1594 ?' 
James B. Leishman (ed), The Three Parnassus Plays (1598-1601) (London, 1949), 336, 
citing Chambers,/s, vol 2, pp 207-8, affirms the possibility of a visit to Cambridge 
by the lord chamberlain's men in 1601-2: 'There is no evidence against it.' 
In view of the many prohibitions at Cambridge, including the privy council letter 
of 29 July 1593 and various payments to companies in lieu of performance, it may 
be questioned whether the lord chamberlain's players would have been permitted to 
play even though they did visit Cambridge in 1594-5: the claim of the title-page, not 
repeated in subsequent editions, may be a printer's groundless boast. Even conceding 
that the town may have been reluctant to pay out 40s for non-performance and that 
the amount therefore may imply a performance, the connection of Hamlet to a per- 
formance in 1594-5 must remain doubtful. 

Volpone, by Benjamin Jonson 

Suggested date of performance: 1607 

Evidence for a Cambridge performance of Volpone occurs on the dedication page of 
the 1607 edition (slc: 14783): 

I There followes an Epistle, if I you dare venture on I the length. 


Murray, English Dramatic Companies, vol 1, p 184, and vol 2, p 221, pointing also 
to the record of a, performance of Volpone by the king's men at Oxford on 7 September 
1607, interprets presentation' and 'acceptance' as literal references to past productions 
of the play at both universities. C.H. Herford and Percy and Evelyn Simpson (eds), 
Ben Jonson, vol 9 (Oxford, 1950), 196, approve this conjecture. The Records, 

986 APPENDIX 10 

however, provide no evidence for a Cambridge performance and, in the unfavourable 
reception given to Greene and Duke in 1605-6, good evidence against. Perhaps the 
dedication expresses a hope that the printed book now offered for the judgment of 
the universities will have a good reception. 


Cambridge Ghosts 

Misunderstandings or mistranscriptions have occasionally given rise to the assertion 
by some authority that a play was performed on such and such an occasion, or at such 
and such a college, whereas in fact no such event occurred. The following is a list of 
errors which have been detected or suspected in scholarly publications. See also Ap- 
pendix 6:4 for plays wrongly or doubtfully ascribed to Cambridge and 6:3 for 
Cambridge plays not performed; and for a 'musical ghost,' see Appendix 15. 

c 1200 
Midsummer Fair Originated with Children's Games and Music 

Cooper, Annals, vol 1, p 34, citing John Nichols, The History and Antiquities of 
BarnwellAbbey, and of Sturbridge Fair (London, 1786), 12, writes that King John 
(1199-1216) 'also granted to the Prior and Canons of Barnwell the fair there, now 
called Midsummer Fair, which is said to have originated from the resort of children 
and young persons thither yearly on Midsummer eve, to amuse themselves with 
wrestling matches.' The source for this conjecture is a thirteenth-century MS, 3I.: Har- 
ley 3601, f 12v (printed by John Willis Clark, Liber Memorandorum Ecclesie de Ber- 
newelle (Cambridge, 1907), 41-2): 

...De loco de Barnewelle. 
... Porro de illius loci medio fonticuli satis puri & viuidi emanabant. 
Anglice Barnewelle. idest fontes puerorum eo tempore appellati, eo 
quod pueri & adolescentes semel per annum. In vigilia scilicet 
Nauitatis sancti Iohannis Baptiste illic conuenientes, more anglorum 2s 
luctamina & alia ludicria exercebant puerilia. & cantilenis & musicis 
instrumentis sibi inuicem applaudebant. Vnde propter turbam 
puerorum & puellarum illic concurrencium. & ludencium: mos 
inoleuit ut in eodem die illic conueniret negociandi gracia turba 
uendencium & emencium. 


Item spent by our Master vpon Master Vice chanceler Master maire, 
& Master surveyer for to gett ye streetes paved ageinst fooles daie xi i d 
The correct reading for 'fooles dale' is 'tooles doore.' 


Strylius, by Nicholas Robinson, Acted at Queen's College 

Boas, University Drama, p 22, n 1, reports: 'The Queens' College accounts mention 
a comedy in this year. The title and the author's name are given in Cooper's Ath. 
Camb., i. 505. But I have not been able to trace Cooper's authority. No mention of 
Strylius is made by Tanner in his Bibliotheca, nor by Wood in Ath. Oxon., in their 
notices of N. Robinson, nor by W.G. Searle in his History of Queens' Coll. (Camb. 
Antiq. Soc. 1867).' Evidently Cooper misread the title of Sticb us (by Plautus) in the 
Queens' College accounts for 1553-4. 

c 1553-4 
Tbeano Acted at Queens" College 

Edwin W. Robbins, 'The Play of Theano,' M_N, 58 (1943), 417-22, noting 'Theanoes 
coote' in the Queens' College inventory assigned in the Records to 1553-4, speculates 
on possible subjects for this apparently original play. 'Theanoes coote,' however, may 
represent a scribal misunderstanding of'Thraso's coat,' which occurs in the college 
inventories of both the preceding year, 1552-3 ('thrasows cotte'), and of the following 
year, 1554-5 ('thraso cote'; 'thrasos coote'), but not in 1553-4. 

1562-3 or 1563-4 
Medea Performed at Queens' College 

Boas, University Drama, states that a play of Medea was performed at Queens': on 
p 18 he gives the performance date as 1563/4, while on p 387 he gives the date as Feb- 
ruary 1563. Information of such specificity as to month of performance must derive 
from the college's Magnum Journale; yet no such entry has been traced there or any- 
where else. Conceivably Boas based his report on an antiquarian misreading of the 
word "comoedia,' which occurs three times in the entries for February 1563 (p 218). 

A Play in St John's College Gallery 

Smith, 'Academic Drama,' p 222, transcribes as follows from St John's College Rental 
SJA: SB4.1, f 398: 

APPENDIX 11 991 

c 1600 
Trinity College 'Comedy Room" 

G.M. Trevelyan, Trinity College: An Historical Sketch (Cambridge, 1943), 29 (see 
also p 33), comments on an extension to the college buildings: 'The farther part, nearer 
the river, was the Comedy Room where, in Elizabethan and Stuart times, the under- 
graduates acted Latin and English plays at Christmastide.' Willis and Clark, Architec- 
tural History, vol 2, pp 605 and 622, imply that Trinity's 'Comedy Room,' in use 
after the Restoration, may have antedated 1642; see also Atkinson, Cambridge 
Described, pp 263 and 441. 
The comedy room did not antedate the Restoration (1660). Documentary references 
to the comedy room occur from 1670-1 to 1714. References to an 'attyring chamber' 
in 1614-15 and 1619-20 have nothing to do with the later comedy room. Trinity Col- 
lege plays through Cowley's The Guardian of 1642 were performed in the college hall. 

Oliver Cromwell Played the Role of a King (Tactus) in Lingua 

John S. Farmer (ed), Lingua, Tudor Facsimile Texts ([London], 1913), Introduction, 
writes: 'By tradition Oliver Cromwell was said to have performed the part of Tactus 
in the play (ie, of Lingua) at Cambridge.' This tradition is cited by Antonia Fraser, 
Cromwell Our Chief of Men (London, 1973), 20: "Another favourite story, sometimes 
related of his school-days, but seeming more logically to belong to those of his Uni- 
versity, concerns Cromwell playing the King in student theatricals. His admirers later 
saw the incident as evidence of natural greatness, his critics believed it pointed to in- 
born ambition..." Cromwell's participation in Lingua has been accepted or at least 
not rejected by a number of historians, but dismissed by others: see Wilbur Cortez 
Abbott, A Bibliography of Oliver Cromwell (Cambridge, Mass, 1929), items 2, 1195, 
2267, 2428, 2457. 
Among drama historians, this thesis has received sympathetic consideration: in 
'Plays Acted Before the University,' pp 33-4; from G.C. Moore Smith, 'Notes on 
Some English University Plays,' Modern Language Review, 3 (1908), 150; and from 
Chambers, us, vol 3, p 498. But the anonymous author of a review of Lingua in 
Retrospective Review 2, pt 2 (1820), 275-6n, tends to discount the assertion, while 
Hugh G. Dick (ed), Albumazar: a Comedy, University of California Publications in 
English, 13 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1944), 10, n 5, is even more sceptical: "The 
.myth apparently originated with Simon Miller, the publisher of the 1657 edition, and 
ts universally discounted.' 
In one of his two 1657 editions of Lingua (first printed in 1607), Simon Miller 
changed the title-page description from the previous A pleasant Comoedy to A Serious 
Comoedy. First A cted at Trinity College in Cambridge: After at the Free-Scbool at 

992 APPENDIX 11 

Huntington. Miller implied without saying so that Cromwell, who had attended the 
free school at Huntingdon, acted in the play. A few years later, appealing to sentiments 
which prevailed after the Restoration, Miller said so more directly: A serious Comedy; 
Acted by Oliver Cromwell the late Usurper (Greg, vol 1, pp 239-40). 
In the meantime, S. Carrington, The History of the Life and Death of His Most 
Serene Highness, Oliver, Late Lord Protector (London, 1659), 3, attributed the per- 
formance to Cambridge: '... His Parents ... caused him to be educated in the 
University of Cambridge; where, as it is reported, a publick Representation being to 
be performed, he that was to represent the Kings part, falling sick, this our Cromwell 
was said to have taken the Part upon Himself, and so well imployed the little time 
he had to get by Heart, as it seemed, that it was Infused into him, and whereby he 
represented a King with so much Grace and Majesty, as if that Estate had been naturall 
unto him ...' 
James Heath, in Flagellum orthe Life and Death, Birth and Burial of OliverCrom- 
wel, the Late Usurper, 2nd ed (London, 1663), 6-7, developed the free school con- 
nection instead: 

Now to confirm this Royal humour the more in his ambitious and 
vain-glorious brain, it happened (as it was then generally the Custome 
in all great Free-Schools) that a Play called The five Senses, was to be 
Acted by the Scholars of this School, and Oliver Cromwel, as a 
Confident Youth, was named to act the part of Tactus the sense of 
Feeling; in the personation of which as he came out of the Tyring room 
upon the Stage, his head encircled with a Chaplet of Lawrel, he 
stumbled at a Crown, purposely laid there, which stooping down he 
took up, and Crowned himself therewithall, adding beyond his Cue, 
some Majestical mighty words; and with this passage also the Event 
of his Life held good analogy and proportign, when he changed the 
Lawrell of his Victories (in the late unnatural War) to all the Power, 
Authority, and Splendor that can be imagined within the Compasse 
of a Crown. 
Neverthelesse the Relation of a Father, and one so stern and strict 
an Examiner of him.., kept him in some awe and subjection, till his 
translation to Cambridge, where he was placed in Sydney Colledge, 
more to satisfie his Fathers curiosity and desire, than out of any hopes 
of Completing him in his Studies, which never reached any good 
knowledge of the Latine Tongue. 

William Winstanley, The Lives of the Most Famous English Poets (London, 1687), 
114-15, erroneously ascribing Lingua to Anthony Brewer, repeats the Cambridge 

APPENDIX 11 995 

Francis Cole, Playwright 

Bentley, .cs, vol 3, p 172, gives a separate entry to Francis Cole as a possible play- 
wright. This identification is based on a misunderstanding which can be traced to John 
Payne Collier, but represents no malfeasance on his part. In History of English Drama- 
ticPoetry, vol 3 (London, 1831), 443n, Collier writes: "Mr. Douce is in possession 
of a tract with the following title: - "The Prologue and Epilogue to a comedie 
presented at the Entertainment of the Prince his Highnesse, by the Scollers of Trinity 
Colledge, in Cambridge, in March last, 1641. By Francis Cole." London, 1642, 4to. 
It is preceded by a wood-cut, of a person in a black suit, including a cloak, with a 
paper in his hand.' Bentley responds doubtfully: 'Apparently no one else has seen this 
The tract exists, but the name 'Francis Cole,' as recognized by the BL catalogue and 
by Wing, is a pseudonym for Abraham Cowley. The prologue and epilogue are for 
Cowley's 1642 Cambridge play, The Guardian. The tract is listed twice in the first 
edition of Wing (1945), as both C5022 (Francis Cole) and C6683 (Abraham Cowley), 
but the entries are consolidated in the second edition (1972) under C6683A (Cowley). 
Copies survive in the BL, Thomason Tract E. 144(9), and the Ct:L, Peterborough 
K.4.30(23). Other copies are Bodl. : Douce C246; KCL: Keynes C.8.19; Folger: 
C6683A; and Hun.: 151803. See Appendix 5, 1642, for text, and Appendix 19 for 

1000 APPENDIX 12 


4 D'Ewes 
4 Gray 
4 Palmer 
4 Apsley 
4 Osburne 
4 Duke 
4 Poolford 
4 Hudleston 
4 March 
4 Haggar 
4 Halford, sr 
4 Halford, jr 
4 Greene 
4 Jermy 
4 Wildbore 
4 Clerk 
4 Howman 
4 Shortland 
4 Hastier 
4 Wellam 
4 Strange 
4 Bell, sr 
4 Bell, jr 
4 Higham 
4 Might 
4 Parker 
1 ? Wright 
4 Stuteville 
4 Tracy 
4 Tasburgh, sr 
4 Tasburgh, jr 
2 ? Mead 
4 Pagitt 
4 Isham 
4 Goose 
4 Barnard 
4 Mead 
4 Jordan 
4 Coytmore 
4 Hall 
4 Alleyn 
4 Mead, tertius 



3 4 F 5v 
3 4 E1 90v 
3 4 E1 92 
3 4 El 94v 
2 0 El 107v 
2 0 El 111 
0 6 E1 115 
3 4 El 124 
2 0 E2 46 
2 0 E2 49v 
3 4 E2 53v 
3 4 E2 54 
0 6 E2 57 
2 0 E2 76v 
2 0 E2 91v 
0 6 E2 9.5 
2 0 E2 101 
2 0 E2 104 
0 6 E2 113 
0 6 E2 116 
3 4 E2 123 
2 0 E2 129v 
2 0 E2 131 
2 0 E2 134 
2 0 E2 142 
2 0 E2 145 
0 6 E2 150 
2 0 E3 47 
2 0 E3 6O 
3 4 E3 65v 
3 4 E3 66 
0 6 E3 75 
2 0 E3 79 
3 4 E3 89 
2 0 E3 92 
2 0 E3 94 
0 6 E3 86v 
2 0 E3 100 
2 0 E3 103 
2 0 E3 106 
2 0 E3 109 
2 0 E3 11.5 



Professional Players 

Following is a list of professional instrumentalists active in Cambridge. Most were 
either town waits, university waits, or both. For a narrative account of the Cambridge 
waits, see Introduction, pp 738-46. 
Information drawn from the Records is supplemented by subsidy rolls, wills, 
inventories, and other documents. On subsidy rolls, see William Mortlock Palmer, 
Cambridgeshire Subsidy Rolls, 1250-1695 (Norwich, 1912); Joseph J. Muskett and 
C.H. Evelyn White, The Lay Subsidy of 1 Edw. iii. (a.l). 1327). Cambridgeshire, 
reprinted from East Anglian, ns, 10-12 (1904-8); and Palmer, 'The Plea Rolls,' pp 
1-10, and 'The Cambridge Poll Tax of 1512,' pp 97-131, in Cambridge Borough 
Documents, vol 1 (Cambridge, 1931 ). Wills in the University Archives are listed as 
VCP (Vice-chancellor's Probate). Wills in the Ely Diocesan Records, also housed in 
the University Library, are listed as a// (Clifford A. Thurley and Dorothea Thurley 
(eds), Index of the Probate Records of the Court of the Archdeacon #Ely, 1513-1857, 
British Record Society, The Index Library, 88 (London, 1976)). Further information 
on musicians in the employ of the university occurs in Palmer, 'College Dons, 
Country Clergy, and University Coachmen,' cas: Proceedings, 16 (1912), 170-2. 
Registers antedating 1642 have been indexed for seven Cambridge parishes: the 
churches of All Saints, Holy Trinity, St Andrew the Less (Barnwell), St Benet, St 
Botolph, St Edward, and St Michael. These indexes are to be found in the cRo. 
Information concerning marriages of Cambridge musicians is supplied here, but not 
information concerning births of children. 
For more detail on secular - as well as sacred - music at Cambridge, see lan Payne, 
'Instrumental Music at Trinity College, Cambridge, c 1594-c 1615: Archival and 
Biographical Evidence,' Music & Letters, 68 (1987), 128-40 (cited hereafter as Payne); 
and lan Payne, 'The Musical Establishment at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1546- 
1644,' cas: Proceedings, 74 (1987, for 1985), 53-69. (See also, by the same author, 
a forthcoming sequel in Music & Letters, subtitled 'British Library Additional uss 
30826-8, a Set of College Part Books ?') In addition to citing inventories taken at death 
for Benet Prime, Stephen Wilmott, Stephen Mace, William Tawyer, and Edmund 



Salter, Payne, pp 139-40, cites inventories for the following chapel musicians who 
are not listed here: Henry Cole, Thomas Jordan, John Seamer, Thomas Staresmore, 
and Alexander Chatterton. 
The position of a wait within the company (first, second, etc), rarely stated 
explicitly, has been inferred here largely from the order of waits' names in lists, but 
also from references to relationships between waits (master, servant, etc) and to such 
functions as being in receipt of money. Men described in the Records as waits' servants 
are understood to be waits themselves and are so listed here. Similarly, a wait described 
as having a servant or servants is understood to be the master wait and is so listed. 

John Andrewe 
Born at Walthamstow, Essex c 1568; at one time employed by Lord Windsor of 
Stanwell. Moved to Cambridge by Easter 1590; wait under William Gibbons from 
at least 21 June 1590 to at least 14 December 1590. 

Samuel Biam 
Cambridge trumpeter active from 1613-14? to 1637-8. 

William Bird 
Appointed lord of taps 1582-3; master of the university waits 1582-3 to 1590-1. Not 
the famous composer. Involved in lawsuits with William Gibbons 1589-90 and 
1590-1. He appears to have lost the mastership of the university waits to Gibbons 
by 1591-2. Named a final time 1597-8. A William Bird married Elizabeth Barnes at 
Cherry Hinton 28 May 1593; the same Bird died in Cherry Hinton in 1600 
W1600, WR6:80). Another William Bird joined a professional troupe c 1597 
(Nungezer, Dictionary of Actors), visiting Cambridge in 1615-16 with the palsgrave's 

John Browne 
Assumed mastership of the waits on death of Stephen Wilmott, 1627-8, in accordance 
with an agreement with Stephen's widow, Mary. 'Iohn Browne music/on' admitted 
hunderer of Trinity College, 20 November 1628, replacing Wilmot in that office (CtA: 
V.C. Ct. 1.2, f 112). Possibly chapel musician at Queens' College (Records, 1636-7, 
1641-2). Nicholas Hookes, Amanda (London, 1663; Wing H2665), alludes to him 
as'old Browne' and identifies him as a player of the sackbut. Died intestate; bonds 
issued for the administration of his estate 26 April 1666 and 26 September 1667 (VCP) 
Guarantor for both bonds was Robert Smith (2) (see below). 

John Chapman 
Wait under William Bird 1590-1. A John Chapman married Ann Shewster 22 January 
1594 at Holy Trinity; two John Chapmans were buried at St Benet's: one 8 March 
1611, the other 10 June 1616. 

1004 APPENDIX 13 

.John Clarke 
Wait 1551-2, listed second; probably master wait 1556-7, when his daughter married 
his 'servant.' Alice Clarke, wife of a John Clarke, was buried at St Botolph's 12 March 

Adam le Cytoler 
Named in subsidy roll of 1314-15 (PRO: E179/81/5, mb 1). 

... Daltun 
Named 1495-6 in a context which may suggest that he was a town wait, perhaps 

Robert Gibbons 
Played at Reach Fair 1634-5. A Robert Gibbons married Elizabeth Lyng at Holy 
Trinity 20 October 1617. Named as innkeeper and musician 1625-7 (Ct3A: V.C. Ct. 
I. 11, ff 29v, 74-6). Affiliation unknown. 

William Gibbons 
Moved from Oxford to Cambridge by March 1566. Approved master of the university 
waits - in the place of John Hewarden - 23 November 1566; appointed town wait 
3 November 1567 and received five collars 25 November 1567. Innkeeper and dancing- 
school master (CtA: Collect. Admin. 13, ff 180v, 250v). Removed to Oxford 1583, 
returned to Cambridge 1589-90. Involved in lawsuits with William Bird 1589-90 and 
1590-1. Apparently first town and university wait from 1591-2 to death, October 
1595. Nuncupative will (aee WR5:183) printed by Fellowes, Orlando Gibbons, pp 
104-5. His widow, Mary, who probably retained mastership after William's death, 
was keeper of the Bear (cua: V.C. Ct. I. 4, f 284v, February 1600); this must also 
have been William's inn, though perhaps only from the time of his return in 1589-90. 
Mary died in April 1603; will (aeP W1603, WR6:152) printed by Fellowes, pp 105-7. 
Sons included Edward, Ferdinando, and Orlando (Fellowes, pp 13-31). 

... Gibbons 
An unspecified Gibbons received payments for music in 1593-4, 1595-6, and 1596-7, 
and again from 1600-1 to 1602-3. The performer named in the earlier years was 
probably Edward. New Grove, following/3v/3, suggests that the performer in the later 
years was Orlando (1583-1625), who studied music at King's College 1598-1606. See, 
however, Introduction, p 741. 

Richard Graves 
Town wait under Murton 1577-8 and 1578-9. Apparently left Cambridge for 
Norwich, where he served from 1581-2 to 1584-5 (REED, Norwich 1540-1642, p 353). 
The Norwich wait of this name was a trumpeter. 

1006 APPENDIX 13 

Thomas Lutt 
Apparently master of town waits from 1588-9. Called 'music/on" in will dated 
February 1590 (AEP W1589, WR4:291). 

John Lyon 
Lord of taps at some time before his death c 1636-7. 

Stephen Mace 
Named in Queens' College Magnum Journale for 1630-1 (QtA: Book 6, f 41 (February 

Marsh & To Mace ye Musitian, in earnest for eleven 
thousand of brick, at 15 s ye thousand, besides fetching, 
By Mr Bardsey one pound 


Lay clerk at Trinity College, 20 March 1627 to c 1635; owned musical instruments 
at death in 1635; uncle of Thomas Mace, the author of Musicke's Monument (London, 
1676; Wing: M120): see Payne, p 140. 

John Martyn 
Master wait 1512-13; his apprentices were Nicholas Prime and Bartholomew 
Lumberd. Listed, with others connected with the university, in subsidy roll of 1523-4 
(PRO: E179/81/133, mbs 2, 7). Will (AEP W1545, WR2:23) written 29 July 1543, 
probated 3 May 1545. 'Widow Marten' named in subsidy roll of 1545-6 (PRO: E179/ 
82/194, mb 2). 

William Mason 
Sued by William Gibbons for default of payment for a tenor hautboy in 1565-6; 
played for the mayor and council in the guild-hall 1567-8. Affiliation unknown. A 
musician of this name was active in Norwich in 1553-4 and possibly 1554-5 (REED, 
Norwich 1540-1642, pp 33-6). 

John Murton 
Third wait (?) 1559-60; apparently master of town waits from 1575-6 to 1587-8. Born 
c 1535, died by June 1588; innkeeper; kept a dancing-school 1573, 1576 (CtA: Collect. 
Admin. 6a, pp 525, 576"; Collect. Admin. 13, ff 180v, 250v). Probably also master 
of the university waits from 1575-6, though by 1582-3 that post was held by William 
Bird. Widow, Agnes, still an innkeeper February 1600 (CtA: V.C. Ct. 1.4, f 285v). 

Michael Palmer 
Master of independent company 1624-5. Lived in Green Street in the mid- 1620s with 

APPENDIX 13 1007 
his wife and two daughters (p 745). A Michael Palmer married Mary Whyte at St 
Michael's 8 April 1632. 

John Pattyn 
Long-time lord of taps; dead by 1582-3. 

William Pike 
Became third wait (?) on death of Stephen Wilmott 1627-8. A William Pike married 
Hannah Burton at Holy Trinity 11 September 1627. The administration of the goods 
of the same William Pike was entrusted to Hannah his widow on 30 October 1630. 
(AEP AR1:119). 

John Pipere 
Named in context suggesting performance 1342-3; also named 1349-50. 

Robert le Pipere 
Named 1349-50. Name occurs earlier in subsidy rolls of 1314-15 (PRO." I 1 79/81/5, 
mb 1: 'Robertus le Pyper'); and 1327 (E179/81/6, mb 11: 'Roberto Le Pipe'). 

Thomas Pipere 
Named ! 349-50. Name occurs later in poll tax returns of 1377 (PRO: E357/8, mb (6)d: 
'Thomas Pypere'; and in subsidy roll of 1381 (E179/81/41, single mb: 'Thomas 

Benet Prime 
Third wait (?) 1546-7 to 1551-2; probably master of independent waits from as early 
as 1545-6 to death in October 1557. Named in subsidy roll of 1545-6 (PRO: E 179/82/ 
194, mb 2d). In 1554-5 his company consisted of five men including himself. Cousin 
of Nicholas. Identified as launderer of Queens' College in will of 24 September 1557 
(probated 27 October: VCP). Inventory taken at death excerpted in Records. His 
wife, Joan (named in Records, 1547-8), probably retained the mastership until 
1558-9, when she made an agreement with Jerome the piper. 

Nicholas Prime 
Apprenticed to John Martyn ! 512-13. Named in subsidy roll of 1523-4 (PRO ." E 179/ 
81/133, mb 2). Excerpt from will of 12 January 1543 printed in Records. Husband 
of Agnes and cousin of Benet, to whom he bequeathed six 'shaftes.' 

Henry Reade 
Not in Records but named as Cambridge wait in attendance at Hengrave, Suffolk, 
January 1574 (Galloway and Wasson (eds), 'Plays and Players in Norfolk and Suffolk,' 

1008 APPENDIX 13 

Malone Society, Collections, 11, p 166). Affiliation unknown; possibly a member of 
William Gibbons' company. 

... Reynalde 
Received payment 'for the Musitians supper' at Queens' College 1572-3; hence 
possibly a member of the university waits. Otherwise unidentified. 

John Richemund 
Master wait (?) 1546-7 to 1551-2. Named (as Rychemunde) in subsidy roll of 1545-6 
(PRO: E179/82/194, mb 2d). A John Richemunde was one of the witnesses to John 
Martyn's will in 1543. 

Edmund Salter 
Second wait (?) 1641-2. Lived in Green Street in the mid- 1620s with his wife and two 
children (p 745). Died 1657, inventory taken 6 August (VCP): 'In ye midle chamber 
... Item a watch, 3 lutes, 3 cornets, 2 0 0." 

... Seatree 
Apprenticed to university wait (probably to Stephen Wilmott c 1614); later blind in 
one eye; found work with another musician of the town c 1634; in 1635-6 petitioned 
(for at least the third time) for full membership in the university waits' company (pp 
668-70). Resident in St Benet's parish. Frequently named as recipient of charity, often 
with or through his wife, 1631-2 to 1636-7 (CUA: T.X.20, ff 8, 9, 9v, 14v, 15v; CUR 
54, ff 78v, 90v, 97; Art. 226, pp 6, 7). 

William Sharpelesse 
Apprentice to Stephen Wilmott at time of Wilmott's death; indenture conveyed to 
John Browne 1627-8. 

Robert Smith (1) 
Apprentice to Stephen Wilmott at time of Wilmott's death; indenture conveyed to 
John Browne 1627-8; third wait (?) 1641-2. Administration of goods (VCP) granted 
4 January 1659. 

Robert Smith (2) 
Another Robert Smith, musician, of Holy Trinity parish, is named as guarantor for 
the administration of John Browne's estate in 1666 and 1667. 

William Tawyer 
Became fourth wait (?) on death of Stephen Wilmott 1627-8. Conceivably son or 
relative of William Tawyer, trumpeter, who died in 1624 (Nungezer, Dictionary of 
Actors; Jcs). Named in Sidney Sussex College account book as college tenant in 

1010 APPEIDIX 13 

earlier in 1614-15 (p 526 and endnote); served as university wait until death 1627-8. 
Member of Holy Trinity parish. Married Isabel Dobsonn 29 October 1598; 
'Goodwife Willmett' was buried 11 February 1599. Married Mary Tuttell 12 
November 1599. Resident of Wall's Lane. Admitted privileged person 6 November 
1617 in the place of Thomas Gregory; subsequently admitted 4 August 1621 as 
launderer of Trinity College (ctA: V.C. Ct. 1.2, f 125v; Gregory also named ff 11 lv, 
122v, 137v). Presented 1 September 1625 'for not settinge a man to watch'; wife 
presented 'for giuing the Constable euill words'; summoned 28 November 1625 (cu,: 
CUR 54, Arts. 36, 13). Mastership passed to John Browne after Wilmott's death, in 
accordance with agreement with widow. Inventory taken at death, cited in Records, 
reveals that he kept a school, perhaps for his apprentices. 

Composers or Transcribers of Music 

The following is a list of composers or academic musicians named in the Records. See 
also Robert Ramsay and John Geares in Appendix 7, note to Loiola (1622-3); and 
see Appendix 15. 

William Byrd 
c 1543-1623. Probably the 'Mr Bird' named as composer of Preces deo for Thomas 
Legge's Richardus Tertius in 1578-9 (Appendix 15). Entry in New Grove; see also 
Edmund H. Fellowes, William Byrd, 2nd ed (London, 1948). Not the William Bird 
who served as lord of taps and town wait (see p 1003). 

John Hilton 
d 1609. Trinity College organist from 1594. Entry in New Grove. Died 1609 
(inventory of his possessions (VCP) dated 20 March). Discussed by Payne, 
'Instrumental Music,' pp 129-32 (excerpt from inventory at death, p 131); and by 
Payne, 'Musical Establishment,' pp 60-2, 66. 

Thomas Holmes 
c 1580-1638. Composed music for Thomas Randolph's The Jealous Lovers 1631-2 
(Appendix 15). Entry in New Grove. 

George Jeffreys 
1610-85. Composed music for Peter Hausted's The RivalFriends 1631-2 (Appendix 
15). Entry in New Grove. 

Robert Johnson 
c 1583-1633. Presumably 'our musician,' the Johnson named in the same sentence 
as Ben Jonson in a letter of 1614-15 to the master of St John's College (p 535). The 
musician and the poet collaborated on numerous occasions. Entry in New Grove. 

APPENDIX 13 1011 

George (?) Mason 
At Trinity College 1612-14. Not fully identified. New Grove, under George Mason, 
states: 'A George Mason, connected with Cambridge, may well be a different 
composer. Nine five-part pavans by "Mr Mason"[in BL: Add. 30826-8] are probably 
by this composer.' Discussed by Payne, 'Instrumental Music,' pp 135-7; and by 
Payne, 'Musical Establishment,' pp 62, 66. 

Thomas Mudd 
c 1560 to after 1619. Arrested for satirizing the mayor in a play 1582-3 (p 308). Entry 
in New Grove. 

John Parker 
FI. 1500. Transcribed music at King's College 1500-1. B.Mus. 1502-3 (Venn). 

William Stevenson 
c 1530-75. Probable author of Gammer Gurton "s Needle, and thus of the song 'Back 
and Side go Bare.' Reimbursed by his college (Christ's) for pricking and making songs 
1549-50 (1550-1, endnote). See also Appendix 6:1. 

William Suthey 
FI. 1480-90. Collaborated with John Goldyng in the presentation of plays at King's 
College, 1482-3 (p 61). Conduct and composer/transcriber of liturgical music for 
King's College 1480-90 (Mundum Book 8.1, ff20v, 22). Married. B.Mus. 28June 
1490 (Emden). 

John Wilby 
1574-1638. Possibly involved with Trinity College's preparation for royal 
performances in 1612-13 (pp 498-9). Entry in New Grove. Fuller study in David 
Brown, Wilbye, Oxford Studies of Composers, 11 (London, 1974). 

Thomas (?) Wilkinson 
At Trinity College 1603-12. Entry in New Grove under 'Wilkinson, --' (mentioning 
also George Mason and Robert Ramsay). According to New Grove, Wilkinson was 
active c 1579-96. Payne, 'Instrumental Music,' pp 132-4, 137; and 'Musical 
Establishment,' pp 61-3, 66, suggests that this Wilkinson is identical to the Wilkinson 
who appears in Trinity College records from 1609 to 1612. The Wilkinson listed in 
the cast of Labyrinthus, 1602-3, as "Citharaedus' or Lute player (Appendix 7), is 
probably the same man. 

APPENDIX 14 1013 






Gray, senior 
Gray, junior 













f 26 
f 30v 
f 33v 

f 32 
f 34v 
f 36v 
f 38v 
f 44v 
f 52v 
f 55v 
f 57 
f 59 
f 61 
f 65v 
f 68 

f 21v 
f 47 
f 50v 
f 71 
f 76v 
f 77 
f 82v 

1014 APPENDIX 14 


Gray, senior 

Gray, junior 
Gray, senior 







f 87v 
f 88 
f 93 
f 97 
f 99 

f 63v 
f 66v 
f 72v 
f 79v 
f 84 
f 95 
f 101 
f 104v 
f 110 
f 112 
f 115 
f l18v 
f 123 
f 127v 
f 128 

f 64v 
f 67v 
f 73v 
f 105v 
f l13v 
f 116 
f 125v 
f 134v 
f 139v 
f 142v 
f 145v 
f 149v 
f 152v 
f 153 
f 155v 
f 156 

APPENDIX 14 1(315 

CHA: T. I 1.2 

Gray, senior 
Halford, senior 
Lamb, senior 
Lamb, junior 

Lamb, senior 
Lamb, junior 


Bell, junior 









f 12 
f 14v 
f 17 
f 18v 
f 22 
f 25 
f 28 
f 31v 
f 39v 
f 42v 
f 44v 
f 47 
f 50v 
f 56v 
f 57v 
f 60 
f 62 
f 64v 
f 68 
f 72v 
f 75v 
f 81 

f 19 
f 23 
f 51v 
f 65v 
f 69 
f 85 

f lv 

f 29 
f 155 


CHA: T.II.3 

Wildbore Zachary NSl f 22v 

Private Musical Purchases and Lessons 

On behalf of a few students, Mead paid for the purchase and repair of musical instru- 
ments, for music books, and, apparently, for music lessons, normally charged at6s 
8d per month. Although the musicians who received these payments are not named, 
it is likely that the Cambridge waits, among others, supplemented their regular income 
by giving private lessons. 
For more detail about the private ownership of musical instruments, see Palmer, 
'College Dons,' pp 170-2, 186-9; and E.S. Leedham-Green, Books in Cambridge In- 
ventories: Book-Lists from Vice-Chancellor's Court Probate Inventories in the Tudor 
and Stuart Periods, vol 2 (Cambridge, 1986), 826. 

Thomas Stuteville's Expenses CHA: T. II.I 

f [16v] 

(First term) 


f [17] (Second term ) 
Musitian a month 


f 25 (First term) 
Mendingof aviol 
mending his bow 
Seven knot of stringe 
A case for them 




38/A case corrected from 2 cases 

Edward Gray's Expenses CHA : T. 11.3 
f 72 (Thirdterm) 
Musitian for month ending lune 29 
(Fourth term) 
Musitian month end Iuly 





Charles Tasborough "s Expenses CHA: T. 11.3 

f 81v (Third term) 
A viol 
Strings & bookes 
Musitian month end April 30 
Knotts of viol strings 

f 82v 

Musitian month end May 28 
Strings h 

(Fourth term) 
Musitian for month end [luly 14] lune 25 & 3 weeks 
Iuly 14 










f 83v (First term ) 
Musitian month ending October 22 



f 84v 
Musitian for a month November 19 
Musitian for a month December 15 

(Second term) 
Musitian for month end February 25 

f 85v 
Musitian month March 24 
Violl strings 

f97v (Thirdterm) 
Musick April121 a month 



Cressy Tasborough's Expenses 

f 82 (Third term ) 
A Viol 
Strings & booke 
Musitian month April130 

f 83 
Musitian month end May 28 

CHA: T. 11.3 


(Fourth term) 
Musitian a month & 3 weeks 




f84 (Firstterm) 
Musitian for month ending October 22 

f 85 
Musitian for a month end November 19 
Musitian December 15 





(Second term) 



f 85v 
Musitian for month March 24 
Viol-strings h p 



f 98 (Third term ) 
Musick a month Aprill 21 



Justinianlsham'sExpenses CHA: T.11.3 

f 89v (Fourth term) 
Musitian for ye month ending luly 21 




26/h p for half pair (?) 


Music in Cambridge Plays 

Music was an important element in Cambridge plays. Generally, students seem to have 
sung the vocal parts, while the Cambridge waits supplied instrumental music; in the 
case of Thomas Holmes, however, the composer, also a noted baritone, sang the song 
himself. In this appendix are recorded five play manuscripts with notated music and 
one whose tunes are named in the text. At the end of the appendix is a discussion of 
notated instrumental music, including a 'Musical Ghost.' 

Notated Music in Play Texts 

Notated music for college plays survives in five manuscripts (see Appendix 13 for more 
on the individual composers): 

1/ BL: Harley 2412, f 75v (pencil foliation): Preces deo, by "Mr Bird,' for Thomas 
Legge's Richardus Tertius, performed 1578-9. Photographic reproduction in Robert 
J. Lordi (ed), Thomas Legge's Richardus Tertius (New York, 1979), 539. Attributed 
to William Byrd the composer by New Grove. Not edited. 

2/ Bodl.: Douce 234, f 15: music for Silvanus, performed 13 January 1597. Two 
staves; no text underlay. Composer not identified. Not edited. 

3/ BL: Add. 10338 (autograph score-book): songs by George Jeffreys for Peter 
Hausted, The Rival Friends, performed 19 March 1632. Catalogued in Augustus 
Hughes-Hughes (ed), Catalogue of Manuscript Musicin the British Museum, vol 2: 
Secular Vocal Music (London, 1908), 228. These songs were incorrectly attributed to 
Henry Lawes by Edward F. Rimbault in his edition of Purcell's Bonduca in Publi- 
cations of the MusicalAntiquarian Society, 2 (1842), 11. All five songs are edited by 
Peter Aston, 'George Jeffreys and the English Baroque,' University of York thesis, 
1970. Three songs have been edited by Ian Spink in 'English Songs: 1625-1660,' 
Musica Britannica, 33 (London, 1971), 153-61 : these are 'Drowsy Phoebus," 'Have 
pity, grief,' and 'Cruel! but once again.' 

1026 APPENDIX 15 

4/ BL: Add. 11608: Song by Thomas Holmes for Thomas Randolph, The Jealous 
Lovers, performed 20 March 1632. Catalogued in Hughes-Hughes (ed), Catalogue, 
vol 2, p 226. Not edited. 


Oberon. (or) ye Madmans songe./ 
Sung in a Comedy at Cambridge before ye King, & Queene. by ye 

5/ CUL: Dd. 3.73, ff 23-3v: song for William Johnson, Valetudinarium, performed 
6 February 1638. Music for act 4, scene 9. Composer unknown. Song is 'Dulcis somne 
qui perduras." Sung by Jasper Whitehead, who played the part of Cordelia. Not 

Songs to Familiar Tunes 

Fu cus Histriomastix (1622-3), apparently by Robert Ward, contains numerous songs 
in Latin, whose tunes are indicated in Lambeth MS 838. Most of the songs were sung 
by Peter Vincent, who played the role of Villanus. The performance also included 
instrumental music, morris dances, and a jig. A poem describing the performance of 
the play at Newmarket about 13 March 1623 reveals - if the poet is telling the truth - 
that the students forgot their bells at Cambridge and had to make do with borrowed 
bells for the morris (Appendix 5). 
Music and dance in the play are discussed by G.C. Moore Smith, in the Introduction 
to his edition (see Appendix 6:1). In the following list of songs, the page numbers 
are those in Smith's edition, which should be consulted for his notes. Smith refers 
to William Chappell, The Ballad Literature and Popular Music of the Olden Time 
(London, 1859; rpt New York, 1965), which contains many of the tunes and adis- 
cussion of the cushion dance, source of the phrase "Prinkum-prankum' (p 153), cited 
both in the play and in the poem on the play. The tunes of songs marked by an asterisk 
may be found in Claude M. Simpson, The British Broadside Ballad and its Music(New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, 1966). 

*As I went to Walsingham (p 16) 

Yee ladies of ye court corn downe & take your places (p 16) 

*Fortune my foe why doest thou frowne on me? (p 17) 

*As at noone Dulcina rested (p 17) 


Cambridge Playwrights 

The following playwrights can be associated with Cambridge, either as graduates, or 
at least as sometime students. Following each name is the college and admission date 
where known, along with one of three reference works: E.K. Chambers, Mediaeval 
Stage, abbreviated MS (names accessible through index in vol 2); Chambers, 
Elizabethan Stage, abbreviated/ss (names given in alphabetical order in vol 3); and 
Bentley, Jacobean and Caroline Stage, abbreviated Jcs (names given in alphabetical 
order in vols 3-5). All playwrights are also listed in the o//3, with the exceptions of 
Ainsworth, Barret, Jones, Mason, and Mease. For information recorded in Venn, see 
University Index. 
This list excludes members of the university who are known or thought to have 
written college plays (see Index, under Playwrights, College). An exception is made 
for Thomas Nash, however, because his Cambridge plays are somewhat ephemeral 
and, more important, because of his stature among professional playwrights. Bentley, 
Jcs, vol 5, p 1240, speculates that John Webster may conceivably be identical with 
the person of that name who matriculated at St John's College in 1585 but took no 
degree; this speculation, however, has been deemed too tenuous to justify Webster's 
inclusion in this list. 
For more detailed information on connections between university life and profes- 
sional playwrights, see G.C. Moore Smith, 'Marlowe at Cambridge,' Modem 
Language Review, 4 (1909), 167-77; Kenneth Mildenberger, 'Robert Greene at 
Cambridge,' MtN, 66 (1951), 546-9; and Johnstone Parr, 'Robert Greene and his 
Classmates at Cambridge,' PMtA, 77 (1962), 536-43. 

Name College Adm Ref 

Ainsworth, William EM 1622 
Ashton, Thomas TC 1555 /S 
Bacon, Francis TC 1573 /S 
Bale, John JE c 1518 ? MS 
Barret, John sJ 1615 cs 
Belchier, Daubridgcourt cc 1597 cs 

APPENDIX 16 1029 

Calfhill, James 
Campion, Thomas 
Cavendish, William 
Cokayne, Aston 
Day, John 
Devereux, Robert 
Fane, Mildmay 
Fletcher, John 
Gascoigne, George 
Glapthorne, Henry 
Greene, Robert 
Greville, Fulke 
Grimald, Nicholas 
Hawkins, William 
Heywood, Thomas 
Hughes, Thomas 
Ingelend, Thomas 
Jones, John 
Marlowe, Christopher 
Mason, John 
Mease, Peter 
Medwall, Henry 
Milton, John 
Nash, Thomas 
Norton, Thomas 
Nuce, Thomas 
Preston, Thomas 
Quarles, Francis 
Radcliffe, Ralph 
Shirley, James 
Spenser, Edmund 
Studley, John 
Suckling, John 

PH ? 
TC ? 
TC ? 
EM or PH ? 
CH ? 
QU ? 

c 1583 
1608 (MA) 
1624 ? 
c 1552 
1536 ? 
1520 ? 
1632 ? 
1544 ? 
1605-6 ? 
1533 ? 



Synopsis of February 1611 

The following synopsis is intended to summarize in chronological order the chief 
incidents leading up to, constituting, and following directly from the great riot 
between St John's and Trinity Colleges on Wednesday and Thursday, 6-7 February 
1611. Although most of the events are summarized without qualifying language, it 
must be kept in mind that the evidence consists almost exclusively of personal - hence 
partial - depositions. Matters in serious dispute are here attributed to a particular 
individual or college. 
Many incidents were described by more than one witness. Page references are not 
supplied for incidents confined to individuals who may be traced through the Indexes. 
Page references are supplied where incidents are not tied to individuals or must be 
reconstructed from incomplete but complementary depositions. No attempt has been 
made to supply exhaustive cross-references for particular incidents. 

Events Preceding the Riot 

Before Christmas stones were laid in a heap in Garret Hostel (p 445). 
On Twelfth Night (5 January) Robert Brooke (sJ) borrowed stage keepers' suits 
from Trinity College for St John's College lottery; Brooke told Robert Cotton (TC) 
that if St John's men were kept out of Trinity College comedy, there would be 'as 
greate a doe or stirre as ever was in the vniversitye' (pp 436-7). 
In mid-January Nicholas Augur (s J), tossing his gown upon his shoulder, struck 
Thomas Coote (TC) on the face: Augur and John Sotheby (sJ) then quarrelled with 
Coote and Nicholas Serle (TC), later with Simon Floyd (ac) and Richard Dorrington 
(TC) (p 454). 
In late January William Whaley, Henry Cooper, Gabriel Rowles, and John 
Thompson, all of St John's, were together at the Sun Inn, where John Winter 
announced that if the Cooper brothers should come to the Trinity College comedy, 
'they would be soe beaten they would be neere spoyled'; his threats also encompassed 
St John's men in general (pp 443, 464-5). 
In early February Robert Mason (s3) warned Henry Donhalt (TC), along with 
Cheyney Roe (-rc), that St John's would be prepared for a fight (pp 463-4, 481). About 

APPENDIX 17 1031 

the same time, the stones were moved from Garret Hostel: witnesses for St John's 
claimed that the stones were laid up in Trinity College tower for subsequent use as 
missiles, but John Muncaster testified that Winge the paver told him that they were 
carried into King's College to be laid as paving (pp 425, 432-3, 445). 
On 5 February (Shrove Tuesday) Nicholas Carr (s J) was warned by his brother 
William (TC) not to go abroad to the comedy the following night (for fear of stones): 
'none but masters of Artes would be suffered to come in' (p 438). 

The First Riot: Ash Wednesday, 6 February 

About noon Thomas Wilkinson (TC) and Henry Scarrack (s0 met at Halliwell's barber 
shop, where they discussed impending trouble (pp 436, 438-9). Scarrack told 
Wilkinson that St John's men had prepared themselves with long clubs (p 436). Later 
that day, Wilkinson, dining with Robert Dawson and Arthur Hutton, both of St 
John's, asked them to warn Cooper not to come to the Trinity College comedy that 
night (pp 438-9). 
Late in the afternoon Trinity College stage keepers treated kindly those playgoers 
who came to the college from the south by way of Great St Mary's Church; but they 
offered rough treatment to those coming from the north by way of St John's (pp 426, 
439). The stage keepers included the following, all members of Trinity College except 
Daniel Boyes, a townsman: 

Benjamin Aldred, in a green suit with white puffs and a blue cap 
Edward Andrewes 
Francis Chamberlayne 
Thomas Coote, in a white frieze jerkin 
Edward Dillacre 
Thomas Heath, in a white suit with red guards and a hat the first night, a helmet the 
Thomas Linge, in a russet gown and a mask 
Edmund Marcelline (called Marston in error on p 462?) 
William Neville, in a dark horseman's coat and steel cap 
Humphrey Rone 
George Stanhope 
James Twisleton 
William Wart 
Daniel Boyes, bookbinder, son-in-law of Jarmin Ward 

About 5:00 pm John Elborrough (sJ), unarmed, was linked (ie, struck with a torch) 
by a stage keeper wearing a light-colored kersey suit decorated with light lace. 
Elborrough was then cut on the hand and arm by another stage keeper dressed in a 

1034 APPENDIX 17 

The Second Riot: Thursday, 7 February 

At 2:00 pm Mason (s) was warned by Edward Goldingham (rc) not to attend the 
comedy that night. 
At 4:00 pm Palmer (s) brought a naked sword, which he had received from 
Benjamin Chylde (c, ?), through the streets (one of which was Petty Cury). 
At 5:00 pm the following incidents occurred, all the victims being from St John's: 

- Goldingham (TC), keeping the main gate of Trinity College locked, forced playgoers 
to enter through the gate on the Caius College side. 
- Osborne (s-0 was linked and felled by a stage keeper wearing a red suit laced with 
white and a steel cap. 
- Thomas Bagly was linked and felled by a stage keeper wearing a white suit and a 
steel cap (Heath?), and by another in a reddish suit (Linge?). 
- Mason, conducted to the hall by one stage keeper, was linked by another. 
- John Williams, John Grace, and Laurence Burnell had difficulty getting into Trinity 
College hall. The first two were searched against their will by Stanhope (TC); Burnell 
was finally admitted by Stanhope. 
- Jeremiah Hoult and Thomas Cecil also had difficulty getting into Trinity College 
- Augur was assaulted as he went down the hall stairs after the comedy ended. 
- Henry Cooper was wrongly accused by William Ward (TC). 

On or about Monday, 10 February the first depositions were taken. Further 
depositions were submitted on Tuesday, 11 February when St John's College 
submitted its bill of complaint. The bill of complaint alleged that attempts had been 
made to suborn John Kinge and Smarte, evidently porters of St John's, in the chamber 
of Thomas Kemp (rc); Kinge deposed that Kemp had offered him money to name 
those he saw during the riot. The St John's bill also alleged that Robert Slegge had 
been 'sent for' to the chamber of William Hall (rc); Slegge deposed that he had been 
sent for and 'examined' by Hall about events during the riot. 


Saints' Days and Festivals 

While the following table is hardly a substitute for a full saints' calendar, it does contain 
the dates for all the festivals to which reference is made in the entries collected for 
this volume. For the exact dates of movable feasts, the reader is referred to the tables 
in C.R. Cheney's Handbook of Dates for Students of English History, pp 84-161. 

All Hallows (All Saints') 
Ash Wednesday 
Blessed Virgin Mary 
Corpus Christi 
Hock Monday 
Hock Tuesday 
Holy Innocents 
Lady Day 


1 November 
Thursday after fifth Sunday after Easter 
first day of Lent; forty days before Easter 

25 March 
15 August 
8 December 
8 September 
2 February 
see Blessed Virgin Mary, Purification 
see Holy Innocents 
25 December 
1 January 
movable:Thursday after Trinity Sunday 
movable: 22 March to 25 April 
see Shrove Tuesday 
see All Hallows 
second Monday after Easter 
second Tuesday after Easter 
28 December 
see Blessed Virgin Mary, Annunciation 
the forty days before Easter, beginning 
with Ash Wednesday 
see St Michael 

1036 APPENDIX 18 

New Year's Day 
Pen tecost 
Relic Sunday 
St Agatha 
St Bartholomew 
St Catharine 
St Edmund, king and martyr 
St Hugh 
St James 
St John the Baptist, nativity 
St John the Evangelist 
St John before the Latin Gate 
St Margaret 
St Martin 
St Mary Magdalene 
St Matthew 
St Michael 
St Nicholas 
Sts Peter and Paul 
St Paul, beheading 
St Stephen, protomartyr 
St Thomas Becket 
Shrove Tuesday 
Trinity Sunday 
Twelfth Night 

1 January 
seventh Sunday after Easter 
first Sunday after 7July 
5 February 
24 August 
25 November 
20 November 
17 November 
27 December 
11 November or 4July 
21 September 
29 September 
6 December 
9 May 
26 December 
29 December 
Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday before Lent 
Tuesday before Ash Wednesday 
Sunday after Pentecost 
see Pentecost 

Royal Celebrations 

Elizabeth I, accession 
James I, accession 
Gunpowder Conspiracy Day 
Charles I, accession 

17 November (1558) 
24 March (1603) 
5 November (1605) 
27 March (1625) 

Church Dedication Feasts 

The dedication feast of Little St Mary's was moved in 1383 from the Saturday after 
All Saints' Day to 11 July (Ely Diocesan Records); all references cited in the Records 
are to the latter date. The dedication feast for Great St Mary's was apparently held 
in the week of 28 June to 4 July in 1364-5, but in the week of 16-22 May in 1365-6; 

APPENDIX 18 1037 
possibly the parish plays of 30 June (feast of St Paul) and 1 July in 1499-1500 and 
1500-1 respectively were similarly performed for the dedication feast (Records). The 
dedication feast of Holy Trinity was moved to 9 October in 1376 (Cooper, vol i, 
p 113). 
University Ceremonies 
The bachelors' commencement consisted of two acts, the 'First Act' occurring a month 
before Ash Wednesday, the 'Latter Act' on Ash Wednesday itself. The general or 
masters' commencement was usually held on the first Tuesday in July. 
Principal Town Fairs 
The following town fairs were established by 1279: 
Reach Fair: Monday of Rogation Week (ie, Monday before Ascension Day); held at 
Reach, ten miles north-east of Cambridge. 
Midsummer Fair: 22-5 June; held on Greencroft, renamed Midsummer Green in 
1501, now called Midsummer Common. 
Sturbridge Fair: 24 August-29 September (from at least 1516); held on Sturbridge 

APPENDIX 19 1039 


Illustration from Pedantius, src: 19524, following title-page (reproduced by permission of The 
Huntington Library, San Marino, California) 

1040 APPENDIX 19 

Illustration from Ignoramus, s'c: 21445, facing title-page (reproduced by permission of The 
Huntington Library, San Marino, California) 

APPENDIX 19 1041 




k C 0 M E D I Eo 
P RtJS E N'B D , 
]it te Emtertaimrnent o t Pr  


Our lgnotanc our duty too we Cm, 
i would all ignat people oold do fo- 
At other times exlg our wit orArt, 
The Ccdy L5 aed by tlw hug. 


Prologue and Epilogue from The Guardian, Wing: C6673, title-page and sig A3 (reproduced 
by permission of The Huntington Library, San Marino, California) 



The Latin documents have been translated as literally as possible in order to help the 
reader understand what the documents say. The order of records in the translations 
parallels that of records in the original. Place-names and given names have been nor- 
malized but surnames have not. However, names of patrons appearing in the Complete 
Peerage, or the History of Parliament series, or the DtV/, are standardized according 
to the spellings of the applicable authority. Spellings of the surnames of patrons not 
found in these standard sources but which are variants of surnames found in the 
patrons' index are standardized to the spelling given in that index. All other surnames 
are left in the spelling of the text. Where English names which might be interpreted 
as either surnames or first names are followed by Latin occupation titles, those 
occupation titles have been assumed to be descriptions rather than names; thus 
'Matheus ioculator" has been treated as 'Matthew, a jester' rather than 'Mathew Jester.' 
Capitalization and punctuation are in accordance with modern practice. 
As in the text, diamond brackets indicate obliterations and square brackets cancel- 
lations. Round brackets enclose words not in the Latin text but needed for grammatical 
sense in English. In the translations of account entries, words also appear in these 
round brackets to represent the subject and verb known to be governing each entry. 
These governing phrases, for example 'Fees' or 'Necessary expenses,' were usually 
written out in full only a few times, at the beginning of each account heading or sub- 
heading; they were not repeated for each item. |t appears that once a corporate body 
found a set of formulae which fitted its needs, it tended to repeat those formulae year 
after year, despite changes of accountants or auditors, who doubtless copied them 
from earlier account books. 
Not all the Latin in the text has been translated here. Latin tags, formulae, headings, 
or other short sections in largely English documents are either translated in footnotes 
ornot at all. Individual documents which consist of a single line, or other very short 
entries, especially those that are part of repetitive annual series, are not translated, 
unless they present some unusual syntactic or semantic problem. All Latin vocabulary 
not found in the standard Latin dictionary, the Oxford Latin Dictionary, is found in 
the glossary. 


The practice, introduced in REED'S Devon volume, of using stock translation equi- 
valents for player and performance terms is continued. It has proved more desirable 
to discuss the full range of possible meanings for these terms in the glossary than to 
attempt to indicate them in the translations. A list of terms which can serve as equi- 
valents to these technical Latin words, while neither unduly widening nor restricting 
the range of possible meanings which ought to be represented, has been devised and 
appears below. Translation equivalents are also used for standard academic or legal 
terminology, or to establish stock translations which may distinguish Latin 
synonyms, where it seems appropriate. 
The translation of Cambridge records is complicated in two ways. The first is the 
apparent absence of one single official title in Latin for the city waits. They are 
designated by various performer terms, such as 'histrio,' 'mimus,'or 'fustulator. 'This 
Latin usage creates a certain awkwardness in official documents, such as the receipt 
of pledges for the waits' badges, where an occupational designation would seem to 
be more appropriate than a performer term. The policy of literal translation is followed 
here as elsewhere. The second complication is the nature of the communities whose 
records are translated here. The university and its constituent colleges form one of 
the places in medieval and early modern England in which a translator can fairly sup- 
pose a familiarity with classical Latin usage from a comparatively early date, including 
a familiarity with the classical denotations and connotations of such words as 'histrio' 
and 'mimus.' Although there is no clear or direct evidence that these words were used 
in their classical Latin rather than their Anglo-Latin senses, the possibility cannot not 
be completely disregarded in reading the records. Since there is no way unobtrusively 
to indicate such a possibility in the translations, it is mentioned as a caveat here. 
In the list below are some common Latin performer terms used in Cambridge with 
their English equivalents. For a full discussion of the performer terms, see the trans- 
lator's article in REED Newsletter 9:2 (1984) and 10:1 (1985), 'Plays and Players: The 
Latin Terms for Performance,' and consult the glossary. 

fistulator piper 
histrio entertainer 
ioculator jester 
ludator player 
lusor player 
mimus performer 
ministrallus minstrel 
tibicen piper 
tubicen trumpeter 

TRANSLATIONS 1342--50 1045 

King's Hall Accounts 1 TCA 
f 59* (External expenses) 

... Likewise 2 s given John Eccles on Christmas. Likewise 8 d to John 
Pyper. Likewise 4 d to Simon Gyterner .... Likewise 2 d for our 
parishioners dancing .... 

Peterhouse Statutes 


... Lest scholars embroil themselves in unsuitable things: registered. 

Since the seeds of the virtues cannot bring forth fragrant fruit unless 
the vices are first torn up by their roots, we, as a prohibition, order 
the aforesaid scholars in our aforesaid university not to frequent public 
houses or any other unsuitable places, not to wander without reason 
through the streets and open (market) places, not to engage in secular 
transactions forbidden to clerics, to abstain from drunkenness and 
intoxication as is right, not to watch jesters or entertainers in public, 
not by any means to presume to be present at stage plays or public 
shows of mockeries in churches, a theatre, or racecourses or other 
public places unless they should perhaps be present for a short time 
for relaxation while decency is preserved, nor to take part in them 
personally, nor bear arms to disturb the peace, contrary to canonical 
sanctions, lest by these things the decency of scholars be besmirched 
with a threat to souls and bodies and a deadly example and a scandal 
to the entire house, which things are very often accustomed to arise 
from such mockeries, but to occupy themselves in scholarly actions 
and in good manners to such a degree that the fragrant herald of their 
good reputation be diffused to an even better effect and shine forth 
daily more clearly .... 

King's Hall Accounts 1 TCA 
f 132 (Expenses incurred) 

...Likewise 5 d for minstrels and clerics on Christmas .... 

1046 TRANSLATIONS 1349--53 

f 132v (Expenses incurred by Henry de Wykylwod) 

...Likewise 4 d for a gift for entertainers .... 

f 133" (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 

... Likewise 12 d given entertainers on the feast of Corpus Christi .... 
Likewise 18 d given entertainer/s on the dedication feast of blessed 
Mary's church .... 

Corpus Christi Guild Minutes CCA : Masters N1 
f Iv* 
Robert le Pipere and Alice his wife, John Pipere, Thomas Pipere, and 
Imania his wife entered the confraternity by a settlement of one mark 
and a wax payment. 
They paid one mark to Simon They paid all to Simon. 
Likewise on expenses for the procession, in all 56 s 10 d (were spent). 
Likewise 9 d (were) paid John Sekersteyn for visors. 

King's Hall Accounts I ]'CA 
f 146v (Expenses incurred) 

... For entertainers, 2 s 9 d .... In the thirty-first (week) for entertainers, 
7d .... 

f 148v (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
... Likewise 21 d given entertainers on the same day .... 

Corpus Christi Guild Minutes 
f 8* 

CCA ." Masters N 1 

William de Lenne, skinner, and Isabel, his wife, entered the 
confraternity and gave one mark for alms, and 12 d for wax, and he 
(the treasurer?) spent on the play of the sons of Israel a half mark or 
they paid a half mark and have a day for payment (of the rest?) before 

TRANSLATIONS 1352-62 1047 
the feast of St Matthew the Apostle. They paid the wax at the time 
of (their) entry. They paid all to Hardy. 

King's Hall Accounts 1 TCA 
f 169 (Expenses) 
...Likewise 2 s given entertainers on Christmas .... Likewise for the 
entertainers ( ........ ) .... 

f 171 (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 

...Likewise on the dedication day of the aforesaid church 2 d (were 
spent) on minstrel/s and rushes and for beer .... 

King's Hall Accounts 2 TCA 
f 3v (External expenses) 

6 d paid minstrel/s on the feast of All Saints. Likewise 4 d .... Likewise 
12 d for one minstrel .... Likewise 6 d for an entertainer .... Likewise 
2 d for minstrel/s. Likewise 8 d given a waferer and for one minstrel .... 

King's Hall Accounts 2 TCA 
f 52v (Expenses incurred) 

... Likewise 12 d for two entertainers of Lord de Neville and 6 d for 
their meals .... 

f 53 (Expenses incurred) 

... Likewise 12 d given an entertainer. Likewise on another occasion, 
12d .... 

f 57 (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
...Likewise 18 d for minstrels .... 

1048 TRANSLATIONS ! 362--3 

King's Hall Accounts 2 
f 71v* (Expenses incurred) 

...Likewise 10 d for entertainers on the same day .... Likewise 11 d 
for meals for two entertainers and a laundress, that is, on All Saints' 
Day .... Likewise 18 d for entertainers on St Edmund the King's 
Day .... Likewise 2 s for a common entertainer (ie, a town 
entertainer) .... Likewise 61/2 d in the fifteenth week for meals for a 
laundress and one entertainer .... Likewise S d for an entertainer's 
meals .... 

f 72 

... Likewise 6 d for two entertainers' meals .... Likewise 4 d given some 
entertainer .... Likewise 9 d in the thirty-fourth week, that is, in the 
week of Pentecost, on three entertainers' meals at 1 d; and 6 d for two 
(entertainers') meals another day .... Likewise 2 s 4 d given three 

f 72v 

... Likewise 6 d given some entertainer .... Likewise 3 d for two loaves 
and beer sent to one sick entertainer .... Likewise 3 s 4 d given three 
entertainers of Lord Lionel, and 8 d for the meals of the same with 
a household servant .... Likewise 11 s 11 I/2 d for various meals prepared 
during the entire autumn, that is, for barber/s, a laundress, 
entertainers, turf-cutters bearing turfs (or brush ?), and others coming 
in from outside .... 

f 73v (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 

... Likewise 14 d for two entertainers' meals on the same day and the 
following day. Likewise 2 s in silver given them .... Likewise 2 d for 
meals for those dancing from the same parish. [Likewise 8 d for three 
entertainers' meals, together with a household servant, on Sunday. 
Likewise 3 s 4 d given Lord Lionel's entertainers.]... 

f 79v (John Cheyne's expenses) 

... And 14 d for an entertainer's [and (his) son's] meals .... And 4 s 11A d 

for meals for various entertainers and others coming in from outside 
in the same week .... 


King's Hall Accounts 2 TCA 
f 97 (External expenses) 

... Likewise 6 d for an entertainer's meals [and] for his son .... Likewise 
12 d given entertainers on St Edmund's Day .... Likewise 6 d for two 
entertainers' meals .... Likewise 8 d given minstrel/s on the eve of St 
Catharine .... Likewise S d in the twelfth week for two entertainers' 
meals. Likewise 6 d given the same .... Likewise 2 d for meals for those 
dancing. Likewise 6 d for entertainers' meals. Likewise 8 d given the 
same. Likewise 2 s 8 d given minstrels at Christmas on various 
occasions .... Likewise 161/2 d in the fifteenth week for meals for 
barber/s, a laundress, and outsiders dancing .... Likewise 20 d given 
entertainers on Epiphany Day .... 

f 97v 

In the seventeenth week for a minstrel's meals, 3 d .... Likewise 12 d 
paid an entertainer, that is, for wages .... Likewise 4 d for two 
entertainers' meals .... Likewise 3 d for an entertainer's meals .... 
Likewise 6 d for two entertainers' meals. Likewise 2 s given the 
same .... Likewise 15 d for five entertainers' meals on the dedication 
day of All Saints' Church. Likewise 20 d given the same. Likewise 
6 d for meals for those dancing .... Likewise 6 d for two minstrels' 
meals .... 

f 98 

... Likewise 18 d for four entertainers' meals at dinner and at supper 
for one day .... 

f 99v (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
... Likewise 11 d in the fortieth week, that is, on the dedication feast 
of the said church of blessed Mary for entertainers' meals. Likewise 
3 s given the same .... 

1050 TRANSLATIONS 1365--7 

King's Hall Accounts 2 TCA 
f 121 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 4 d given an entertainer .... Likewise 2 d for one 
entertainer's meals .... Likewise 12 d given some entertainer .... 
Likewise 3 d (were spent) on one entertainer's meals .... Likewise 
12 d given an entertainer .... Likewise [7 s] 4 s given entertainers on 
various occasions .... Likewise 12 d for meals for various entertainers 
and others [entertainers] coming in from outside .... Likewise 19,6 d 
for meals for three entertainers and others coming in from outside. 
Likewise 2 s given the same entertainers .... Likewise 8 d for meals for 
a barber and some entertainer .... Likewise 12 d given some 
entertainer .... Likewise 4 d given some entertainer .... Likewise 7 d for 
some entertainer's meals .... 

f 121v 

... Likewise 4 d for two entertainers' meals .... Likewise first in the 
thirty-fourth week 2 s 9Vz d for entertainers' meals on the dedication 
day .... 

f 122 

... Likewise 2 d for one entertainer's meals .... 

King's Hall Accounts 2 TCA 
f 138v (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 4 d for some entertainer's meals .... Likewise 3 d for two 
entertainers' meals .... 

f 139 

...Likewise 12 d given one entertainer .... 

f 143v* (John Cheyne's expenses) 

...And for two entertainers' meals, 61/ d .... 

TRANSLATIONS 1370-83 1051 

King's Hall Accounts 2 TCA 
f 149v (Expenses incurred for meals) 

...(Likewise on) entertainers' meals, 6 d .... Likewise 12 d given 
entertainers .... Likewise 2 d given an entertainer .... Likewise 14 d paid 
[one] two entertainers .... Likewise 7 d (were spent) on meals for seven 
entertainers .... Likewise [for] 18 d paid entertainers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 3 TCA 
f 124v* (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 2 s for three performers for their salary .... Likewise 12 d 
for one jester. Likewise 12 d for performers .... Likewise 12 d for one 
minstrel .... Likewise 12 d paid performers. 

f 125 (Common meals) 

...Likewise 10 d for performers .... Likewise 6 d for performers .... 
Likewise 6 d for performers. Likewise 7 d for some jester .... Likewise 
3 d for the minstrel. Likewise 14 d for performers and for Rudham .... 
For a performer, 2 d .... Likewise 2 d for minstrel/s .... Likewise 2 d 
for one performer. 

King's Hall Accounts 3 TCA 
f 11 Iv* (Common meals) 

... Likewise 15 d for five entertainers on the same day .... Likewise 4 d 
for entertainers .... Likewise 5 d for Bokenham, a minstrel, with 
household servant/s .... Likewise 4 d for minstrel/s .... Likewise [3 d] 
12 d (were spent) on entertainers .... Likewise 11/2 d for minstrel/s .... 
Likewise 8 d for four minstrels .... Likewise 6 d for three minstrels .... 
Likewise 9 d for bedells and a performer .... 

f 112 

...Likewise 11/2 d for one minstrel .... 

1052 TRANSLATIONS 1382-7 

f 112v (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 18 d paid three entertainers for (their) salary on 
Christmas .... Likewise 12 d for minstrels .... Likewise 12 d given 
entertainers .... Likewise 6 d given the king's apeward .... 

King's Hall Accounts 3 
f 97 (Common meals) 


...2 d for entertainers .... Likewise 3 s 4 d for minstrel/s .... Likewise 
8 d for minstrel/s and a waferer. Likewise 8 d for minstrel/s .... 
Likewise 4 d for minstrel/s .... 

f 98 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 6 d for three entertainers .... Likewise 16 d for 
entertainers .... Likewise 16 d for minstrel/s and waferers .... 

f 99 (Meals of Great St Mary's Church) 
...Likewise 3 s for meals and entertainers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 3 TCA 
f 86v (Supplementary expenses) 

... [Likewise 8 d (were spent) on three entertainers.]... Likewise 20 d 
given minstrel/s .... Likewise 12 d for minstrel/s .... 

f 87 (Common meals) 

... Likewise 8 d (were spent) on three entertainers .... Likewise 12 d for 
three entertainers .... Likewise 5 d for minstrel/s .... Likewise 6 d for 
minstrel/s .... Likewise 3 d for Craner, a minstrel .... For minstrel/s, 
8 d .... Likewise 4 d for minstrel/s .... 

King's Hall Accounts 3 TCA 
f 58v* (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 4 d given the king and clerk of All Saints' (parish) on the 

TRANSLATIONS 1386-9 1053 

feast of St Edmund .... Likewise 4 d (were spent) on the feast of St 
Nicholas for the (boy-)bishop of All Saints' (parish) .... Likewise 8 d 
given performers .... Likewise 18 d given pipers .... Likewise 16 d given 
two minstrels and one waferer .... Likewise payment was made to 
some performer, 12 d. Likewise to another performer, 12 d .... 
Likewise 22 d (were spent) on entertainers .... 

f 59 (Common meals) 

... Likewise 6 d for three performers on the feast of St Hugh. Likewise 
2 s (were spent) on the feast of St Edmund together with the three 
preceding days for three performers .... Likewise 4 d for two pipers .... 
Likewise 10 d for minstrel/s and (a) waferer .... Likewise 12 d for three 
minstrels .... Likewise 6 d (were spent) on performers .... Likewise 12 d 
for three jesters .... Likewise 9 d for three performers. Likewise 3 d 
for [three] two other performers. Likewise 9 d for three performers .... 

f 61" (Meals of Great St Mary's Church) 
... Likewise 10 d for the king's meals on the feast of St Edmund with 
(his) maidservant. Likewise 6 d 2 d (ie, 8 d?) given the king and clerk 
of the same church .... Likewise 8 d (were spent) on the feast of St 
Nicholas for the (boy-)bishop of the church of blessed Mary. Likewise 
3 d. Likewise 3 d .... 

King's Hall Accounts 5 TCA 
f 3 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 8 d for performers .... Likewise 12 d for performers .... 

(Common meals) 
...Likewise 4 d for two entertainers .... Likewise 4 d for three 
performers .... Likewise 2 d (were spent) on performers .... Likewise 
4 d for performers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 3 XCt 
f 34 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 12 d for entertainers rof the town  at Christmas time for 
an offering .... Likewise 2 s for entertainers on the same day .... 

1054 TRANSLATIONS 1388-91 

Likewise 4 d for entertainers. Likewise 2 d for entertainers .... Likewise 
12 d paid entertainers. [Likewise for entertainers] Likewise 2 s paid 

(Common meals) 
...On entertainers, 8 d .... 

f 35 (Meals of Great St Mary's Church) 

... Likewise 9 d for entertainers on the dedication feast. Likewise 12 d 
paid entertainers on the same day .... 

King's Hall Accounts 3 TCA 
f 7 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 12 d for an entertainer .... Likewise 12 d for an 
entertainer .... Likewise 2 s (were spent) on an offering for 
entertainers .... Likewise 2 s for entertainers on the dedication of St 
Mary's Church .... Likewise 2 s for [those dancing] the reward of 
laymen playing .... 

(Common meals) 
... Likewise 8 d for entertainers .... Likewise 2 s 1 d for entertainers .... 
Likewise 6 d for an entertainer .... Likewise 8 d for entertainers' 
dinner .... Likewise 12 d for entertainers .... Likewise 3 s for 
entertainers .... 

f 7v 

... Likewise 3 d for entertainers .... Likewise 12 d for one entertainer 
(were spent) on meals .... 2 s (were spent) on entertainers .... Likewise 
6 d for entertainers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 4 TCA 
f 92" (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 6 d for three entertainers for one day .... Likewise ( ....... 
for entertainers .... Likewise 20 d for players. Likewise 4 d collected 



for the players .... Likewise 2 s for entertainers of the town .... Likewise 
2 s for entertainers. Likewise 8 d for din(ner) for entertainers .... 
Likewise 4 d for one player .... 

f 93* (Common meals) 

...Likewise 6 d for entertainers of the town .... Likewise 2 s for 
entertainers for dinner .... Likewise 6 d for entertainers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 4 TCA 
f 21 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 12 d for entertainers for an offering .... Likewise 6 d for 
three entertainers' dinner on the dedication day .... 

f 22 (Common meals) 

...Likewise 9 d (were spent) on entertainers' dinner .... 

King's Hall Accounts 4 TCA 
f 58 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 20 d for three entertainers on the feast of the Purification 
of blessed Mary. Likewise 4 d for players .... Likewise 4 d for those 
dancing on the dedication day .... 20 d (were spent) on players. 
Likewise 8 d (were spent) on players .... 

(Common meals) 
...Likewise 2 d (were spent) on one entertainer's dinner .... 8 d (were 
spent) on two entertainers' dinner. Likewise 4 d for dinner for the 
king's entertainer .... 6 d (were spent) on three entertainers .... 

f 59 (Meals of Great St Mary's Church) 
...Likewise 6 d for those dancing .... 

1056 TRANSLATIONS 1395-8 

King's Hall Accounts 4 TCA 
f 43 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 6 d for players .... Likewise 2 s for minstrel/s of the 
town .... Likewise 5 d for a jester .... 

f 43v (Common meals) 

... Likewise 2 d for entertainers .... Likewise 6 d for three entertainers. 
Likewise 6 d for dinner for entertainers. Likewise 5 d .... Likewise 6 d 
for dinner for entertainers .... 

f 44 (Meals of Great St Mary's Church) 
... Likewise 18 d for pipers on the dedication day of the church. 
Likewise 18 d .... 

King's Hall Accounts 4 TCA 
f 75 (Supplementary expenses) 
...Likewise 8 d for players .... 
(Common meals) 
... Likewise 6 d for minstrel/s .... 8 d (were spent) on entertainers .... 
f 76 (Meals of Great St Mary's Church) 
...Likewise 16 d given players and for a dance .... 

King's Hall Accounts 4 TCA 
f 110v (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 4 d for players .... Likewise 16 d for entertainers of the 
town .... Likewise 26 d for those dancing .... 

TRANSLATIONS 1398-1400 1057 

Corpus Christi College Accounts 
f 13" 

CCA: Masters N1 

Likewise I gave to pipers of the lord duke of Lancaster and of 
the duke of Hereford and to another (piper?) on (St) Michael's 


f 13v* 

Likewise to pipers on our festival 


f 16" 

Likewise to piper/s and Evan, a cook 


King's Hall Accounts 4 TCA 
f 128 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 12 d for players. Likewise 12 d for entertainers of the 
town .... Likewise 4 d for a dance on the dedication day of All Saints' 

(Common meals) 
... for three entertainers' dinner, 9 d .... Likewise 6 d for entertainers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 5 TCA 
f 26 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 12 d (were spent) on [entertainers] players of blessed 
Mary's Church .... 4 d (were spent) on the dedication feast for a 
dance .... 

f 27 (Common meals) 

...Likewise 12 d (were spent) on entertainers .... 

1058 TRANSLATIONS 1402--10 

King's Hall Accounts 5 TCA 
f 42 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 12 d for players .... Likewise 20 d for pipers of the town 
on the feast of the Purification. And 6 d (were spent) on their meals .... 
4 d (were spent) on the dedication day for those dancing. 8 d (were 
spent) on entertainers. Likewise 16 d (were spent) on players .... 

King's Hall Accounts 5 TCA 
f 92 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 12 d for players .... Likewise 12 d for players. Likewise 
6 d for entertainers' dinner. Likewise 20 d for entertainers .... Likewise 
4 d for those dancing on the dedication day of All Saints' Church. 
Likewise 12 d for those dancing .... 

King's Hall Accounts 5 TCA 
f 117 (Supplementary expenses) 

... 12 d (were spent) on entertainers .... Likewise 4 d for dancers on the 
dedication of All Saints' Church. Likewise 8 d for those dancing on 
the dedication of blessed Mary's Church .... 

(Common meals) 
... 10 d (were spent) on two entertainers' dinner .... 

King's Hall Accounts 5 TCA 
f 104 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 6 d for players .... Likewise 22 d (were spent) on 
entertainers and players. Likewise 12 d for entertainers .... Likewise 
4 d (were spent) on those dancing. Likewise 8 d for those of St Mary's 
Church dancing. 


12 d for entertainers on Purification Day .... Likewise 4 d for those 
dancing on the dedication of All Saints" Church .... 

King's Hall Accounts 6 TCA 
f 6 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 12 d for the clerk of All Saints' (Church) and for players .... 
Likewise 2 s 2 d for entertainers and players .... Likewise 8 d for those 
dancing .... 

King's Hall Accounts 6 TCA 
f 40 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 2 s 4 d for various players .... Likewise 20 d for entertainers 
on the day of the Purification of blessed Mary .... Likewise 4 d for those 
dancing on the dedication feast .... 

f 40v (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
...Likewise 4 d for those dancing on the dedication day. 

King's Hall Accounts 6 TCA 
f 125v* (Supplementary expenses) 

First, 4 d as remuneration for entertainers .... Likewise 16 d for players 
on two occasions. Likewise 20 d for entertainers on Purification 
Day .... Likewise 4 d for those dancing on the dedication day of All 
Saints' Church .... 

(Common meals) 
... Likewise 6 d for three entertainers' dinner on Purification Day .... 

(Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
...Likewise 4 d for those dancing on the dedication day. 

TRANSLATIONS 1422-8 1061 

Town Treasurers" Accounts cRo: PB/X/70/I 
mb [2] (External expenses and gifts) 

...And 3 s 4 d (were spent as gifts) given the duke of Bedford's 
entertainers by reason of a reward, and also 3 s 4 d for the duke of 
Gloucester's entertainers. 

Town Treasurers' Accounts cRo: PB/X/70/2 
mb [2] (External expenses and gifts) 

...And 40 d (were spent as gifts) given entertainers of the earl of March; 
also 20 d, given entertainer/s of the earl marshall; and 12 d, given one 
entertainer of Lord John Typtot. 

Town Treasurers" Accounts 
mb [2] (External expenses) 

cRo: PB/X/70/3 

... As offerings given entertainers of the lord earl of Northumberland, 
40 d; as offerings given entertainer/s of the lord duke of Exeter, 40 d; 
also given entertainer/s of Lord John Typtot, 20 d; and given one 
entertainer (blank), 12 d .... 

Town Treasurers" Accounts CRO: PB/X/70/6 
mb [2] (External expenses) 
... Likewise (as rewards) given minstrel/s of the duke of Gloucester this 
year, 8 s; also 4 s 8 d given minstrel/s of Lord de Tiptoft this year and 
to minstrel/s of the lady of Abergavenny; and 4 s 8 d to minstrel/s of 
the earl of Huntingdon; and 5 s to minstrel/s of the duke of York; 
likewise (were spent) on the expenses of Lord le Tiptoft while he was 
staying and visiting in this town with his lady for one night and on 
a breakfast given him (or them) on the following morning by the mayor 
and burgesses, 50 s 11 d. 

1062 TRANSLATIONS 1431-4 

King's Hall Accounts 8 XCA 
f 22 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 6 d for two entertainers' dinner on the feast of the 
Purification of blessed Mary (and) 12 d on remuneration for the 
same .... Likewise 12 d for entertainers .... 

Town Treasurers' Accounts CRO: PB/X/70/7 
mb [2] (Payments and external expenses) 
...And (as rewards) given various minstrels coming to the mayor to 
have rewards at various times this year, 26 s 6 d .... 

King's Hall Accounts 8 ICA 
f 45v (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 4 d (were spent) on two pipers' dinner on Purification Day 
(and) 12 d on (their) remuneration .... 

f 46 (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
...Likewise 4 d for those dancing .... 

King's Hall Accounts 8 TCA 
f 66 (Supplementary expenses) 
... Likewise 6 d (were spent) on two entertmners drone for a day (or 
by the day ?) .... 
f 67 (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
... Likewise 4 d for those dancing on the dedication day .... 

TRANSLATIONS 1435-41 1063 

King's Hall Accounts 8 ICA 
f l17v (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 14 d (were spent) on four entertainers' dinner. Likewise 
1 I/2 d for one daily allowance (probably of food). Likewise 4 d for two 
people playing on Purification Day .... 

King's Hall Accounts 9 TCA 
f 7 (Supplementary expenses) 

First, 4 d for two entertainers .... Likewise payment was made as a 
remuneration to entertainers of the town on the feast of the 
Purification of blessed Mary, 12 d .... Likewise 3 d for the king's 
entertainers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 9 TCA 
f 66 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 12 d (were spent) on four players" dinner for a day (or by 
the day ?). Likewise 9 d (were spent) on three players' supper .... 
Likewise 12 d for entertainers at Purification time (and) likewise 10 d 
on dinner for the same .... Likewise 6 d for entertainers .... 

King's Hall Accounts 9 
f 153 


...Likewise 8 d (were spent) on four entertainers' dinner on the 
Innocents' Day .... Likewise 9 d for three entertainers' dinner (and) 
12 d in remuneration for the same .... 

1064 TRANSLATIONS 1442-5 

King's College Statutes 
f35 (20July) 


Of the manner of saying masses, matins, and the other 
canonical hours in the college church there. 

f 36v* 

...We wish and order that all these aforesaid things be carried out, 
happen, and be fulfilled on each (feast) day by the aforesaid scholars 
and fellows of the said King's College, except on the above-mentioned 
feast of St Nicholas, on which feast and by no means on the feast of 
the (Holy) Innocents we allow that the boys can say and carry out 
vespers, matins, and the other divine offices, saying and singing (them) 
according to the use and custom hitherto usual in the said King's 
College .... 

King's Hall Accounts 10 TCA 
f 33 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 22 d (were spent) on expenses of minstrels of the king and 
of the earl of Salisbury .... 71/2 d (were spent) on five minstrels' 
dinner .... 12 d (were spent) on a reward and dinner for the king's 
minstrel/s .... 

King's Hall Accounts 10 TCA 
f 88 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 8 d for three entertainers for dinner on Purification Day 
(and) likewise 12 d on a reward for the same .... Likewise 6 d (were 
spent) on dinner for the queen's three entertainers. Likewise 12 d on 
a reward for the same .... 

1066 TRANSLATIONS 1450-2 

nf (Christmas week + 2:2-8 January) (College meal allowances) 
On the same day, five performers and another household servant 
(from) Belton (possibly (named) Belton) (not itemized) .... 

nf (Easter week + 3:15-21 May) (Beverage allowances) 
Hugh Smyth (was allowed) for jester/s from Ware 


nf (Easter week + 4:22-8 May) (College meal allowances) 
At dinner, two performers with the fellows, and the servants of the 
same with the scholars (not itemized) .... 

King's College Mundum Book 2.2 KCA 
f 74v (External payments) 
Likewise for four performers as a reward at Christmas on the provost's 
order 6 s 8 d 
Likewise for Thomas Lurer at the same time 2 s 

f 77 

Likewise for three and a half yards of kersey bought on St Nicholas' 
Eve [for the college, for the (boy-)bishop's use] for a tunic to be 
provided for the (boy-)bishop and for the making of the same, which 
is kept in John Bartylmew's care for other future (boy-)bishops by 
order of the vice-provost and others for the honour of the 
college Total: 4 s 4 d 

King's College Liber Communarum 1.3 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas week + 10:4-10 December) 
(College meal allowances) 
[Likewise a (boy-)bishop on the same day 

3 s] [6 s 8 d] 

nf (Beverage allowances) 
Likewise for the (boy-)bishop on St Nicholas' Day 



nf (Michaelmas week + II: 11-17 December) 
(College meal allowances) 
On the same day at supper two performers with the fellows 


nf (Christmas week + 1: 1-Z January) (College meal allowances) 
At dinner with the fellows ... Thomas Lurer (not itemized)... 

King's College Mundum Book 2.3 KCA 
f 115 (Necessary expenses and external payments) 
As a reward given performers on St Nicholas' Day at the provost's 
order 20 d 
Likewise for four performers of Cambridge on Christmas Day for a 
reward of their labour for the entire winter at the provost's 
order 6 s 8 d 
Likewise for Thomas Lurer for the same at the same time at the 
provost's order and on the advice of all the fellows 6 s 8 d 

King's Hall Accounts 11 TCA 
f 92 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 6 d for entertainers .... Likewise payment was made to 
Thomas Lurer on the Innocents' Day, 8 d .... Likewise 2 d for 
entertainers .... 

1068 TRANSLATIONS 1453-6 

King's Hall Accounts 11 TCA 
f 156 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise payment was made in remuneration to the duke of 
Exeter's entertainers (and) 2 d (were spent) on the supper of the 
same .... 
Likewise 12 d (were spent) on three entertainers' dinner on the 
Innocents' Day (and) 12 d on remuneration for the same .... 2 d (were 
spent) on an entertainer's supper .... 

King's College Liber Communarum 2.1 
nf (Michaelmas week + 10:6-12 December) 
(College meal allowances) 
On Saturday the feast of St Nicholas at dinner with the fellows.., three 
entertainers of the town of Cambridge (not itemized) .... 

nf (Christmas week: 20-6 December) (College meal allowances) 
At dinner and at supper with the fellows ... two performers of this 
town 6 d 
At dinner with the fellows... 
Thomas Lurer 3 d 
At dinner with the fellows... 
...Thomas Lurer (not itemized)... 
At supper with the fellows, Thomas Lurer (not itemized)... 
At dinner with the fellows... 
Thomas Lurer (not itemized)... 

TRANSLATIONS 1455--7 1069 

nf (Christmas week + 1:27 December-2 January) 
(College meal allowances) 

At dinner with the fellows... 

...Thomas Luter (not itemized)... 

At supper on the same day... 
Thomas Luter with the fellows 


At dinner with the fellows... 
...Thomas Luter (not itemized)... 
At supper with the fellows... 
Thomas Luter 
At dinner with the fellows... 
...Thomas Lurer (not itemized)... 
At dinner with the fellows, Thomas Luter 

nf (Easter week + 6:8-14 May) (College meal allowances) 
On Sunday at dinner ... three cymbalists (not itemized)... 
On Monday at dinner, three performers (not itemized)... 




King's College Mundum Book 3.1 KCA 
f 46 (Necessary expenses) 
Likewise paid (to) Lemster for the disguising at Christmas time as 
appears by his bill 4 s 3 I& d 


Likewise paid Master Roche for the disguising at the same time as 
appears by his bill 6 s 31/2 d 

f 47 (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise as a reward given Thomas Luter on the morrow of 
Epiphany 6 s 8 d 
Likewise paid four men playing in the common hall on the eve of 
Epiphany 12 d 
Likewise as a reward given three performers of Cambridge on the tenth 
day of January 3 s 4 d 

f 48 
Likewise as a reward given six performers of the lord king on Relic 
Sunday 10 s 

f 48v 

Likewise paid as a reward given the lord of Shrewsbury's performers 
by master vice-provost 12 d 
Likewise as a reward given one jester of the lord duke of York by 
master vice-provost 12 d 

King's Hall Accounts 12 TCA 
f 40 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise on the same day for Bastifforde, three servants, and three 
performers (not itemized) .... Likewise 8 d for those playing on 
Epiphany Eve .... 9 d (were spent) on entertainers' dinner on 
Purification Day (and) 12 d on the salary of the same .... 4 d (were 
spent) on entertainers' supper .... 

f 94v (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
i ilLikewise payment was made in remuneration to those dancing on 
the dedication of blessed Mary's Church .... 


Corpus Christi College Liber Albus CCA 
f 51 (29 September-21 April) (Payments) 

Note concerning the fellows' and bedells' banquet 

[Likewise for three performers, or pipers 

12 d] 

King's Hall Accounts 12 TCA 
f 131 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 12 d (were spent) on three performers' dinner on the 
Innocents" Day .... 18 d (were spent) on three performers' dinner on 
the day of the Purification of blessed Mary. Likewise payment was 
made in remuneration for the same, 2 s .... 

King's Hall Accounts 13 TCA 
f 8 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 3 s 4 d (were spent) on dinner for three bedells, [and] four 
performers on the Innocents" Day, and others coming in from outside 
on the same day .... Likewise payment was made in remuneration for 
players on the Innocents' Day and for miller/s, 16 d .... Likewise 16 
d (were spent) on three performers" dinner on the day of the 
Purification of blessed Mary .... Likewise payment was made in 
remuneration for the performers on the day of the Purification of 
blessed Mary, 20 d .... 

f 8v 

...Likewise 3 d (were spent) on three performers' meals .... 


King's Hall Accounts 13 TC, 
f 56* (Supplementary expenses) 
...Likewise 6 d for performers" meals on Holy Innocents' Day .... 
Likewise 12 d (were spent) on three performers' meals and payment 
was made in remuneration for the same, 12 d .... Likewise 2 d (were 
spent) on one performer's meals .... 
f 57v (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
... Likewise payment was made in remuneration for those dancing on 
the dedication day of blessed Mary's Church, 20 d. 

Corpus Christi College Liber Albus CCA 
f 72 (8 July 1463-24 August 1466) (Payments) 
Likewise at the fellows' and bedells" banquet for performers and for 
scented candles (or possibly torches of aromatic wood) 14 d 

King's College Mundum Book 4.1 KCA 
f 29 (Fees and rewards) 

Likewise as a reward given the duke of Suffolk's performers on the 
twenty-second day of November 3 s 4 d 

f 30v 

Likewise paid on the twenty-fifth day of February to entertainers of 
the town of Cambridge 20 d 

f 33v (Necessary expenses and external payments) 

Likewise paid Goldyng and his fellows on the twentieth day of.lanuary 
for their play/s 6 s 8 d 


nf (Easter week + 7:16-22 May) 
On the eve of Pentecost, at dinner with the fellows.., some performer 
of the duke of Lancaster, 3 d... 

nf (Assumption week + 2:29 August-4 September) 
(College meal allowances) 
On Sunday at dinner, some entertainer of the lady of York with four 
of her (possibly his?) household servants, etc 12 d 

King's College Mundum Book 4.2 KCA 
f 105v (Necessary expenses and external payments) 

Likewise as a reward given players in the common hall of the college 
on the feast of the Holy Innocents 20 d 
Likewise as a like reward given others playing before master provost 
and the fellows on the feast of the Lord's Circumcision 20 d 

f 114 (Fees and rewards) 

Likewise as a reward given by order of master provost for four 
performers of the duke of Suffolk on the eve of the Purification of the 
blessed virgin Mary 3 s 4 d 

f 114v (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise as a reward given the lord king's performers on the twenty- 
eighth of April 6 s 8 d 

f 115v 

Likewise as a reward given by the college to Master Raynold and 
Master Argentyn and to others for expenses about the disguising this 
year, etc 8 s 6 d 

TRANSLATIONS 1466-8 1077 

Peterbouse Computus Roll PHA 
mb [3] (External expenses) 

...And (they account) for 5 d paid entertainers on (St) Stephen's 
Day .... And for 8 d given those dancing (literally, leaping) on the feast 
of the dedication of our church of Cambridge .... 

King's College Mundum Book 5.1 
f 52v (Fees and rewards) 


Likewise paid the lord king's entertainers at the time of 


f 53 

Likewise as a reward given the lord king's performers on the twenty- 
sixth day of August 5 s 

f 53v 
Likewise as a reward given four men of Walden playing in the common 
hall on the feast of the Holy Innocents 20 d 
Likewise as a reward for four men playing in the common hall on the 
feast of St Thomas the Martyr 20 d 
Likewise as a reward given by order of master provost to Master 
Walter Barbour and his fellows for their costs about the disguisings 
this year 13 s 4 d 
Likewise as a reward given six men of the local district playing in the 
common hall on another occasion, between the feast of the Lord's 
Circumcision and the feast of the Epiphany this year, etc 2 s 

f 55* (Necessary expenses and external payments) 

Likewise paid on the twentieth day of November for wine bought for 
those from St Mary's hostel (who were) dancing 6 d 

1078 TRANSLATIONS 1467-9 

f 61v* 

Likewise paid for wine bought at various times within Christmas time 
aforesaid, for the proctor/s of the university and various others, 
masters and scholars of Holy Trinity, St Augustine's, and St William's 
hostels, coming to the college at various times within the aforesaid 
period with the disguisings 6 s 8 d 

King's Hall Accounts 14 TCA 
f 6* (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 2 s (were spent) on meals for performers on the same day 
together with players. 32 s 5 d (were spent) on expenses incurred upon 
the mayor of Cambridge, together with the Twelve of the same town, 
together with [their followers] tother gentlemen  on the Innocents' 
Day of the present year, on provisions and wine. Likewise payment 
was made in remuneration for entertainers on the Innocents' Day, 
12 d. Likewise payment was made in remuneration for players on the 
same day, 12 d .... 

f 6v* 

...Likewise 4 d (were spent) on meals for the duchess of York's 
performer together with her men (possibly his men) .... 

King's College Liber Commurtarum 3.2 KCA 
nf (Christmas week + 1:31 December-6 January) 
(College meal allowances) 
...With the scholars at dinner, two performers, 6 d 

nf (Christmas week + 7: 11-17February) (College mealallowances) 
...Three performers at dinner on Sunday, 6 d, and at supper on 
Tuesday, 6 d .... 

TRANSLATIONS 1468--9 1079 

nf (St John the Baptist week +3:15-21 July) 
(College meal allowances) 

On Monday, three entertainers of the lady of York, 9 d... at dinner 
with the fellows 

nf (St John the Baptist week + 6:5-11 August) 
(College meal allowances) 

On Monday at supper with the fellows, a harper of Robert Redesdale, 

King's College Mundum Book 5.2 KCA 
f 108v (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise as a reward given the lord duke of Suffolk's performers on 
the eighteenth day of April 3 s 4 d 
Likewise as a reward given the lord king's performers on the fifth day 
of May 5 s 

Likewise as 
hall on the 

a reward given four men of Ramsey playing in the common 
feast of St Stephen this year 20 d 

Likewise as a reward given four men of Walden playing in the common 
hall on the feast of St John the Evangelist 20 d 
Likewise as a reward given six men of Bury playing in the common 
hall on the eve of Epiphany 2 s 
Likewise as a reward given Master John Benet and his fellows for their 
costs and expenses about the disguisings 6 s 8 d 
Likewise as a reward given performers of Cambridge for their labours 
this year as in previous years 3 s 4 d 

f 11 lv (Necessary expenses and external payments) 

Likewise paid for wine given the duchess of York's 



f 112 
Likewise paid for play/s and disguisings put on for the feast of the 
Purification 3 s 4 d 

King's College Mundum Book 6.1 KCA 
f 35 (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise, 20 d paid the house of the order of friars preacher as a reward 
given them for alms together with 12 d for three persons playing in 
the common hall on the feast of the Innocents 2 s 8 d 

f 35v 
Likewise as a reward given players of Walden on the morrow (of the 
feast) of St Thomas the Martyr 2 s 
Likewise as a reward given performers of the town of Cambridge on 
the fifteenth day of February 2 s 

f 36 

Likewise as a reward given two performers of the king's household 
and of the earl of Warwick's household on the twenty-fifth day of 
October 20 d 

Likewise as a reward given the lord king's entertainers on the first day 
of July 5 s 

f 40 (Necessary expenses and external payments) 
Likewise paid by the agency of Smyth, a scholar, for some necessities 
bought for some play in the common hall at Christmas time 6 d 

1082 TRANSLATIONS 1471-3 

nf (Christmas week + 2: 4-10January) (College mealallowances) 
At dinner ... four performers 16 d 
At supper ... four performers 8 d 

nf (Christmas week + 6: 1-T February) (College meal allowances) 
At dinner ... four performers 12 d 

nf (Christmas week + 13:21-7 March) (College meal allowances) 
At dinner ... likewise three performers of the lord king 6 d 

nf ($t John the Baptist week + 8:15-21 August) 
(College meal allowances) 
Likewise one entertainer with his household servant 


King's College Mundum Book 6.2 KCA 
f 81v (Necessary expenses and external payments) 
Likewise paid for [the (boy-)bishop] wine for the (boy-)bishop and 
master provost on St Nicholas' Day 10 d 

f 83v 
Likewise paid entertainers from London and four persons from 
Fulbourn for some interludes on Christmas 14 d 

f 86 (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise as rewards given entertainers of the town of Cambridge on 
the same feast 2 s 

TRANSLATIONS 1472--4 1083 

f 86v 

Likewise as a reward given the lord king's performers on the fourth 
day of May 3 s 4 d 

King's Hall Accounts 15 TCA 
f 7* (Supplementary expenses) 

... 12 d (were spent) on meals for players together with their company 
from (or of) St Mary's parish; and 9 d (spent on the meals) of players .... 
12 d (were spent) as a reward for player/s .... 

Peterhouse Computus Roll 
mb [2] (External expenses) 

... And (they account) for 16 d for entertainers on St Stephen's Day .... 
And for 8 d for those dancing (literally, leaping) on the dedication 
day .... 

King's College Mundum Book 6.3 KCA 
f 130 (Necessary expenses and external payments) 
Likewise paid for red cloth bought for the enlarging of the boy- 
bishop's robe and for the labour of a tailor, together with 12 d handed 
over to the boys on St Nicholas' Day in order to make (their) 
offering 2 s 

f 130v 

Likewise paid for sixteen ells of linen cloth bought from Richard 
Smyth's wife for linen cloths together with cloth bought for the 
enlarging of the boy-bishop's rochet 13 s 2 d 

f 132v (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise paid Smyth, a fellow, on St Stephen's Day for some expenses 
about the equipment for the plays 12 d 

1084 TRANSLATIONS 1473-6 

Likewise paid on St John the Evangelist's Day for three persons 
playing in the hall 12 d 
Likewise as a reward given three performers on the feast of the 
Purification of blessed Mary 2 s 

f 133 

Likewise as a reward given the lord king's performers in the month 
of September 3 s 4 d 
f 133v 

Likewise paid Master Wenslow for the recreations of master provost, 
the fellows, etc, at Christmas time, together with 7 d paid for wine, 
strings, and nails for the play at the same time 7 s 3 d 

King's College Liber Communarum 4.3 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas week + 10:2-8 December) 
(College meal allowances) 
rand 1 [wherefore] allowance ought to be made for the boy-bishop on 
St Nicholas' Day 3 s 4 d 
nf (Christmas week + 2: 6-12January) (College mealallowances) 
At dinner... 
Likewise three performers 9 d 
nf (Christmas week + 5:27 January-2 February) 
(College meal allowances) 
At dinner... 
Likewise two bedells and three performers 15 d 

nf (Easter week + 5:18-24 May) (College meal allowances) 
At dinner... 
Likewise seven performers of the lord king with two household 



King's College Liber Communarum 5.1 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas week + 9:30 November-6 December) 
(College meal allowances) 

At dinner ... four performers with the fellows, 12 d... 

nf (Christmas week + 1:28 December-3 January) 
(College meal allowances) 

At dinner ... two players with the conducts, 8 d... 

nf (Christmas week + 6: 1-7February) (College meal allowances) 
At dinner ... likewise three performers, 9 d 

nf (Christmas week + 7:8-14 February) (College mealallowances) 
At dinner ... likewise a performer with his boy with the scholars, 
4d .... 

nf (St John the Baptist week + 2:5-11 July) 
(College meal allowances) 
At dinner ... likewise three performers with the fellows, 9 d... 

1086 TRANSLATIONS 1476--9 

King's College Mundum Book 7.1 KCA 
f 48 (Necessary expenses and external payments) 
Likewise paid for the expenses of Master Wheteley and other fellows 
playing before master provost and the fellows at Christmas 
time 20 d 

f 54v (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise as rewards given those playing in the hall on the feast of the 
Holy Innocents 12 d 
Likewise as rewards given performers of the town of Cambridge on 
the same feast 2 s 

King's Hall Accounts 15 TCA 
f 94 (Supplementary expenses) 

... 12 d (were spent) as rewards for performers .... Likewise 2 d for some 
other (performer) .... Likewise 12 d for players on Epiphany Day at 
night .... Likewise 12 d for players on the feast of Purification .... 
Likewise we paid 2 s to those of St Mary's Church dancing .... 

King's Hall Accounts 15 TCA 
f 138 (Supplementary expenses) 

... Likewise 2 d for one performer .... Likewise 12 d for performers .... 
Likewise 20 d for players .... Likewise 20 d for those of St Mary's 
Church dancing .... 

King's Hall Accounts 16 TCA 
f 10" (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise [10] 2 s for players at Christmas time. Likewise 8 d for 
other players. Likewise 12 d for performers .... Likewise 12 d 1 d (ie 
13 d?) for St Mary's Church upon Hock Monday .... 

1090 "l RA N SLA'I'ION S 1484--5 

nf* (Christmas week + 4: 22-s January) (College mealallowances) 
Likewise for the commons of two painters for the entire week for the 
disguisings for the feast of the Purification 16 d 

nf (Christmas week + 5:29 January-4 February) 
(College meal allowances) 
On Wednesday at dinner with the fellows ... three performers (not 

nf (Christmas week + 5:29January-4 February) 
(College meal allowances) 
Likewise for the commons of two painters for five days for the 
disguising 20 d 
Likewise for the commons of one tailor repairing the ornaments of the 
hall 10 d 

King's College Accounts 5.3 KCA 
f [3] 
Likewise as rewards given to performers of the town of Cambridge 
on the feast of the Purification of the blessed virgin Mary 2 s 
Likewise paid two painters on the third day of February for (their) 
labour for eight days for the disguising 4 s 4 d 


Likewise paid to John Careaway on the tenth day of February for the 
making of twelve robes for the disguising 10 d 
Likewise paid to Hamshire, a scholar, in partial payment of his debt 
on the roll of debts (possibly the tutors' roll) for a robe bought from 
Andrew for Christmas 6 s 11 d 

1092 TRANSLATIONS 1487-9 

King's Hall Accounts 18 TCA 
f 32 (Expenses of Great St Mary's Church) 
Likewise for a gift to the women of the aforesaid church on Hock 
Tuesday 20 d 

f 34v (Supplementary expenses) 
... Likewise 4 s for meals for three bedells and three performers on the 
Innocents' Day .... 12 d as a reward for three performers .... Likewise 
2 d for one person playing .... 

King's College Mundum Book 8.2 KCA 
f 28v (Necessary expenses) 
Likewise paid on the fourth day of August to players of the parish 
church of the blessed virgin Mary outside the Trumpington 
gates 20 d 
Likewise paid players of the parish of St Clement on the third day of 
July 8 d 

f 33 (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise as rewards given entertainers of the town of Cambridge on 
the feast of the Purification of the blessed virgin Mary 2 s 
Likewise as rewards given various persons playing in the common 
hall 8 d 

Town Treasurers" Accounts CRO: PB/X/71/4 
mb [2] (External and necessary expenses) 
... And (the treasurers seek allowance of) 2 s 8 d (spent) on wine given 
the earl of Oxford; and 20 d on sweet wine and claret wine given the 
same earl in the early morning; and 2 s 2 d for one box with two pounds 
of comfits given the same earl; and 2 s 8 d on wine given the same earl 

TRANSLATIONS 1488-90 1093 


when he returns from York; and 8 d on wine given entertainers of the 
same earl .... 

And they seek allowance of 7 s as rewards given the lord king's 
entertainers; and 2 s as rewards given the earl of Oxford's entertainers; 
and 2 s as rewards given the same earl's entertainer/s on another 
occasion, by order of the mayor of the town of Cambridge in the guild- 
Total: 11 s 

(Fees and rewards) 
...And (they seek allowance of) 18 s 9 d (spent) on livery for 
entertainers of the aforesaid town .... 


King's College Mundum Book 8.3 KCA 
f 31v* (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise as a reward given players of Madingley on St Thomas the 
Martyr's Day 4 d 
Likewise as a reward given Sir Watson on the last day of December 
for gear about the disguisings 20 d 
Likewise as rewards given performers of the town of Cambridge on 
the day of the Purification of the blessed virgin Mary 2 s 

Town Treasurers" Accounts CRO: PB/X/71/5 
mb [2] (External and necessary expenses) 
...And (the treasurers seek allowance of..) 10 d in cash paid for wine 
given the lord king's entertainer/s .... 
And (they seek allowance of) 6 s 8 d in cash paid by them as rewards 
given the lord king's entertainers; and of 3 s 4 d as rewards given 
Lucarus de Campes for the bearing of a doe from the earl of Oxford 
to the community of the town of Cambridge aforesaid; and of 
3 s 4 d as rewards given a man of the said earl for the bearing of another 
doe from the said earl to the aforesaid community. 

TRANSLATIONS 1494-6 1095 

King's College Liber Communarum 10.1 KCA 
nf (Christmas week + 6:31 January-6 February) 
(College meal allowances) 

On Sunday at dinner ... three performers (not itemized)... 

nf (St John the Baptist week + 8:15-21 August) 
(College meal allowances) 

On Sunday ... three players at dinner (not itemized)... 

nf (St John the Baptist week + 11:5-11 September) 
(College meal allowances) 
On Sunday, two performers 


King's College Liber Communarum 10.2 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas week + 10:5-11 December) 
(College meal allowances) 
Likewise for the (boy-)bishop on St Nicholas' Day 


nf* (Christmas week + 6:30 January-5 February) 
(College meal allowances) 

On the day of the Purification of blessed Mary at dinner ... Dahun 
with two colleagues and another performer (not itemized)... 

nf (Annunciation + 5:23-9 April) (College meal allowances) 
On Tuesday at dinner, three entertainers 


1096 TRANSLATIONS 1498-9 

King's College Mundum Book 8.6 KCA 
f 33 (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise on the same day for Master Carvanell for his expenses about 
plays at Christmas time 20 s 
Likewise on the sixteenth day of January paid as rewards to eight 
entertainers of the lord prince, 6 s 8 d .... 

f 33v 
Likewise on the day of the Purification of blessed Mary paid three 
performers of Cambridge for rewards 2 s 

Town Treasurers" Accounts CRO: PB/X/71/8 
mb [2] (Necessary repairs) 
... And in cash paid the same John Banester for the repair of the collars 
of entertainers called waits, 21 d .... 


mb [3] 
And as rewards given various entertainers coming to Cambridge this 
year, that is, to the lord king's entertainers, 6 s 8 d; to the lady queen's 
entertainers, 3 s 4 d; and for wine drunk then at that time, 6 d; to the 
lord prince's entertainers, 5 s; to the earl of Oxford's entertainers, 
Total: 18 s 10 d 

mb [4] (Fees and rewards) 

...And (as fees) paid for seven yards of woollen cloth bought this 
year for the livery of three entertainers of the town of Cambridge, 
15s3d .... 

TRANSLATIONS 1499-1500 1097 

King's College Mundum Book 9.1 KCA 
f 36 (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise paid Master Wyltun as rewards given the same for plays on 
Christmas, 20 s .... 
Likewise paid on the feast of the Purification of blessed Mary to 
performers of Cambridge, 2 s .... 

f 36v 

Likewise on the Commemoration of St Paul paid as rewards to the 
parishioners of blessed Mary playing and gesturing (,possibly miming) 
in the college, 3 s 4 d, (and) on drink, 4 d .... 
Likewise paid as rewards made.., in Cambridge to the lord prince's 
pipers, 3 s 4 d .... 

Town Treasurers" Accounts CRO: PB/X/71/9 
mb [2] (Entertainers" rewards) 
And likewise as rewards given various entertainers coming to 
Cambridge this year: in the first place, to the lord king's entertainers, 
6 s 8 d; to the lord prince's entertainers, 5 s; to the earl of 
Northumberland's entertainers, 2 s; to the earl of Oxford's 
entertainers, 5 s; and likewise as a reward given one entertainer coming 
to town when one entertainer of this town, called a wait, was absent 
(or failed to perform his duty), 20 d. 
Total: 20 s 4 d 

(Fees and rewards) 
...And likewise (as fees) paid for the livery of entertainers of the town 
this year, that is, for ten yards of yellow- (or orange-) brown coloured 
cloth, 10 s. 

1098 TRANSLATIONS 1500-1 

King's College Mundum Book 9.2 
f 3 lv* (Necessary expenses) 


Likewise on the ninth day of June paid John Parkar for songs, viz: 
for twenty-four carols at 4 d the carol, 8 s; and for twelve ballads at 
3 d the ballad, 3 s; and for eight ballads at 2 d the ballad, 16 d; and 
for five quires of paper royal, 3 s 4 d; and for five (parchment) covers 
at 2 d the cover, 10 d 16 s 6 d 

f 39 (Fees and rewards) 

First, as rewards given the lord prince's performers on the feast of the 
Conception of Mary 3 s 4 d 
Likewise paid on the feast of the Purification of blessed Mary to three 
performers of Cambridge as rewards 2 s 

f 40 

Likewise on the first day of July paid as rewards to the parishioners 
of St Mary playing and gesturing (possibly miming) in the 
college 3 s 4 d 

King's Hall Accounts 19 TCA 
f 187 (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise 2 s for the lord king's trumpeters .... [26 s] 7 s 10 d for 
strangers and entertainers on the Innocents' Day. Likewise payment 
was made, 12 d for performers on the Innocents' Day .... Likewise 
8 d for one entertainer of the king .... 

Town Treasurers' Accounts CRO: PB/X/71/IO 
mb [2] (Entertainers" rewards) 

And likewise as rewards given various entertainers coming to 
Cambridge this year, that is, to the earl of Northumberland's 
entertainers, 8 d; to the lady queen's entertainers, 5 s 4 d. 
Total: 5 s 12 d 


mb 11 (Fees and rewards) 
... And (as fees) paid for the livery of entertainers of the town this year, 
18s6d .... 

mb 12 (Final adjustments) 
... And 12 d (are allowed the same accountants) for entertainers on the 
feast of St Michael [and for] .... 

King's College Mundum Book 9.5 gCA 
f 31 (Fees and rewards) 
Likewise for Master Barrett for a play at Christmas time 20 s 
Likewise on the second day of February for performers of 
Cambridge 2 s 
Likewise on the seventeenth day of June for the lord king's 
performers 3 s 

King's College Mundum Book 10.1 gCA 
nf (Choristers" maintenance) [f 1] 
Likewise to Erliche('s) wife for the (boy-)bishop's 
cap 12 d 
Likewise on the eighth day of July for James, a cobbler, for forty-five 
pairs of shoes for the choristers together with one pair for the 
(boy-)bishop from Michaelmas until the aforesaid day 15 s 6 d 

nf (Necessary expenses) If 2v] 
Likewise for Master Ray for play/s at Christmas time 

20 s 

1102 TRANSLATIONS 1510-12 

King's College Mundum Book lObis.1 
nf (Choristers" maintenance) [f 1] 
Likewise for the (boy-)bishop's cap 



nf (Necessary expenses) [f 1] 
Likewise for Master West for a play at Christmas time 20 s 
nf (Fees and rewards) [f 1] 
Likewise on the second day of February in rewards given performers 
of Cambridge 2 s 
Likewise as a reward given.., the king's performers, 2 s, and the earl's 
performers, 4 d .... 

King's Hall Accounts 21 TCA 
f 137" (Supplementary expenses) 

...Likewise payment was made for performers, 12 d .... Likewise 
payment was made for a comedy of Terence as a (literally, in a) play, 
6 s 8 d .... Likewise payment was made to the wives of St Mary's and 
All Saints' Church, 12 d .... 

King's College Liber Communarum 11.1 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas week + 10:6-12 December) (College mealallowances) 
Likewise for the pittances of the (boy-)bishop on the feast of St 
Nicholas 5 s 

nf (Christmas week + 2:3-9 January) (College meal allowances) 
On Saturday at supper, five players 15 d 


moved his eyes, his hands, his lips; iust so also he spoke out in ringing 
tones, and repaid the whole price of his labour. 

King's College Liber Communarum 13.2 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas week + 10:4-10 December) 
(College meal allowances) 
On Monday at dinner ... the father of the (boy-)bishop (not 
Likewise for the pittances of the (boy-)bishop on the feast of holy 
Nicholas 5 s 

nf (Christmas week + 5: 29 January-4 February) 
(College meal allowances) 
On Wednesday at dinner... Thomas Harper, a household servant of 
the vice-chancellor, together with three performers (not itemized)... 

St John's College Statutes SJA: C1.3 
f 23v 

Concerning leaving the university and seeking permission. 

f 24 

... In the second place, while they (members of the college) are absent, 
they shall conduct themselves as becomes clerics and they shall be 
properly clad as clerics, nor shall they frequent inns unless it is 
necessary, nor any houses which they know to be of bad repute or 
suspicious, nor shall they watch forbidden shows or games/plays 
prohibited by ecclesiastical or common law, nor do any other irregular 
things, but wherever they may be, they shall strongly feel and judge 
that the yoke of the college sits upon their necks, lest their deed or 

TRANSLATIONS 1529-33 1107 

misdeed redound to the dishonour, obloquy and scandal of themselves 
or of the college .... 

f 28 

Concerning not wasting time in the hall after meals. 
...Therefore, in order to put a stop to (bad practices) in the beginning, 
we order and establish that in the said college every day after dinner 
and supper, when grace has first been said to the Almighty for things 
received and the loving-cup has been served to those wishing to drink, 
and also after those drinkings, also customarily held in the said college 
for the time being, called 'biberia' according to university custom, each 
and every one of the fellows, of whatever rank or status he may be, 
and the college servants, shall go to their studies or to other places 
without any long interval of time (and) with the master's approval. 
Neither shall the juniors be allowed to delay there longer, except when 
they must discuss in detail at once college plans or other difficult 
business affecting the college, or (when) lectures, disputations, or 
exegesis or explanations of the Bible follow immediately - (but) after 
these also are completed and done, they should go at once - or when 
a fire is built there (ie, in the hall) to the honour of God or his glorious 
mother or another saint as a solace to all the residents (of the college). 
For at that time we do allow fellows, students, and servants of the 
college to spend time in the hall after the said meals and drinkings for 
the sake of refreshment in songs and other decent amusements, in a 
respectable way becoming to clerics, and also to practise among 
themselves, compose, read, and tell poems and stories and other 
literary relaxations of this kind. 

King's Hall Accounts 24 TCA 
f 117v (Supplementary expenses) 
Likewise for performers rot trumpeters 1 
Likewise on Hock Monday for the women 
Likewise for a royal conjurer 

12 d 

TRANSLATIONS 1536-8 1109 
Likewise paid to performers of Lord Cromwell playing in the hall on 
the day of the Nativity of blessed Mary 2 s 

King's Hall Accounts 25 TCA 
f 81v (Supplementary expenses) 
Likewise for performers on the Innocents' Day 
Likewise for royal players 
Likewise for the women on Hock Monday 


Queens' College Magnum Journale QUA: Book 3 
f 27v (College furnishings) 

Likewise on the eighth day of March for Master Smyth for stage 
clothing 2 s 

f 28 

Likewise for the material of stage clothes, for six yards of Neapolitan 
fustian 10 s 
Likewise for three and a half yards of dornix 3 s 4 d 
Likewise for six hides/skins covered in gold 3 s 4 d 
Likewise for six yards of common fustian dyed in white on black and 
chequered 3 s 
Likewise for five (pieces) of damascene work 2 s 6 d 
Likewise for seven yards of red on white and six other yards at the 
same price 6 s 6 d 
Likewise for seven yards of red on green 3 s 6 d 

King's Hall Accounts 25 TCA 
f l19v (Supplementary expenses) 
Likewise for performers, 12 d .... 

!!!4 TRANSLATIONS 1544-5 

by or omit his turn at playing the lord, under pain of the loss of another 
twenty shillings, to be paid to the college within a month after the end 
of the Christmas season; unless he does so, he will lack commons in 
the meantime until he fully and faithfully pays to the college the 
aforesaid sum .... 

Letter from Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor, 
to Mattbew Parker vc CCL: ! ! 9 
pp 313-1 (18 May, London) 

...The event itself shows that all proper deference has died among you. 
Your own men deride your own affairs in your own precincts. Indeed 
they guaranteed the truth of this with ostentation in the tragedy 
Pammachius when, while (possibly because) you were looking on and 
dithering, after they deservedly hissed the bishop of Rome from the 
stage, they forced off all the doctors with the same authority by 
I do not think it right to expect that things which take place publicly 
within your bounds, and take place for the purpose of being public, 
would remain within your walls and not become known among others. 
Many understand the state of your affairs and are clearly aware of your 
disputes and disagreements. They notice many things which you do 
not imagine, and this first of all, that there is virtually no college in 
which one does not find partisanship among various factions, while 
the head at one time promotes his own interests (and) at another allows 
the helm to be blown about by the winds (of factionalism), and takes 
counsel for himself rather than for those entrusted to him. And 
(further they notice that) just as Sophocles wrote that life is sweetest 
when we are conscious of nothing, so some of your own think that 
life is safest when they are doing nothing. But they are also wrong, 
and even though they may be undisturbed for a time, those who fail 
to carry out a duty entrusted to them, sometimes offering a reason 
contrary to expectation, are surely not safe. 
Nothing of this kind happens among the Oxonians, and someone 
has said to me that there would be a more suitable administration at 
your university if the vice-chancellor were chosen by the decision of 
the chancellor alone, according to their (ie, Oxford's) example. But 
I have always shrunk from such changes except when the situation 
clearly demands them. And now I have undertaken in the matter of 
the tragedy that everything be left in your jurisdiction. Therefore, take 
care that you may be held worthy of so great a responsibility, and I 

TRANSLATIONS 1546-7 1117 

Penalty for 
those refusing 
to take parts 
in comedies or 

f 148 

Likewise on the fifteenth of January I paid to Master Yale for materials 
necessary for putting on the comedies 30 s 

Likewise for wood for constructing tripods when the comedies were 
put on 22 d 

Likewise I again paid to Master Yale for the comedies' expenses at 
Doctor Smythe's order 27 s 9*A d 

f 148v (16 May) 
Likewise to Sir Alexander and to Hutten for the furbishing of players' 
and performers' clothing 4 d 

f 149v (23 October) 
Likewise for wine and apples when the king of King's College and the 
lord of Christ's College visited us 12 d 

Queens' College Codex Chadertonianus QUA." Book 62 
p 43* 
And lest any youth (who is) a student of this college of a degree inferior 
to a master of arts (and is) not even a fellow should refuse to take part 
(in the comedy or tragedy), or be absent when the comedy or tragedy 
is being put on publicly, or in some other way behave obstinately or 
perversely at a time when he seems to the president or his deputy (to 
be) suitable to undertake some duties in the comedy or tragedy, we 
order and decree by this present (statute) that the one or ones who have 
offended in any of these matters against the decision of the president 
or his deputy shall be expelled from the college by authority of the 
same president or his deputy. 
But the rest of the fellow commoners and such scholars as are not 
bachelors of theology shall be fined five shillings for each of the 
aforesaid offences unless (the offender) has a legitimate excuse meeting 
the approval of the president and the greater part of the fellows. The 

TRANSLA'i'IONS 1547--8 1119 

f 154 (24March) 

Likewise to the same for two hooks on which clothes are put when 
the comedies are put on 3d 

f 156 

Likewise for Catharine Hall for fifty-nine feet of planks, which 
had been cut from those which we received as a loan for the 
stage 2 s 2 d 

f 157v* (s January) (Payrnentsfor college business) 
Likewise on 8 January for two lamps, (paid) by the agency of the 
president 4 s 
Likewise to the same for the gunpowder, (paid) by the agency of 
master president 8 d 
Likewise for the candied fruit, marmalade, caraway sweetmeats, and 
cakes, for wine and apples when the king of King's College, the 
emperor, and the rest came here, at the president's 
order 12 s 4 d 
Likewise for those who brought the clothing and armour on Epiphany 
Day, at the president's order 6 d 
Likewise for Master Hobby for all the armour 12 d 

(13 January) 
Likewise for Joan Prime and the rest when Persa was put 
on 12 d 
Likewise on 21 January for Master Gascoyn for some expenses as 
appears according to his bill, at the president's order 25 s 5 d 
Likewise for candles at the comedies by the agency of Sir 
Herrison 6 s 

f 158" 

Likewise on 26 January for Christopher Tailer for six bushels of coal 
when Adelphos and Heli were performed 2 s 

TRANSLATIONS 1548-9 ! 121 

If 3v] 

Likewise for the overseeing of plays at Christmas time as appears 
according to the bill 57 s 7 d 

nf (Fees and rewards) [f 1] 
Likewise for performers of Cambridge 


Queens" College Magnum Journale QUa: Book 3 
f 166v (College repairs) 
Likewise on 10 March for John Frost and Thomas Barber for six days" 
work about the stage in the hall and sifting the sand (ie, for "gravelled' 
walks) in the master's garden, and they received for a day as before 
(total): 5 s 
Likewise for wood from my faggots for the feet of benches for the stage 
and for the benches upon the screen 6 d 
Likewise for Dowse and his two sons for three and a half days' work 
about the putting up of the stage in the hall and the taking apart of 
the same 5 s 3 d 
Likewise for Lawrence Tayler and John Popler for one and a half days' 
work making benches upon the screen 21 d 

f 167 

Likewise on 29 March for new (glass) and the repair of windows in 
the hall after the president's play and for glass in the master's chamber 
and for an entire window in Thomas Alyn's chamber and for two panes 
of glass in Master Hathwey's chamber as appears according to the 
glazier's bill 10 s 2 d 

f 172 (Payments for college business) 
Likewise for six torches at Christmas time 6 s 
Likewise for the repairing (of) the drum and for sticks for the 
same 4 d 

TRANSLATIONS 1548--50 1123 


Likewise for Master Gascoyn for the same play as appears by the 
bill 10 s 
Likewise for nine ells of coarse cloth for clothes for the same 
play 9 s 
Likewise for Master Yale for the performance of Poenulus as appears 
by the bill 5 s 5 d 
Likewise for Bysill to buy masks and other things for master 
president's play at his order 20 d 
Likewise for laths and pasteboard for the same play as 
appears 4 s 9 d 

(24 March) 
Likewise for Mother Lewyn for the furbishing of the chamber above 
the actors'(.") room and of the store-room below 4 d 

f 175v* (30 March) (College furnishings) 
Likewise for string for the stage in the master's chamber near the 
fireplace 8 d 

f 176 

Likewise on the same day for two hooks for master president's play 
to Bankes, a smith 


Black Parchment Book CUA: Collect. Admin. 9 
p 62* 
No one shall be a lord of games at Christmas in whatever way he is titled. 

Queens" College Magnum Journale QUA." Book 3 
f 188v* (19 December) (Payments for college business) 

Likewise for written fascicules at the performance of the 


TRANSLATIONS 1558-60 1131 


Utinam CUA: Collect. Admin. 13 
f 13v* 

On 12 May 1559, at the suit of Jerome, a piper, and his associates, 
Widow Prime was called before the vice-chancellor because under 
the pretext of a debt she took away from the said Jerome and (his) 
associates all the reed-pipes called the wait pipes, in contravention 
of the agreement reached among them before. Finally the 
disagreement was settled in this way: that the aforesaid widow should 
give all her pipes, the wait pipes, as a loan in order that the said Jerome 
and (his) associates might be able to use them; and Jerome and (his) 
associates ought to pay in turn to the widow four pounds a year, for 
as long as they have the said pipes, for the use of them. And one of 
these pipers, whose name is Watson, ought to pay to the aforesaid 
widow ten shillings a year, until the sum of forty shillings has been 
paid. And the aforesaid Jerome and (his) associates will have the use 
of the aforesaid pipes for the period of five years. And the said 
Watson ought to pay in all for the period of four years 30 s, ten 
shillings of which are from an old debt. Therefore it is agreed among 
the aforesaid parties, that is, the widow and Watson, that the said 
Watson will pay 10 s a year as above, beyond the 20 s for the rent 
of the wait pipes. 

Trinity College Statutes 
p 71" 

TCA: Box 34, Statutes 5 

Of the comedies and plays shown at Christmas 
Chapter 24 

Nine domestic readers shall put on individual comedies and tragedies 
in pairs so that the youth may spend the Christmas season with greater 
profit, except for the senior reader, whom we wish to show one 
comedy or tragedy on his own. And they shall be responsible for 
putting on all these comedies or tragedies in the hall privately or 
publicly during the aforesaid Twelve Days or a little afterwards at the 
will of the master and eight senior (fellows). But if they do not make 
themselves responsible, then for each comedy or tragedy omitted, each 
one of those by whose negligence it was omitted shall be fined ten 

1136 TRANSLATIONS 1563--4 

ff 33-3v (6 August) 
(It is) a wonderful thing, and worthy to be committed to the 
memories of the ages, that our most august lady (queen) had been 
enkindled with such a great desire to learn that she even passed 
sleepless nights at which time she might either hear the renowned 
history of ancient times or recollect the monuments of the old poets. 
When indeed the leading men of the university learned of this 
measureless thirst for understanding and knowledge, they took into 
account not only the days and daylight hours (ie, of her visit), but also 
the nights and hours of darkness. For they appointed some of their 
own number to reproduce the dramatic actions and verses of tragedies, 
comedies, and other plays in such a way that she might drink of the 
sweetness of all these things with, as it were, some pleasure, should 
she wish to attend to these little light entertainments in the course of 
the more serious affairs of state. 
In addition, so that these nocturnal performances might be the more 
easily presented to the eyes and ears of all and so that one might watch 
the more freely away from every outside disturbance, (they decided 
that) there should be some structure (made) from rather thick beams, 
five feet in height, whose length and breadth would be sufficient for 
a stage of some sort in the chapel of King's, which is a site most elegant 
on account of (its) design and quite extensive on account of its size. 
To this (stage) a path, which was raised from ground level bit by bit, 
is constructed from the upper sanctuary of the chapel, whereby the 
queen might go up safe from the tumult of the onlookers onto this 
higher construction on which a rather conspicuous place along some 
steps, which is her royal I highness's throne, screened with tapestries 
woven with gold, is prepared for her in such a way that she herself 
might easily be seen by all the spectators. Other seats are also put up 
for the noblemen and noblewomen in that space which subdivides the 
middle of this chapel and in other appropriate places next to this empty 
space which the queen decided to sit opposite alone. Royal servants 
were carrying lit torches in (their) hands at the sides of the structure 
since there was not enough light on account of the night-time darkness. 
The materials and decoration in this theatre of King's having been 
set up, that very witty comedy of Plautus which they call Aulularia 
was performed in the dead of night on Sunday, by the pleasantries of 
which she seemed to be somewhat moved, as it were by a country 
dance. And although some, whether accustomed to sleep (at that hour) 
or by lack of skill in Latin dialogue, took the squandering of so many 
hours amiss, she herself nevertheless remained until the last 'Plaudite' 



with a very cheerful expression, nor did she offer even any pretext of 
But it will be unnecessary to relate how much wit attended the very 
funny work of Plautus because of the diligence and great efforts of Dr 
Kelke. For it was so decided by common resolution that he be made 
as it were the revered master of all the ornamentation, action, and gear, 
to know well how to take part in stage plays, since he had been in his 
day another Roscius. Four younger masters chosen from the four 
larger and more numerous colleges are also given to him as companions 
and fellows of (his) watches, who have sweated more than the rest over 
the educating of youth. These took charge of the comedy and one 
tragedy, as if (they were) the servants of the whole university. The 
students of King's College wanted other performances to be their own. 
But the time had come for bodies tired by these rather vigorous 
pastimes to be refreshed. And when the queen has been led down with 
honour to the hall, everyone goes away to their various lodgings. 

ff 48v-9 (7August) 

In the silence of this night, a tragic poem of Dido and Aeneas is 
brought onto the stage, made up in large part of verses from Virgil. 
A former fellow of King's College endured the efforts of stitching 
together whereby he imitated the song of Virgil with enthusiasm for 
learning but with a weaker instrument, but he worked out the 
successive events of the story into I the form of a tragedy in a not 
infelicitous way. (It was) a new work, but lovely and polished, and 
approved by the judgment of the doctors, unless by chance it should 
offend in some way the fastidious and exacting by its length. King's 
College provided all the actors. The stage itself is set up in that place 
which we noted had been built in the chapel on the previous day. After 
the queen had been busied with this sad misfortune of Dido for some 
hours, she betook herself at last to rest, (which is) pleasing to mortals. 
And here was the end of the third day. 

ff 49-9v (8 August) 
This night showed that heroic deed of Hezekiah at the time when 
he, inflamed with zeal for the divine honour, shattered the brazen 
image of the serpent. From this holy source Nicholas I Udall drew off 
just as much as he thought sufficient to the true stature of (his) comedy, 
and he put all of it into English rhythmic prose, and called it by 

1138 TRANSLATIONS 1563-4 

Hezekiah's name. But (it was) a wonderful thing how many 
pleasantries, how much charm (he put) here in this so serious, holy, 
and truthful matter without, nonetheless, interrupting its sure course. 
The queen deigned to be present. The students of King's College 
performed again alone. After enough had been seen, how pleasing was 
the time for rest! These things (were) done on the fourth day. 

ff 87v-8 (9 August) 
After such great labours had been endured in the daytime, it was 
not possible to plan for so excellent a prince to bury herself in 
nocturnal study as well, wherefore it was decided that she should not 
even catch sight of the not unworthy furies of Ajax in Sophoclean 
tragedy even though the supervisors of the plays had both decorated 
the entire stage for a tragedy and had the choicest actors made ready, 
and also had not been chary of either expense or I late hours. For they 
brought down arms of war, clothes shining in splendour, and all the 
rest of the gear from London (and) other very remote places, chose 
people from the various parts of the university, (and) found a site 
suitable and large enough. Even if all this endeavour were made in 
King's (College) Chapel, that one (lady) alone was not there who could 
be the author and mover of all this activity. And so, most 
inconveniently, we who were desirous of seeing that Ajax in his 
madness (or that Ajax Flagellifer) did not even happen to see that 
madman begin to speak, although we believe firmly that it was most 
appropriate (to do so) for the good health of the prince, in which our 
own (good health) and that of the state are subsumed, which we ought 
to wish for even with groans from God the greatest and best, so that 
she might reign unharmed and in safety for a very long time. Therefore 
that night the tragedy was silent. 


Abraham Hartwell, Regina Literata sTc: 12897 
sigs Ciiij-iiijv* 

Meantime the night draws near, the hour at which one plays by 
Phoebus dips his panting horses in the deep. 
In the royal temple, the vast construction of a great theatre I 
Stood, made of knotty oak. 

TRANSLAT|ONS 1563-4 1139 


In that place, the young men prepare happy spectacles, 
The subject of the ancient stage and many jests; 
Also the tragic rage of iron, the complaining tragic actors, 
Mournful funerals in which they sound in sad misfortune. 
Who (would) dare to offer (her) Majesty melodious trifles, 
To have placed before her petty pantomimists? 
The most stingy Euclio sleeps upon the buried gold, 
And the miser hides his wealth as if he does not have it. 
The cash, evilly entrusted, alas!, to Silvanus, 
Has perished, despoiled by the hand of the thieving slave. 
That stupid man lost his mind along with his cash: mad, 
He decided to enter the infernal lakes in his sorrow. 
(But) a youth restored the cash: to him the daughter, 
Chaste daughter of an unworthy father, is given in marriage. 
As the east grows bright, the next morning rises red, 
And the Sun loosens the reins of his horses which are about to fly. 

sigs Djv-iiij 
The tragic story Night falls, and a great and ancient work 
of Dido and Of high-sounding history resounds with tragic cries: 
How great Aeneas, carried by sea across all the seas, I 
Reached as an exile the fields of Sydonian soil, 
With his goddess mother showing the way, following the fates granted 
(to him). 
He seeks both a refuge in dire straits and succour. 
Dido received (him) and established him in a share of her kingdom, 
And Juno as pronuba lit their sacred wedding torches. 
They go hunting, a terrible storm forces (them) 
Into one cave: here was their marriage rite. 
Pious Aeneas delays; fallen from on high 
The messenger of the gods bore (him) heavenly commands: 
'Do you not see the kingdoms granted by fate and the promised 
(And) whatever kingdoms lie under the western sky? 
Do not the Lycian prophecies, nor Lavinia (your) wife, 
Nor (your) son Ascanius nor the granted fates move you at all?' 
Nor was that a dream. But in broad daylight 
He enjoyed a meeting and converse with a god. 
By the warning of the gods he compels his comrades to the beaches, 
He readies the fleet, he prepares together arms and flight. 

TRANSLATIONS 1563--4 1141 

Address to 
the Queen 

The great host in dusky armour proves his words. 
One might say that no darkness was so thick. 
Whatever sort of people (live) under the sun were there, even the 
painted Agathyrsi 
And those whom the rising Phoebus beholds in warm climates. 
Who, Jerusalem, has seen that you trembled at such great tumult, 
That you have been astounded at such great evils? 
The king, troubled in his heart by unforeseen war, 
Speaks sad words before the altar as he prays: 
'Almighty, because indeed the constant care of thine own 
Concerns thee, nor art thou accustomed to hesitate for long, 
O take arms with us, we pray, and fight: 
If you do not, (there is) no hope, no help. 
Captured, we die, nor has our fortune any recourse, 
And already now the bloody fates drag forth (their) miserable 
They call for war: let them call again, while the faithless foe 
Demands that not we, but thy Godhead, go to war.' 
He spoke: the matrons and young wives sigh out (their) devout 
Behind them, the youths seek God in (their) hearts. 
The first sleep scarcely closed the eyes of the Assyrians, 
Scarcely was there a respite at the beginning of night: 
A secret plague, unknown, enters the camp, whose 
Onset (is) one with the failing of life. 
It spreads, alas!, with a soft touch, and deceives the sleepers 
And spews bitter poison in unknown ways. 
The irreligious throng lies still, harsh Fate frees 
Scarcely anyone of so great an army from the evils (she has) loosed. 
Huge in armament and of a huge body, Rabsaccus 
Suffers death from no wound. 
One day had sent all the Syrians to war; 
One day destroyed those sent to war. 
So the twofold tragedy was allotted a happy ending, 
The offerings of the youth of King's were slight. 
Live long, most gracious lady! Nothing in the whole world is 
more famous 
Nothing in the world more courteous than this (our) ruler. 
For what have we given you ? With what gifts, O Queen, have we stayed 
You? What of ours was sweet (enough) for you 
That you would sit, tired, for long hours and nights 
While the actor spouts hoarse sounds from (his) throat? 

1142 TRANSLATIONS 1563-4 

For what good are clumsy verse, tragical stories, 
Light scenes? (They are) nothing except noise. 
Why loud trifles, and tearful Dido ordered 
Once again to die of a feigned wound? 
And why (is) Aeneas an exile again, and walls made like 
Those which used to be of rising Tyre? 
Or why do the people of Palestine (suffer) renewed dangers, 
Once deadly to (their) author? 
At least you recognize the small offerings of the grateful throng; 
Although the gifts are less than your majesty. 
We devote ourselves to you as much, O Most August Lady, as 
Although our gift is neither great nor even adequate. 

Letters from Guzmdn de Silva to the King of Spain 
Simancas: Archivo General, Legajo 817 
f 76 (7 August) 
As I have written to your Majesty, the queen is to visit several places 
in the neighbourhood and will not return until the end of September, 
but she will not go far, and is already at the most distant point in her 
journey, a town called Cambridge, where there is a university. They 
are celebrating there some literary ceremonies and representations 
which have greatly pleased her. 

f 78 (12 August) 

The queen has been at Cambridge where there were some dramatic 
representations by the students, and the gathering where the 
propositions mentioned in my letter of the 7 'h instant were discussed, 
and she has now departed to finish her iourney, which has been 
shortened, and she will arrive some days before the time arranged .... 

Letter from Guzmdn de Silva to the Duchess of Parma 
Simancas: Archivo General, Legajo 817 
f 82* (19 August) 

When the queen was at Cambridge they represented comedies and held 
scientific disputations, and an argument on religion, in which the man 



who defended Catholicism was attacked by those who presided, in 
order to avoid having to give him the prize. The queen made a speech 
praising the acts and exercises, and they wished to give her another 
representation which she refused, in order to be no longer delayed. 
Those who were so anxious for her to hear it, followed her to her first 
stopping-place, and so importuned her that at last she consented. The 
actors came in dressed as some of the imprisoned bishops. First came 
the bishop of London carrying a lamb in his hands as if he were eating 
it as he walked along, and then others with different devices, one being 
in the figure of a dog with the Host in his mouth. They write that the 
queen was so angry that she at once entered her chamber using strong 
language, and the men who held the torches, it being night, left them 
in the dark, and so ended the thoughtless and scandalous 

Thomas Fuller, Outline History of the University JEL: R.2.5 
opening 27 
The queen visited Cambridge where she, greeted by scholarly 
comedies and tragedies and entertained by scholastic disputations, 
travelled through each college .... 


For William 
Gibbons against 
William Mason 

Utinam CUA: Collect. Admin. 13 
f 87v* (26 March) 
On which, etc, William Gibbons appeared and sought from Mason 
24 s 8 d owed for a musical instrument called a tenor hautboy, as 
appears by the said Mason's bond, in the presence of the said Mason 
acknowledging that the aforesaid things were true. Wherefore the lord 
(vice-chancellor) decreed with the consent of the said Gibbons that 
12 s 4 d were to be paid by Mason on the next feast of St John the 
Baptist and that 12 s 4 d were to be paid on the 12 th of September next 
to come after the date of this writing. And the said Mason provided 
guarantors for the said payments: Christopher Russell, burgess and 
chandler; Michael Auger, waferer; and Richard Gravers, shoemaker, 
who, after the bond had been formulated according to the law, 
promised, etc, with expenses. 

TRANSLATIONS 1569--73 1145 

f 12" 
The ceremonies of salting new students shall be completely abolished 
on account of the many inconveniences which result from them; 
nevertheless, small expenditures at banquets can be retained. 

f 12v* 
No one shall be a lord of games at Christmas, by whatever name he 
is called, without the consent of the chancellor and the heads of the 

Peterhouse Computus Roll 
single mb (Payments within college) 
... And (they account) for 7 s 6 d for James Silcocke building a stage 
in the hall for the comedy. And for2 s 6 d for twelve pounds of candles 
for the comedy. And for 20 d for the steward for wine at the dinner 
party. And for 8 d for repairing the cressets in the hall .... 

(Pensions and wages) 
...And (they account) for 16 d for pipers' wages .... 

Peterhouse Computus Roll 
single mb* (Payments within college) 
...And (they account) for 8 d for nails (or keys) for the comedies. And 
for 16 d for the carriage of a bench. And for 8 s 6 d for candles. And 
for 6 d for yellow-coloured (or earthenware) candlesticks .... And for 
11 s 5 d for James Silcocke and others for the construction of a stage 
in the hall. And for 16 d for a huntsman for his dogs. And for 12 d 
for a painter. And for 3 s 4 d for a joiner repairing the cressets in the 
hall .... 

(Pensions and wages) 
...And (they account) for 16 d for pipers' wages .... 


my Pedantius, which I - while the playful folly of my youth was 
strong - put on with masked actors to be seen in university theatre, 
that in this kind of thing excessively stupid and putrid dulness would 
be laughed at .... 


Letter from Andrew Perne vc and Heads to Lord Burgbley, 
Chancellor 13L: Lansdowne 33, Art. 29 
f 58* (2s April) 

Forgive (us), we pray, most honourable Burleigh, if we introduce 
among your very great responsibilities - which now scarcely leave you 
time to breathe - a brief complaint, but yet a necessary one: be, we 
beg, as willing to defend our liberties as you were to help us obtain 
them. But you shall know all of our petition in a few words. Last 
Sunday, (a day) especially intended for holy matters, some hardly sane 
people from our neighbouring Chesterton put on a public show of 
bear-baiting so that their effrontery might act as a check to the exercise 
of devotion. When the vice-chancellor iudged that they should be 
immediately warned by the proctor about this matter and that they 
should be cited as the authors of such a great crime, a riotous 
intervention was made by an unruly pair of brothers whom they call 
the Parises, who were punished for their improper behaviour a few 
years ago in a similar case by a senior judge (possibly the chief justice?). 
But then when the proctor was the more insistent to do his duty and 
wondered what this their signal disobedience was supposed to 
accomplish, he received an abusive reply from them. For they said that 
he was a wretch and clearly of the common sort and that his magistracy 
was worthless, and they bragged that the authority of the university 
would count for nothing in their eyes. They also made threats and were 
carried to such a pitch of fury that, unless our men had remitted 
somewhat their proper severity, there was a danger that they would 
have sent away the proctor together with all his men badly hurt. 
We are not concerned by how shameful an event this is, that our 
privileges - which have been nonetheless dear to you as a result of 
your singular patronage - are scorned by the unlettered mob; this only 
we warn, that unless steps are taken to curb this unrestrained licence 
at once and quickly, there will be a convenient loophole available to 
them for this meretricious occupation and a whole most impure cohort 
of crimes, since this one was planned with impunity. And since it is 
not right for us to administer any healing medicine to this deep-seated 
disease, we beg for your providential help - which is usually very 

1150 TRANSLATIONS 1580-3 



ready to hand in adverse circumstances - with as much humility as 
But if at some time, after the more important business of the realm 
is done, you should summon those two Parises and their remaining 
fellows in the same plot by one of the royal messengers and impose 
a penalty suited to such great crimes, then you will without doubt 
discomfit the daring, now strengthened, of evil folk; you will protect 
our liberties from destruction; you will block every entrance for an 
evil (which is) increasing every day; and you will by this act add by 
far the greatest consummation to the rest of your good deeds for the 
university. But we behave stupidly to warn carelessly him from whom 
we ought to seek counsel. Wherefore, most illustrious Burghley, we 
entrust this common cause of the university in its entirety, important 
and worrisome (as it is) to your judgment. We leave the fuller narration 
of it to our courier lest by writing too much we are troublesome .... 

Depositions concerning a Bearbaiting at Cbesterton 
BL: Lansdowne 33, Art. 32 
ff 64-5 

(The following is the conclusion of English depositions) 
A careful comparison having been . I Matthew Stokys, notary 
made and checked with the original f" public, do so attest. 

And we, Andrew Perne, professor of sacred theology, vice-chancellor 
of the gracious university of Cambridge, inasmuch as we have, at the 
humble petition of the aforesaid proctor, required oath-taking and 
heard the depositions of each and every one of the aforementioned 
witnesses, we therefore affix the seal of our office to the present 
(document) in faith and witness of all the aforementioned on the sixth 
day of the month of May in the year of the Lord 1581 and the twenty- 
third year of the reign of our lady Queen Elizabeth, etc. 

Buckle Book CUA: Collect. Admin. 6a 
p 228* (23 February) 
e lord (vice-chancellor)ex officio against Sir Mudde of Pembroke 
Sir Mudde of Pembroke Hall, BA, is committed to prison (in) the 
Tolbooth for three days, because in a stage production or comedy that 
he himself had composed he seemed to have represented the mayor 
of the town of Cambridge and to have portrayed him in too much 

TRANSLATIONS 1582-6 1151 

Bloodshed: 3 s 
4 d in the care 
of the lord 

detail. And on 26 February, the same Mudde, by order of the lord vice- 
chancellor, acknowledged his fault before the aforesaid mayor and 
begged pardon from the same, who in the presence of me, Matthew 
Stokes, willingly agreed to his request. 

On the same day, Miles Mosses, MA, is imprisoned in the Tolbooth 
because he broke the head of Master Thexton and shed blood while 
the stage production was being put on in Pembroke Hall. And 
moreover he is fined 3 s 4 d for the shedding of blood. 

Ex officio proceedings (of the lord vice-chancellor) against Evaunce 
On the same day, (blank) Evaunce, scholar of Pembroke Hall, is 
committed to jail for three days because, (although he was) summoned 
by the bedell, he hid and failed to appear before the lord vice- 
chancellor. And on 25 February in public, in School Street (literally, 
in public or open School Street) before all the schoolboys he was 
beaten, because he proposed offensive, stupid, and insulting questions 
during the disputation-exercise of the questionists and because he laid 
about with a club and threw stones when the stage plays were being 
shown at Corpus Christi College. 


Buckle Book CUA: Collect. Admin. 6a 
pp 351-2 
Certain acts in the case of John Smyth, MA 
On the first day of Lent 1585 according to, etc, the aforesaid master 
preached. In that preaching, some of his statements offered an occasion 
of offence. He therefore appeared on 21 February before Doctor 
Perne, the lord deputy of the vice-chancellor, in the presence of 
Doctors Styli, Bell, Norgate, Legge, and Hatcher, and of Master 
Barwell, and by his own manual subscription acknowledged that he 
had spoken the following words, that is: If what I have heard be true, 
I certainly curse plays of that sort, both the actors and the onlookers. 
If I were to use my own judgment concerning them (ie, the 
participants), I would certainly think they were either damned or to 
be devils in the future. O the times, o the manners, o the magistracies ! 
(English) to be on holiday from the setting of the sun on the previous 
day; to take a holiday from the common duties of life for twenty-four 
hours on the sabbath by divine law. 

1152 TRANSLATIONS 1585-6 

On 26 February in the year of the Lord 1585 according to, etc, in the 
great chamber of the lord vice-chancellor of the gracious university 
of Cambridge, Humphrey Tyndall, professor of sacred theology, 
within Queen's College in the presence of the aforesaid vice- 
chancellor; Doctors Styli, Goad, Peter Baro, Norgate, and Legg; and 
Masters Chaderton, Whitacres, and Barwell, bachelors of sacred 
theology, the following questions were proposed by John Smyth, MA, 
collected from a sermon ad clerum delivered by him on the first day 
of Lent in the aforesaid year. To these questions, the aforesaid Smyth 
replied as follows and the aforesaid vice-chancellor and the rest of 
those sitting stated their judgment on the aforesaid questions as 

Whether the Christian sabbath must by divine law be celebrated from 
evening to evening 

Smyth No 
the rest 

Whether the length of time of the Lord's Day must by divine law 
extend for the period of twenty-four hours 

Smith Yes 
all the rest No 

Whether the Christian sabbath be violated when something is done 
that would be neither necessary nor of a religious nature. 

All the rest 

Yes; only "necessary' shall not be 
interpreted too strictly 
No; only those actions shall not 
hinder religious observance or even 
be a slight stumbling-block to 
the brethren 

Whether Christians are as strictly bound to the observance of the 
Lord's Day with respect to works as the Jews are to the observance 
of the Sabbath 

Smyth No 
the rest 

TRANSLATIONS 1585-90 1153 

And subsequently the aforesaid Smyth promised and took upon 
himself to interpret his viewpoint on the doubtful matters 
ambiguously put forward by him in the aforesaid sermon more 
broadly, more fully, and more plainly in another sermon ad clerum 
to be delivered either at the end of this term or the beginning of the 
coming (one), with this provision, however, that he shall present in 
advance what he is going to say in writing to the lord vice-chancellor 
in good faith and after the same has been approved by his (the vice- 
chancellor's) iudgment in all respects, he shall teach the people in his 
sermon ad clerum. 


St John's College, Fellows" Petition to the Commissioners 
CUA: CUR 93 (Art. 9) 
f 2v 
Nor shall there be any lord of games, lotteries, rituals of salting, and 
ceremonies of whatever kind made use of unless permission be asked 
for and obtained from the lord vice chancellor and the master of the 

St John's College, 43 Complaints against William Whitaker, Master 
CUA: CUR 6.1 (Art. 35) 
f 2* 

(Charge) Sixteen: Under chapter ten of the statutes, students may 
perform in comedies or tragedies to be held according to the discretion 
of the reader in humane letters and the will of the rest of the examiners. 

King's College Mundum Book 19.3 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas term) (Fees and rewards) [f 1] 
Likewise paid to musicians on the Coronation Day 



(Christmas term) 
Likewise paid to some piper, a new-comer, in rewards 
Likewise paid to musicians at the Purification 
Likewise paid to a piper 

12 d 
12 d 









Commissary's Court Book CuA: Comm. Ct. II.4 
f 42* 

Personal replies of William Bird to the positions and articles of a matter 
or an allegation given ex parte William Gibbon in a case of injury 
moved by the said Gibbon against the aforesaid William Byrd, made 
on the sixth day of July in the year of the Lord 1590 before Master 
William Revell, t.t.B, surrogate of the venerable man, Master Thomas 
Legge, LLD, commissary of the University of Cambridge, etc, in the 
upper chamber of the said lord surrogate within Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, in the presence of me, John Smithe, notary public, etc. 

To the first article he replies that he does not believe anything 
contained in this article to be true. 

To the second article he replies that he does not believe anything 
contained in this article to be true. 

To the third article he replies that he believes the things contained in 
this article to be true. 

To the fourth article he replies that he does not believe anything 
contained in this article to be true. 

To the fifth article he replies that he does not believe anything 
contained in this article to be true. 

To the sixth article he replies that the things confessed by him before 
are true, etc; and that he believes the things (which were) believed by 
him and does not believe the things (which were) not believed by him; 
and that he does not believe otherwise. 

To the seventh article he replies that he does not believe this article 
to contain in it truth in any particular. 

The sign of William Bird: WB 

TRANSLATIONS 1589-90 ! 155 






ff 44v-5v* 

Depositions of the witnesses produced ex parte William Gibbon upon 
the positions and articles of a matter or an allegation given ex parte 
the said Gibbon in a case of injury moved by him against William Bird, 
made on the fifth day of September in the year of the Lord 1590 before 
Master Thomas Legge, LLD, commissary of the gracious University 
of Cambridge, etc, in his upper chamber within Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, in the presence of me, John Smithe, notary 
public, etc. 

Richard Walker of Cambridge in the county of Cambridge - formerly 
a chamberlain at the sign of the Falcon in the aforesaid city of 
Cambridge - where he has stayed for about half of the last year past, 
before (which) (he was) at Newmarket in the county of Suffolk for 
the space of one year for thereabouts 1 and earlier at Cambridge 
aforesaid for the space of two years or thereabouts, born at Langham 
in the county of Norfolk, twenty years of age or thereabouts, of a free 
condition, as he says, having been examined as the first witness in this 
case, deposes as follows, that is: 

To the first article he deposes (English). And that otherwise he does 
not know how to depose. 

To the second article he does not know how to depose. 

To the third article he deposes (English). And otherwise he does not 
know how to depose. 

To the fourth article he does not know how to depose, but submits 
himself to the law. 

To the fifth article he does not know how to depose. 

To the sixth article he deposes that the things deposed by him before 
are true, etc, and that otherwise he does not know how to depose. 
To the seventh article he does not know how to depose but he submits 
himself to the law. 
(signature of Richard Walker) 

John/kndrewe, minstrel, of Cambridge in the county of Cambridge, 
where he has stayed [for the period] without interruption from the 

1156 TRANSLATIONS 1589--91 








feast of Easter last past, (and) earlier at Bradenham in the county (of) 
Buckingham with the honourable man, the lord of Windsor, for the 
space of four years or thereabouts, born at Walthamstow in the county 
(of) Essex, twenty-two years of age or thereabouts, of a free condition, 
as he says, having been examined as the second witness in this case, 
deposes as follows, that is: 

To the first article he deposes in the affirmative (English). And 
otherwise he does not know how to depose. 

To the second article he deposes in the affirmative. 

To the third article he deposes (English). And that otherwise he does 
not know how to depose. 

To the fourth article he deposes that he submits himself to the law and 
that otherwise he does not know. 

To the fifth article he does not know how to depose. 

To the sixth article he deposes that the things deposed by him before 
are true, etc, and that otherwise he does not know how to depose. 

To the seventh article he deposes in the affirmative. 

The sign of John Andrew 

King's College Mundum Book 19.4 KCA 
nf (Christmas term) (Fees and rewards) If 1] 

Likewise paid to the earl of Derby's trumpeters in rewards 
on the feast of the Epiphany 3 s 4 d 
Likewise paid to Gibon, the musician, on the feast of the 
Purification 2 s 

Likewise paid in rewards to three trumpeters on Shrove 





Allegations o]: William Bird against William Gibbons 
CUA: V.C. Ct. 1.72 (6.9) 
single sheet* 

Before you, the honourable man Master Robert Some, professor of 
sacred theology of the gracious university of Cambridge, vice- 
chancellor, or any other judge whomsoever competent in this matter, 
the party of the honest man William Birde of Cambridge against 
William Gibbons, son of (blank) Gibbons of the aforesaid Cambridge 
and also against any other person lawfully coming before you in 
judgment on behalf of the same (William Gibbons), by summary 
means, for all better and more efficacious, etc, also for the purpose 
of the benefit of law, (its) effect, etc, states, alleges, and in these 
writings deposes article by article in law as follows, that is, 

First, (English) in the month of November in the year of the Lord 1590 
instant and on the twenty-first day of the aforesaid month of 
November, between the hours of 3:00 and 4:00 am of the same day - 
nevertheless, that party (ie, that of William Gibbons) deposes another 
day and another hour - (English) - nevertheless, that party deposes 
another period of time - and (that party) pleads that another deed or 
some other deeds of the aforesaid William Gibbons occurred and was/ 
were done against the aforesaid William Birde at the time and place 
aforesaid. And he deposes (concerning these facts) jointly (and) 
severally, and concerning any (of them) (that they are true). 
Likewise that the said William Birde estimates the aforesaid injury at 
the value of 40 s of legal English money and he would not wish to be 
paid the sum of 40 s of the same money in order that he might endure 
an injury of this kind, but he would rather lose the sum of 40 s of the 
same money from his own goods than suffer the aforesaid injury. And 
he deposes as above. 
Likewise that the same William Birde was and is of the aforesaid 
Cambridge and a household servant or iommon servant of the 
university of Cambridge and by this (same) pretext and by reason of 
the aforementioned facts and due to other causes the said William 
Gibbons was and is a subject of, and subject to the jurisdiction of, the 
lord vice-chancellor of the university of Cambridge. And he deposes 
as above. 
Likewise that each and every one of the aforementioned matters had 
been and is true, public, well-known, manifest, and also recognized; 
and concerning and about the same common talk and repute flourished 

1158 TRANSLATIONS 1590-1 






and now flourish in the aforesaid Cambridge and in other places 
neighbouring and surrounding the same. And he deposes as above. 

Wherefore, an oath having been made, etc, the party of the same 
William Birde seeks that right and justice be done and effectively 
served on his behalf in each and every one of the aforementioned points 
concerning these matters by you and your definitive decision or your 
final decree, lord Judge aforesaid, together with the expenses incurred 
and to be incurred on his behalf in this matter. Deposing the 
aforementioned and seeking that (the aforesaid) be done jointly and 
severally, not constraining himself, etc, but as much, etc, by benefit 
of law, etc, by humbly petitioning your office, lord Judge aforesaid. 

Commissary's Court Book CUA: Comm. Ct. 11.4 
ff 45v-6v* 

The fourteenth of December 1590 
John Martyn, chamberlain, of Newmarket in the county of 
Cambridge, (English) where he has stayed for the space of the last two 
months past (and) earlier at Cambridge in the aforesaid county of 
Cambridge for the space of ten years or thereabouts, born at Hadleigh 
in the county of Suffolk, twenty years of age or thereabouts, of a free 
condition, as he says, examined as the third witness in the case, 
deposed as follows, that is: 

To the first article he deposes (English). And otherwise he does not 
know how to depose. 

To the second article he deposes that he believes the things contained 
in this article to be true and otherwise he does not know for certain 
how to depose. 

To the third article he deposes (English). And that otherwise he does 
not know how to depose. 

To the fourth article he deposes that he does not know how to depose 
but he submits himself to the law in this regard. 

To the fifth article he does not know how to depose. 

.6. To the sixth article he deposes that the things deposed by him before 


are true, etc, and that he believes the things which were believed by 
him and otherwise he does not know how to depose. 
To the seventh article he deposes that he believes the things contained 
in this article to be true and otherwise he does not know how to 
(signature of John Martyn) 



f 66v 

The personal replies of William Gibbon of Cambridge to the positions 
and articles of the bill of exceptions given elsewhere ex parte William 
Bird in a cause of injury moved against the same William Bird by the 
aforesaid William Gibbon, made on the third day of February in the 
year of the Lord according to the reckoning (of the English church) 
1591 before Master William Revell, LH3, duly constituted surrogate 
of Master Thomas Legge, LLD, commissary of the University of 
Cambridge, etc, in the upper chamber of the said lord surrogate within 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in the presence of me, John Smithe, notary 
public, etc. 

To the first article he replies that he submits himself to the law and 
that otherwise he does not believe anything contained in this article 
to be true. 



To the second article he replies that he does not believe anything 
contained in the article to be true. 

To the third article he replies that he believes (English). And that 
otherwise he does not believe anything contained in this article to be 


To the fourth article he replies that the things confessed by him before 
are true, etc, and that he believes the things (which were) believed by 
him and does not believe the things (which were) not believed by him. 
And that otherwise he does not believe anything contained in this 
article to be true. 

The sign of William Gibbon 

1162 TRANSLATIONS 1595-6 



nf (Christmas term) (Repairs in Cambridge) [f 2] 

First, paid to Peere and a servant working in the hall about the stages 
for 2 days 4 s 
Likewise paid for three workmen about the same task 3 s 

Complaint concerning a Bearbaiting at the Elephant 
CUA: V.C. Ct. 1.74 
f 4* (14 June) 
The office of the lord (vice-chancellor) against the aforesaid Knightes 
at the promotion of the senior proctor 

Because it appeared from the account and testimony of the senior 
proctor that after several days had passed (English), he therefore 
condemned the aforesaid Knightes to pay the sum of forty shillings 
of lawful English money to the use of the university according to the 
tenor of the statutes of the same together with the ordinary expenses 
(of the court). And he turned him (ie, Knightes) over to (the proctor?) 
for execution (of this sentence) until he fully pays the aforesaid sum 
of 40 s together with expenses. 

Acta Curiae cuA: V.C. Ct. 1.3 
ff 109v-10* (Saturday, 28 August) 
Office of the lord (vice-chancellor) against Brigit Edmunds, wife of 
John Edmunds, Jr, of Cambridge, MA, of the parish of St Botolph in 
the same place 

And because the said Brigit Edmunds was and is a person enjoying 
the privileges of the gracious university of Cambridge, this business 
has been and is being made known and signified to the aforesaid lord 
vice-chancellor, together with a copy of the aforesaid detection by the 
official of the lord archdeacon of Ely, before whom the said Brigit has 
previously appeared and refused the jurisdiction of the said lord 
official. Therefore, a decree is being issued by the aforesaid lord vice- 
chancellor for the said Brigit Edmunds to appear at those, etc, and to 
reply to the aforesaid article or the aforesaid presentment. On which, 
etc, ihe said Brigit appeared in accordance with the warning given her 
by Benjamin Prime, bedell. When the aforesaid article was charged 

TRANSLATIONS 1595-6 1163 

against the aforementioned Brigit Edmunds, the same Brigit denied 
that the aforesaid article and the things contained in the same was or 
were true. Thereupon the lord (vice-chancellor) ordered the same 
Brigit Edmunds to clear herself by the compurgation of six of her 
honest neighbour women of the parish of St Botolph of the aforesaid 
town of Cambridge or partly of the same parish and partly of the 
neighbouring parish nearest to the same on Monday next coming at 
9:00 am on the same day in the chamber of the aforesaid lord vice- 
chancellor, and he decreed that all objectors, if there were any, etc, 
must appear at that time and place in the presence of the said Brigit 

The office of the lord (vice-chancellor) against William Covyll, srB, 
fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge. 

For the cause written immediately above. And because the aforesaid 
Master William Covyll was and is a bachelor of sacred theology and 
a fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge and a person possessing the 
liberties and enjoying the privileges of the aforesaid gracious university 
of Cambridge, this sort of business has been and is being made known 
and signified to the lord vice-chancellor by the official I of the lord 
archdeacon of Ely. Wherefore a decree is being issued by the aforesaid 
lord vice-chancellor to Master William Covyll to appear at those, etc, 
to reply to the aforesaid article or the aforesaid presentment. On 
which, etc, the said Master William Covyll appeared in accordance 
with the warning made to him in the form of an article (or article by 
article) by Master Brooke, bedell. When the aforesaid article had been 
charged against the same Master William Covyll, the same William 
Covyle denied that the same article was true. Wherefore the lord (vice- 
chancellor) ordered the same William Covyle to clear himself by the 
compurgation of six of his honest neighbour men, that is, of clerics 
living within the aforesaid university of Cambridge, if it can 
conveniently be done, or of clerics for the greater part at least or of 
resident graduates of the aforesaid university of Cambridge not 
dwelling in places far from it, on Monday next coming at 9:00 am of 
the same day in the chamber of the aforesaid lord vice-chancellor in 
his aforesaid chamber. And he decreed that a public announcement 
of it should take place in the parish church of St Botolph of the 
aforesaid town of Cambridge on the next day (ie, Sunday, 29 August) 
at time of divine service at morning prayer and that whatever objectors 
there may be must appear at that time and place to make objection 
against the said William Covyll and his compurgators or (against) the 

164 TRA NSLAI'IONS 1.595-6 


manner or form of his aforesaid compurgation if they think they have 
any such interest in it in the presence of the said William Covyll. 

ff 116-16v* (30 August; afternoon session) 
(Challenge to compurgators Montaigne and Crowfoote) 

...Besides the aforesaid John Edmunds, Jr objected against the 
aforesaid Master Covill (English). I 
And upon this charge and to prove that the same is true, the said John 
Edmunds, Jr produced as a witness the aforesaid Master George 
Mowntayne. This Master Mowntayne, having been sworn by the 
aforesaid vice-chancellor to an oath by touching (the Gospels), etc, 
to tell the truth in this matter, by virtue of his aforesaid oath deposed 
in the negative (English) 
Then the aforementioned Brigit Edmunds objected or made exception 
against the aforesaid Master George Mowntayne and against the 
aforesaid Master John Crofoote, two of the aforesaid compurgators, 
just as is contained in two little sheets of paper already shown by John 
Edmunds her husband, of which (sheets) a true copy follows, that is: 

John Fletcher, 

ff 119v-20v* (6 September; afternoon session) (Testimony of John 
Then John Edmunds, Jr produced as a witness John Fletcher of 
Ware, whose arrival the same John Edmunds, Jr has been awaiting for 
a long time, once the household servant of the same John Edmunds, 
Jr, fourteen years of age or thereabout. At the request of the said John 
Edmunds, the lord (vice-chancellor) swore him to a corporal oath by 
touching (the Gospels), etc, to tell the truth about the things to be 
asked him. This John Fletcher, having been asked (English), said by 
virtue of his aforesaid oath (English). Then the same John Fletcher 
having been asked (English), the said John Fletcher by virtue of his 
aforesaid oath deposed (Engltsh) I. He says that he did not see 
(English). Then, after a conversation took place between the aforesaid 
Masters John Edmunds, Jr and Covyll about comedies and especially 
about the comedy called commonly The Comedy of Fatum (English), 
the same Master John Edmunds, Jr showed some other sheet of paper, 
saying as follows, or to a like effect, that is, (English) the said Master 
John Edmunds said (English) .... 


and scholars of the university of Cambridge on the condition that the 
said Sir Thomson will personally and in his proper person appear on 
the next court day before the next Ash Wednesday coming to fulfill 
the bond written above. 

And on the twelfth day of February 1601, the said Thomson appeared 
in the consistory, etc, and the lord decreed that if the said Thomson 
paid the fees owing to the court he would be dismissed. 




University Audit Book cuA: U.Ac. 2(1) 
p 391 
Likewise, (money was) paid to Doctor Mountagne for the privy seal 
against stage players and bearwards, etc. 12 s 
Likewise, (money was) paid to the royal pipers. 6 s 


Letters Patent from James t to the University 
mbs 33-4* (4 March) 

PRO: C66/1652 

...And since the Lord Henry In, once king of England, our 
predecessor, granted by his letters patent bearing the date 24 July in 
the fifty-fourth year of his reign to the masters and scholars of 
Cambridge University aforesaid that no tournaments, joustings, 
jousts, or tourneys mentioned in the same letters patent would take 
place thereafter in the aforesaid town or for five miles round about just 
as more plainly is clear and apparent through the same letters patent, 
we by our fuller favour, certain knowledge, and free volition prohibit 
and forbid by the present (document) for ourselves, our heirs and 
successors any plays or scenes of actors; feats of rope-walkers, 
acrobats, (or) athletes; baitings of bears or of bulls; tricks and 
frivolities of jesters or those who carry about puppets; or in short other 
contentious contests or time-wasting spectacles of any kind usually 
presented or shown to the people for gain, from being offered or 
exhibited from now on within the aforesaid town or within five miles 
from the same, and both on our behalf and that of our heirs and 
successors in perpetuity we grant full power and authority to the said 

TRANSLATIONS 1606-7 1173 


nf (Fees and rewards) If 1] 

Likewise paid to the musicians on the lord king's (holiday), the fifth 
of November 2 s 6 d 

(Christmas term) 
Likewise paid to the musicians on the feast of the 


[f lv] 
Likewise paid to the trumpeters of the lord king 


nf (Annunciation term) (Repairs in Cambridge) [f 2] 

Likewise paid for the repair of various windows, both in the fellows' 
bedrooms and in the common hall and parlour, broken at the time of 
the English comedies, beyond the 36 s 8 d received by the agency of 
master vice-provost 4 s 10 d 

Acta Curiae cuA: V.C. Ct. 1.37 
ff 17-18" (27 February) 

Purely ex officio proceeding of the lord (vice-chancellor) against John 
Wooley in a cause or on the business of correction 
On which, etc, the said Wolley appeared. Robert Forester and John 
Treve also appeared. They, having sworn a corporal oath, affirmed by 
virtue of their oaths (English). Wherefore the lord (vice-chancellor), 
rendering his decision in this case, condemned the said Woolley 
according to the ordinance or decree promulgated elsewhere in this 
regard on the twenty-third day of the month of February 1607 and 
decreed that the said Woolley would remain and be securely kept in 
the Tolbooth until next Saturday. And at the twelfth hour he will sit 
in the public market near (English). 

William Wallis son of widow Wallis of Cambridge confessed (English) 

! 176 TRANSLATIONS 1611--13 

(Against) John Thrower of Benedict it is charged (English). He 
appeared and acknowledges (English). 

(Against) Townsende of Benedict: a like charge is made against the same 
and he acknowledges (English), and a like sentence is decreed and 
carried out against him as against Thrower. 

(Against) Robert Smyth, the household servant of Leonard Glascocke: 
since he did not appear when he had been called, (English) in the 
presence of Masters Sanders, Prime, and Tillet. 

King's College Mundum Book 23.2 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas term) (Necessary expenses) If Iv] 
Paid to the musicians on the fifth of November 


nf (Christmas term) (Fees and rewards) If Iv] 
Paid to the musicians on the feast of the Purification 
Paid to the same on the wedding day of Lady Elizabeth 
Paid to the trumpeters at the arrival of the princes 

[f 2] 
Paid to the musicians on the feast of the Annunciation 





Memorandum concerning Royal Visit GCL: 73/40 
f 236* 

The Count Palatine's speech 

We thank you for your rejoicing at our arrival at this distinguished 
university and for your receiving of us with such great hospitality. We 
beg each and every one of you to be persuaded of our kindly feelings 
toward you. 

TRANSLATIONS 1612--15 1177 

I am happy to have achieved something which I have wished for 
greatly for a long time, namely to be allowed to travel about even this 
dwelling-place of the Muses and garland of the virtues, as well as 
among the other ornaments of the most illustrious realm of England. 
And ! give thanks that you have shown yourselves to be gracious in 
receiving me, most punctilious in honouring me. The memory of your 
kindness and zeal for my visit will never perish in my heart: and I 
assure you that whatever resources or activities for adorning or aiding 
your Muses lie in my power are devoted to the cause of each and every 
one of you. 

King's College Mundum Book 23.3 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas term) (Fees and rewards) If 1] 
Paid to the musicians on the fifth of November 


[f lv] (Christmas term) 
Paid to the trumpeters in rewards on the tenth of January 
Paid to the musicians upon hearing of the happy delivery 
of Lady Elizabeth, daughter of King James 
Paid to the musicians on the feast of the Purification 


(Annunciation term) 
Paid to the king's trumpeters 


[f 2] (St John the Baptist term) 
Paid to the trumpeters 


King's College Mundum Book 23.4 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas term) (Fees and rewards) [f 1] 
Paid to the musicians on the fifth of November 
Paid to the trumpeter 



(Annunciation term) 
Likewise for trumpeters of the earl of Essex 


[f 2] (St John the Baptist term) 
Likewise for trumpeters of my lord treasurer 


King's College Mundum Book 24.1 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas term) (Necessary expenses) If l v] 
Paid (to) the musicians on the fifth of November 

2 s 6 (d) 

nf (Michaelmas term) (Fees and rewards) [f 1] 
Paid to trumpeters of the earl of Essex 


[f Iv] (Christmas term) 
Spent for trumpeters of Prince Charles 
Paid to the musicians on the second of February 

2 (s) 6 (d) 

[f 2] 
Paid to trumpeters of Lord Essex 


(Annunciation term) 
Paid to musicians on the feast of the Annunciation and on the twenty- 
fourth of March [when the regnal (year) begins] 5 s [6] d 

If 2v] 
Paid to trumpeters of the duke of Lennox 


TRANSLATIONS 1622--4 1185 

[f Iv] (Christmas term) 

Likewise for trumpeters of the duke of Lennox on the eighth 
of March 2 s 6 d 

Paid to the musicians on the feast of the Annunciation of the 
Blessed Virgin 


(Annunciation term) 
Likewise for trumpeters of the lord king 


[f 2] 
Paid to trumpeters of the earl of Pembroke 


Private Letter from William Beale to William Boswell PRO: SP15/43 

...But, sir, you ask for news. I shall tell you. A comedy is to be given 
very soon by our men from Jesus (College), and already all the stages/ 
scenery are in their usual position. Two (other) comedies are to take 
place, for indeed there is also to be (one) by the Trinity men, written 
by Hacket and Stubs: charming, by heaven, and very witty men. 
Another, indeed, is to be hammered out and hatched by one Ward of 
Queens', a master of arts, of the arts of amusement! 

King's College Mundum Book 24.6 gCA 
nf (Michaelmas term) (Fees and rewards) If 1] 
Likewise for the musicians at a solemnity for the return of Prince 
Charles from Spain, 6 s 8 d, and for the fifth of November, 
5 s, in all 11 (s) 8 (d) 

TRANSLATIONS 1631--4 1189 

Letters from Amerigo Salvetti to Andrea Cioli 
ASF: Fondo Mediceo del Principato, Filza 4198 
ff [2-2v] (2 March, London) 

Their majesties remain at Newmarket in excellent health; next week 
they will be going to Cambridge, where the students of that university 
have prepared for them diverse comedies with other entertainments 
to give amusement to their majesties... 

ff [3-3v] (9 March) 

Their majesties will not be going to Cambridge at all this week because 
of an accident, a fall from a horse, suffered by the earl of Holland, 
captain of the guard of his majesty's archers and grand chancellor of 
the university of the said Cambridge, where as the presiding officer 
he should have taken part in the reception and entertainment given to 
their majesties, but now that he is beginning to feel better, they will 
be going in ten days, and from there they will return to London with 
the entire court. 

f [2v] (16 March) 

Their majesties will be going to Cambridge next Monday to receive 
the entertainments prepared for them by that university, and we expect 
them in this city around next Thursday. 

f [2] (23 March) 

Their majesties have been in Cambridge, received and entertained by 
that university with every splendour, and last evening they returned 
to this city in excellent health. 

King's College Mundum Book 26.4 KCA 
nf (Michaelmas term) (Fees and rewards) [f 1] 
Likewise for the musicians for (their) labour in the hall and the 
chapel on the holidays of the duke of York's birth and the 
fifth of November 7 (s) 6 (d) 

TRANSLATIONS 1635-7 1191 

Spent on trumpeters of the earl of Holland 

5 (s) 6 (d) 

[f 2] (Annunciation term) 

Likewise for musicians for their work on the days of the Annunciation 
and the royal accession during the celebration of divine 
service 5 (s) 

Letter from Amerigo Salvetti to Andrea Cioli 
ASF: Fondo Mediceo del Principato, Filza 4199 
f [2]* ($ February, London) 

The King with the lord prince, his nephew, will be returning here 
tomorrow; yesterday they were in the city of Cambridge, received by 
that university with great applause and entertained here by those 
students with comedies and other scholastic pastimes. 

King's College Mundum Book 27.1 KCA 
nf (Christmas term) (Necessary expenses) [f Iv] 
Paid to musicians on Purification Day 

2 (s) 6 (d) 

nf (Michaelmas term) (Fees and rewards) [f 1] 
Spent on trumpeters of the lord king 

5 (s) 

[f lv] (Annunciation term) 
Paid to harpers on the feast of the Annunciation 
For the same on the accession holiday of the lord 

2 (s) 6 (d) 
5 (s) 

[f 2]* 
Likewise for William Daniel, a royal entertainer 

5 (s) 




c 1368-90 
OM Proctor's Book 
ff 26v-7" 

cuA: Collect. Admin. 3 

...A new statute against disorderly persons in School Street on Ash 

Likewise we warn in the first, second, and third instance under pain 
of greater excommunication that no one hereafter shall cause, 
encourage, or instigate by force, compulsion, or any other means any 
disturbance in School Streets. Nor, on that same day or at any other 
time, shall there be meetings or assemblies of scholars of any faculty 
on its own or of the faculties together to choose, elect, or name for 
themselves a captain, duke, (or) chancellor; proctors or bedells or any 
other individual; or (any) other leaders or officers by whatever names 
they may be titled. Nor shall they ring bells (or) sound horns or make 
noise with trumpets to bring about such meetings or assemblies. Nor 
shall they call together (such meetings) or cause (them) to be assembled 
for any other premeditated cause. And furthermore in this writing we 
promulgate a decision against those disobeying in this way because the 
said university has established that such a contravenor shall be 
immediately denounced by authority of the said university as an 
excommunicate in the churches, nor shall he be absolved from this 
excommunication until he has paid double commons to the common 
university treasury because of his crime. We add that anyone (taking) 
upon himself such a name of the office of captain, duke, chancellor, 
proctor, or bedell, or by whatever name he may be titled in such a 
company shall be forever unworthy of any academic standing to be 
held in this university. 

John Ba, Scriptorum... Catalogus 
pp 709-10" 

sTC: 1296a 

Thomas Artour, a native of Norfolk and a graduate of Cambridge 
University, and the companion of Thomas Bilney in his persecution 
for the truth of God under the tyranny of Cardinal Wolsey, compiled 
among other things, I 


Mundus Plumbeus, 

a tragedy in one book 
a tragedy in one book 



Letter from Roger Ascham to Edward Raven 
f 4% (1 October) 

BL: Lansdowne 98 

...On the thirtieth we came to Antwerp: Good God, (it is) the 
wealthiest mart not only of Brabant but of the whole world. By its 
shining and magnificent construction it achieves such pre-eminence 
that it surpasses in that respect all the other cities which I have seen, 
i ust as the hall of St. John's (College) (when it is) decorated theatrically 
after Christmas, surpasses that (city) itself .... 

Letter from William Soone 
Georg Braun: De Praecipuis totius vniversi vrbibus 
They set aside the months of January, February, and March to beguile 
the tediousness of the night-time with spectacles to be shown to the 
people with such elegance, such excellence of action (possibly of 
production), (such) modulation of voice, expression, and movement, 
(such) magnificence, that I believe if Plautus or Terence or Seneca were 
to live again they would be amazed at their own plays and take greater 
pleasure than (they did) when they were performed before the Roman 
people while (the author was) looking on; in fact, Euripides, 
Sophocles, and Aristophanes would be disgusted with their Athens (in 

Diary of Baron Waldstein Vatican Library: Reginensis latinus 666 
ff 155v-6" (12July) 
We spent this day in seeing colleges. We went into Trinity College 
first, which is the most renowned (or the largest) of all .... In the chapel 
where prayers and sermons are held, one reads this epitaph: 'For 
Christopher Morle, once a fellow of this college, John Slede, once a 
fellow of the same (College) placed (this memorial).' 



The stage is in mourning, speech is silent, nor does song speak, 
Now that Morley, our delight, has died. 
But you have not died: we shall be your heirs, 
A stage for the eyes, song for the lips, speech for the ears. 
Applaud, you for whom the play of such a life has been performed, 
Which (play) posterity always makes new. 

William Alabaster (thus) mourned (him): he died AD 1596, on 18 April. 


1631-2: The Rival Friends and The Jealous Lovers 

A) Thomas Randolph's Oratio Praevaricatoria 

...That comic piece, which was first produced before the king, had 
friends but was without rivals. It was the best comedy a priori, but 
a posteriori it stank. Now it has been printed: I wonder at the gall of 
the man who could publish such a book (or I wonder at the stomach 
of the man who could digest such a book). Thus I have sung in its 

Now let Jack Drum be silent, let Tom Thumb be silent about 
Nor let Gargantua boast himself so great a giant; 
Let not mad Tamberlaine at his battles rage, 
Nor Palmer, or vigorous Alborinus. 
Tom Coryate once thought himself wise, 
Even Don Quixote says, Now am I an idiot! 
Now divine Technogamia has feared for a divorce; 
Famous Pericles does not dare such celebrated deeds; 
Slothful Orlando is now not so 'furioso'; 
We will not force you, Hieronymo, to rise from bed. 
No-one will say now that Gotham nurtures wise men, 
For a comedy of learned men has been written 
Which surpasses all praises, so I am assured; 
After (its) battles, it has sought a safe printing press: 
The lazy herd is a drone Orucus), it seeks at once the groves; 
And having been made blank, it will not dance (prinkum) 
They say that this Puerile has surpassed Senile Odium, 


This is not (good) sense, and you can play checkstone. 
Now the play is finished. Applaud 

c 1200 
Midsummer Fair Originated with Children's Games and Music 
...Concerning the site of Barnwell 
... Furthermore quite clear and fresh little springs flow from the midst 
of that place called at this time in English 'Barnwell,' that is, 'boys' 
springs,' because once a year, that is, on the eve of the nativity of St 
John the Baptist, boys and youths, coming together there, took part 
in wrestling in the English manner and other boyhood games and 
praised one another in turn with songs and musical instruments. 
Therefore, because of the crowd of boys and girls coming together 
there and playing, the custom arose of a crowd of those buying and 
selling coming together there on the same day in order to do business. 


3 rcA f 59 
The proximity of the names Pyper and Gyterner to a payment at Christmas suggests that John 
Pyper may have been a piper by profession; the mention of more persons of the same surname 
in 1349-50 suggests that this may have been a family of town waits (Appendix 13). 
On the basis of later payments, it seems probable that the parishioners danced at the 
dedication festival of Great St Mary's church (Introduction, pp 734-5, and Appendix 18). 

3-4 PHA nf 
Copy in BL: Harley 7032 (Baker 5), pp 187-228. Mullinger, University of Cambridge, 
vol 1, pp 230-1, notes that the Peterhouse statutes were modelled on the statutes of Merton 
College, Oxford (1274). It is not certain that all the kinds of entertainment forbidden in the 
Peterhouse statutes were actually available in Cambridge. 

4 TC f 133 
This (!1.37-8) is the first of many explicit payments for entertainment on the dedication feasts 
of Great St Mary's and other Cambridge churches (but see also 1342-3). Dedication feasts, 
which were distinct from patronal feasts, were often celebrated in the summer (Appendix 18). 

5 cc: MastersN1 f lv 
Robert, John, and Thomas Pipere may have been Cambridge waits (Appendix 13). For more 
information on the Cambridge Corpus Christi procession, see Introduction, p 733. 
5 cc: Masters N1 f 8 
A Willelmus de Lenne (1.26) is also named in the subsidy roll for 1314-15 (PRO: E 179/81/5, 
mb 1). The 'play of the sons of Israel' (1.28) may have been a non-cycle play or part of a cycle, 
but the title itself suggests little beyond an Old Testament theme. The only other possible evi- 
dence in the Records for a play near this date is a reference to 'visers' (1.9) in the guild accounts 
for 1349-50. 
Siegfried Wenzel, 'An Early Reference to a Corpus Christi Play,' Modern Philology, 74 
(1977), 390-9, calls attention to one of a series of lectures on Wisdom by Robert Holcot 
c 1335, which contains the phrase, 'ludus deuocionis et gaudii spiritalis, qualem faciunt 
Christiani in die corporis Christi.' Beryl Smalley, English FriarsandAntiquityin the Early 
Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1960), 141, suggests that Holcot's lectures were given at 


Cambridge c 1334-6: perhaps Holcot had a Cambridge play in mind. For further discussion 
of the meaning of 'ludus' in this passage, see Abigail Ann Young, 'Plays and Players: The Latin 
Terms for Performance,' pt 2, aEED Newsletter 10.1 (1985), 12-13. 

6 "teA f 71v 
The phrase "cornrnuni histrioni' (11. 36-7) probably refers to the Cambridge town waits. A 
more explicit early reference occurs in the accounts for 1390-1. 

9 -tea f 143v 
This page is cut off at line 38; some eight lines are missing. 

10-11 TeA f lllv 
Apparently the payment 'pro bokenham menstralo' (p 10, 1. 39) is to a minstrel named 
Bokenham; cf 'cranero menstralo" in the King's Hall accounts for 1385-6 (p 12, 11.11-12). 

12 -rcA ff 58v, 61 
The parish kings and bishops are discussed in the Introduction, p 735. Such entries as 'Item 
iij d' (1.37) are transcribed when they follow relevant entries because of the ambiguity of the 
word 'item,' which may imply a repetition of the previous entry. 

13 PHA mb [2] 
The parish church associated with Peterhouse was Little St Mary's (Introduction, p 798). 

14 -rcA ff 92, 93 
The booklet containing these folios is the only one in volume 4 not exactly dated by either 
the contemporary accountant or an antiquarian on the basis of internal evidence, which is very 
slight. The list of fellows suggests a date close to that of other booklets in volume 4, but the 
only real piece of internal evidence is that Easter is dated to the twenty-sixth week after 
Michaelmas. The only year in the decade of the 1390s of which this is true is 1390-1. 

16-17 ccA: Masters N1 ff 13, 13v, 16 
Although the official college account book for this period has been lost, the accounts for this 
year were for some reason copied into blank pages at the back of the Corpus Christi Guild 
Minute Book (Introduction, p 801). The college feast mentioned in the accounts (p 16,1.38) 
may have been celebrated on Corpus Christi Day, perhaps in conjunction with the Corpus 
Christi procession (Introduction, p 733). By 1457-8, however, the college's most important 
feast was celebrated on the Sunday before the feast of the Circumcision (see p 1199). 
The full name of 'Euan' (p 17, I. 3) is given on f 16v as William 'Ewyn' (Evan). 

18 PHA mb [2] 
Similarities to other dedication day payments between 1414-15 and 1450-1 suggest that the 
dancers may have been girls. 

22 -rcA f 125v 
The booklet containing this folio is the only one in volume 6 not dated by the contemporary 


accountant, nor has an antiquarian date been assigned on the basis of internal evidence The 
list of fellows suggests a date close to that of other booklets in volume 6, and as there is no 
booklet bearing a contemporary date of 1420-1, that date has been assigned to this booklet. 

25 PHA mb [2] 
The date of this roll is uncertain; it could have been assigned to either 1429-30 or 1430-1. 

27 TcA f 94 
Similarities to other dedication day payments in the Records suggest that the 'youths' (1.15) 
may have been dancers. 

29 KCA f 36v 
The statutes may be understood to imply but do not specifically authorize the ceremony of 
the boy-bishop on St Nicholas Day, reflected in the Records beginning in 1450-1. King's Col- 
lege is the only Cambridge college known to have had boy-bishops (p 731). 

31 KCA f 143v 
College accounts for 1447-8 (Liber Communarum 1.1, Christmas week) record expenses "pro 
gaudijs,' 'pro reuels,' etc; similar expenses occur in 1448-9 (Mundum Book 1.2, f 146), 1450-1 
(Liber Communarum 1.2, seventh week after Michaelmas), and 1451-2 (Liber Communarum 
1.3, eleventh week after Michaelmas). Such payments, however, have been deemed too general 
for inclusion in the Records. 

38 cc f 39 
A Corpus Christi College dinner for the esquire bedells was held annually on the Sunday before 
the feast of the Circumcision: H.P. Stokes, Esquire Bedells of the University of Carnbridge, 
p 29. 

38 KCA f 131 
The detailed accounts implied by the phrase 'vt pater per parcellas in forali huius quaterni' 
(11.36-7) do not occur in this book; perhaps they were part of a rough book from which this 
book was made up. 

47 KCA ff 55, 61v 
Several hostels are mentioned in the college accounts of this year (11.19, 26-7). On particular 
hostels, see H.P. Sto kes, Medieval Hostels: pp 85-6 (St Mary's); 101-3 (Holy Trinity); 60-1 
(St Augustine, conveyed to King's College in 1448); 105 (St William, possibly identical to 
Garret Hostel, pp 76-8). 

47-8 TCA ff 6, 6v 
The booklet containing these folios has no contemporary date, but bears two antiquarian dates, 
1467-8 and 1468-9. The former has been chosen because of a payment recorded on f 14v to 
clear the outstanding debts of a former warden, Richard Scrope. The accountant does not refer 
to Scrope as deceased, although he had died on 10 May 1468. This seems to rule out the later 
date of 1468-9, whereas during most of 1467-8, Scrope was still alive. 


111 src: 22856.5 sig Lii 
The date of the performance is uncertain. For a discussion of the grounds for this dating, see 
Mullinger, University of Cambridge, vol 2, p 73 and Smith, College Plays, p 51. St John's 
College accou nts for 1534-5 suggest that the production of classical plays was by then routine. 
Thomas Smith and Sir John Cheke attempted a restoration of classical Greek pronunciation 
which was admired in Cambridge, but was denounced by Stephen Gardiner, to whom Smith 
appealed in his book. The controversy is described by Mullinger, University of Cambridge, 
vol 2, pp 54-63, and by Muller, Stephen Gardiner and the Tudor Reaction, pp 121-4. See 
also Gardiner's letter of 12 May 1545 (p 139, 11. 29-34). 

112 icA nf [f 1] 
Smith, 'Academic Drama,' p 151, wrongly ascribes the entry concerning the waits of Hull 
(11. 7-8) to 1532-3. 

114 tea f 22 
Apropos 'ye game pleyars' (1.6), David Galloway and John Wasson (eds), 'Records of Plays 
and Players in Norfolk and Suffolk, 1330-1642,' Malone Society, Collections, 11 (1980-1), 
82, record a similar phrase from Shipdham, 1536: 'Item In the tyme of crystmes to the game 
pleyers vj d.' 

115 sJA: D106.17 f 16 
John Jenyns ('genens,' 1. 38) is named as a college tenant on f 25v. 

117 CHA: B1/1 ff 195v, 197 
See St John's inventory of 1548-9 for another Christmas lord who had responsibility for 
players' gear. Presumably Cawthorn (1. 16) was the Christmas lord this year. 

119 src: 832 sigs Kj-jv 
The exact year of Thomas Watson's Absalom (' Absalon,' 1.21 ) is unknown, but 1539-40 fits 
the careers of the persons named in the account, and is the year traditionally associated with 
the performance (a/o). For a full discussion of possible dates, see John Hazel Smith, A 
Humanist's 'Trew Imitation': Thomas Watson's Absalom, Illinois Studies in Language and Lit- 
erature, 52 (Urbana, 1964), 31-7. Boas, University Drama, p 63, n 1, argues that the 'One 
man in Cambrige' (1.30) to whom Ascham alludes could not have been John Christopherson, 
author of Jephthah, the only other Cambridge playwright from this period known by name. 

121 QuA: Book3 f 79 
Explicit references to steps leading to the stage (1.28) are rare in the Records, but see also the 
'litle ladder' (p 154, 1. 22) in the Trinity College inventory of 1547-8, the 'bridge' (p 234, 
1.21) in King's College Chapel 1563-4, and the 'slope board' (p 690, 1. 38) in the Queens' 
College stage inventory of 1639-40. 

121-2 QuA: Book3 f 79v 
The earliest known Queens' College costume inventory (p 121, 1. 33) is from 1546-7. 



and drawn up in February: "Stipendium vnius Socij qui agit dominum in tempore Natalis 
domini per annum xx s' (PRO: E315/440, f 34v; college copy is SJA: C17.1, f 4v). 

145 QUA: Book 3 f 147 
The two holes let into the wall for the scaffold may constitute evidence for the continuity of 
the college stage to 1639-40: note girts  and , both of which 'goe into the East Wall' 
(p 688, I. 32; see also p 688, II. 28-32 and p 689, II. 1-5). 

146-7 QUA." Book 76 f 46v 
Queens' College performed a play of Laelia in 1594-5; it is uncertain, however, whether this 
was the same play as Laelia Modenas (p 147, !. 5). 

147 QUA." Book 62 p 43* 
Pagination in this part of Book 62 runs 43, 44, 45, 46, 43", 46*, 47, 48. This transcription 
is taken from f43" ; a copy of the statutes of 1558-9, with similar language, occurs on p 43. 
This codicil to the Queens' College statutes follows by two years the addition of a similar re- 
quirement to the statutes of St John's College. 

149 QUA-" Book 3 f 153 
Many items referring to the screen but not to the stage have been omitted from this transcrip- 
tion. Smith, 'Academic Drama,' p 185, ascribes these payments incorrectly to 1546-7. Con- 
struction of the stage continued in 1548-9. 

150-1 QUA: Book 3 f 157v 
The 'rex regalis collegij' (p 150, 1.31 ) was apparently the lord of Christmas at King's College; 
similarly, the 'Imperator' was probably the emperor of Trinity College: see Dee's reminis- 
cences assigned to this year. 

151-2 QUA: Book 3 ff 158, 159v 
The large chest mentioned in these records (p 151, !. 21 ; p 152, 1. 1 ) may be the chest which 
survives in the college library (Introduction, p 719). 

152 TCA f 33 
The purchase of the 'great Rownd Candelsticke' (!. 24) is in itself inconclusive evidence for 
a play; but in 1559-60 'ye great candlesticke' was clearly used for plays (p 208, !1. 21-2). 

152-4 "rCA: Box 29.136 ff 2-2v 
This is the first of two major Trinity College inventories of garments (here largely liturgical); 
see also 1550-1. Presumably Trinity College inherited some costumes from King's Hall (whose 
last recorded play, however, occurred in 1516-17); an 'old coppe' (p 153, II. 8-9) came from 
Michaelhouse, the second of the two dissolved colleges which were combined to make up Trin- 
ity College. For other liturgical garments 'broken' (ie, probably altered: see EG) for plays, see 
also King's College inventory of 1552-3 and accounts for 1554-5. 


154 TCA: Box 29.136 f 5v 
The 'staging trystles' (1. 21) were not necessarily for plays, but the references to stocks for 
gowns (or for guns), to a ladder, and to candlesticks are suggestive. 

155 DOLl Bowtell 1 f 285v 
The three waits named in 1546-7 (p 148) seem to have been reduced to two. John Richemund 
was apparently still master wait, a position he held until at least 1551-2; his single partner 
now may have been Laurence Williamson or Benet Prime, his associates in 1546-7, or perhaps 
John Clarke, his associate in 1551-2. The issue of a third wait cropped up again in 1551-2. 

155 Bodl.: Ashmole 1788 ff [10v-ll] 
The exact year of Dee's play is not known, but 1547-8 fits with the recent foundation of Trinity 
College, with Dee's brief residence there, and with the first occurrence of 'Imperator' in the 
Records (Queens' College accounts; see also Trinity College Steward's Books for 1557-8). 

157 QUA: Book 3 ff 172v, 175v 
Hypocrisis (p 157, 11.38, 39; identified in Appendix 9) may have been performed in the master's 
lodge (see p 158, 11.29-30); for another possible reference to a play in the master's lodge, see 
p 210, 11. 32-3. 

158 QUA: Book 3 f 173 
The implied configuration of an actors' room with a chamber above and a store-room below, 
described in 11.23-4, bears a notable similarity to the configuration of the acting chamber men- 
tioned in the college accounts for 1637-8 in QuA: Book 75 (references given in Appendix 11, 
1637-8, Queens'). 

158 QuA: Book 3 f 175v 
Concerning a performance of a play or show in the master's lodge, see endnote to f 172v above. 

159-62 sJA: C7.2 ff 65-6v 
The assignment of this inventory to 1548-9 is implied by the occurrence of the year 1548 in 
the heading, and also by the association with Thomas Lever (p 159, 1.37), named as lord of 
Christmas in the college accounts for this year (p 159, 1.4). The heading of this inventory de- 
fines the responsibility of the St John's Christmas lord for college plays and playing gear (see 
also St John's College statutes of 1544-5 and Christ's College accounts for 1539-40). 
The 'blak nightcap to kepe the stage' (p 161, 1.35) was probably a cap worn by a stage keeper. 
If so, this is the earliest evidence for that office. 

162-3 TCA f 59v 
Presumably the plays of 'last year' (p 162, 1.39; p 163, 1.10) occurred during the winter of 
1548-9, while the plays of 'this year' (p 163, 1. 7) occurred in 1549-50. 

163 vcA f 71 
Hasner's men (1.16) have not been identified; the entry is transcribed here on the possibility 
that Hasner and his men were a company of entertainers. 


164 cu^: Collect. Admin. 9 p 62 
At a congregation of 5 July injunctions were given by the visitors to the colleges and to the 
university (Cooper, vol 2, pp 26-35). The force of the injunction against Christmas lords, 
scarcely honoured in any case, was softened in subsequent injunctions of 1557-8 and 1569-70. 

164-5 QUA: Book 3 f 188v 
The 'fasciculi' (p 164, 1. 37) may have been actors' part books. See also St John's College 
accounts for 1578-9 and Trinity College accounts for 1620-1 ; and David Carnegie, 'Actors' 
Parts and the Play of Poore, ' Harvard Library Bulletin, 30 (1982), 5-24. 

165-6 TCA f 16 
Presumably the plays of'lasteChristenmas' (p 165, 1. 41) occurred during the winter of 

166 cu^: U.Ac. 2(1) p 57 
Apparently the King's College choir was hired by the university to perform for commence- 
ment. The choir, as well as that of Trinity College, is also named in the university accounts 
of 1599-1600. 

167 CH^: B1/2 f 108v 
For a discussion of William Stevenson's (1. 15) probable authorship of Gammer Gurton's 
Needle, see Appendix 6. 

169 TCA f 43 
Presumably the plays recorded here were performed during the winter of 1550-1. 

173 CH^: B1/2 f 123v 
The play of 'sir stephenson' (11.28-9) may have been Gammer Gurton's Needle (see Appendix 
6:1). The 'houses' (1.32) were part of the stage (Introduction, p 717). Was 'ye fooles coate' 
(1. 35) used for Diccon in Gammer Gurton's Needle? 

174 QUA: Book 3 f 203v 
John Dee's 1547-8 stage device, which involved an ascent to the palace of Jupiter by means 
of a flying machine, may have served as a precedent for this 'heaven' (11.25-33). This device 
should be added to the list of those surveyed by John H. Astington, 'Descent Machinery in 
the Playhouses,' in Medieval 6 Renaissance Drama in England, 2 (1985), 119-33. 

175 QUA: Book 76 f 9v 
The entry has been cancelled administratively. The connection between the college plate and 
the play is unclear. Alexander Harrison is not, in any case, associated with the plays in the 
accounts for this year. 

176 CRO: PB/57 ff 57-7v 
On Benet Prime's relationship to the Cambridge town waits, see Introduction, pp 739-40. 

1210 ENDNOTE$ 

177 DOL: Bowtell ! 1 f 3Iv 
Copy in COL: Ff.3.33, f 89v. This is a summary of the preceding item. 

177 CHA: BI/2 f 140 
Smith, 'Academic Drama,' p 207, misreads 'sedge' as 'stage' but transcribes correctly in College 
Plays, p 19. 

177-8 CHA." BI/2 f 140v 
The phrase 'ye worshippe of ye towne & thuniuersitie' (p 178, 1. 7) constitutes a rare reference 
to guests from outside the college; see also King's Hall accounts for 1467-8 (p 47, 11.35-8). 
178 CHA: BI/2 f 143v 
Smith, 'Academic Drama,' p 207, misreads 'coales' (1. 37) as 'vales.' Shrove Tuesday, here 
called 'fastingham' (i. 38), fell on 14 February this year, making for a rehearsal period of about 
six weeks. This is a rare reference to the length of rehearsals for a play. 

179-80 KCA nf [f 3] 
For more detail about the use of gunpowder (1.24) for dramatic spectacle, see Philip Butter- 
worth, 'Gunnepowdyr, Fyre and Thondyr,' Medieval English Theatre, 7 (1985), 68-76. Note 
a thunder barrel in the St John's College inventory assigned to 1541-2 (p 128, 1. 4). 

180 KCA [f 6] 
For more detail about Simon Watson the stationer, see GeorgeJ. Gray and William Mortlock 
Palmer, Abstracts from the Wills and Testamentary Documents of Printers, Binders, and 
Stationers of Cambridge, from 1504 to 1699, Bibliographical Society (London, 1915), 60. 

180 KCA nf [f 1] 
Live hunting dogs, used here for Hippolytus, were also used at Peterhouse in 1572-3, and may 
have been used at Oxford in 1566 for a play of Palamon andArcite (Anthony Wood's History 
of the University, John Gartch (ed) (Oxford, 1792), 160-1, cited in REED Oxford, forth- 

180-1 KCA f 86v 
In 1554-5 Carleton, the college sacristan, turned players' garments back into liturgical gar- 
ments. See also the Trinity College inventory for 1547-8, which lists liturgical garments 
'broken' for playing costumes. Ralph Lupton (p 18 I, 1.4) (d 1523) was also 'a considerable 
benefactor to Eton college' (Cooper, Athenae, vol I, p 28). 

181 QUA: Book3 f 210 
This is the only occasion on which reimbursements for supervising plays are listed among pay- 
ments for sermons and lectures; nevertheless, the very fact that the reimbursements could be 
listed under this heading indicates the pedagogical value attached to the production of plays. 
For more references to the pedagogical intentions of the college with respect to drama, see 
the statutes of 1546-7 and 1558-9. 


process was reversed. See the King's College inventory of 1552-3 for another instance of turn- 
ing players" garments back into liturgical garments. 

189-90 QuA: Book 76 f 52 
This entry has been cancelled administratively. This undated list is assigned to this year by 
its position among other, dated entries, and by reference to known dates for George Beaumont 
and John May. College accounts record no plays between 1553-4 and 1560-1, but this inven- 
tory and that for 1557-8 suggest that plays continued nevertheless. 

190-1 TCA f 304 
The 'iij crocodiles & iij aspides' (p 190, I. 36) may imply a show or play on the subject of 
Cleopatra. Estienne Jodelle's Cleopatre captive (in French), first performed at Paris in Febru- 
ary 1553, was widely admired; however, it was not published until 1574: Kathleen M. Hall 
(ed), Cleopatre captive (Exeter, 1979), xxiii-xxiv. Jodelle's play was thus probably not known 
in Cambridge. 
As for 'owr masteres shew' (1.39), the second master of Trinity College, William Bill, had 
been ejected in 1553 following the accession of Queen Mary. John Christopherson was not 
officially appointed third master until 4 April 1555, after the time of the Christmas show, but 
he apparently served as master in the interim. Though a man of letters and author of Jephthah 
(Appendix 6:1), Christopherson was also a man of action and a fierce persecutor of protestants: 
the 'lytle gallowes for ye shew' mentioned in the Junior Bursar's Accounts (p 192, I1. 3-4) 
seems portentous. 

191 TCA f 19Iv 
Smith, College Plays, p 108, suggests 'de Crumena perdita' (1. 17) may have been identical 
to 'Crumenaria,' named in the Trinity College accounts for 1565-6 (p 248, 1. 27). 

192 CHA." B1/2 f 190v 
Apparently fellows of Christ's attended a show at King's: see Trinity College Buttery Book 
for 1560-1 for a similar intercollegiate visit. See King's College accounts for the construction 
of a theatre this year. 

196-8 SSA: D57.123 mbs 1-2 
This roll is similar in appearance to C17.2, a roll prepared by the college for the visitors and 
dated 1556; both were probably prepared at the same time. 

198 Tc f 315v 
The 'Howses for ye players' (I. 23) were part of the stage construction (Introduction, p 719). 

198 CCL: 106 flv 
This fragment of Mere's diary is separately foliated, and falls between ff 310 and 311 of the 
main sequence of foliation of COL: 106. 
Mere's diary describes better than any other document in the Records the multitude of plays, 
shows, and performances by town waits held in the various colleges and in the town during 
a given year. 


242-3 Simancas: Archivo General, Legajo 817 f 82 
Guzmin is the unique source for this incident. The full text is given by Kervyn de Lettenhove, 
Relations politiques des Pays-Bas et de l'Angleterre, sous le rigne de Philippe u, vol 4 (Brussels, 
1885), 87-8. The incident is discussed by J.A. Froude, History of England, vol 7 (London, 
1893), p 205; Mullinger, University of Cambridge, vol 2, pp 190-1, n 2; and Boas, University 
Drama, Appendix 3. See also 'A Masque Before Queen Elizabeth' in Appendix 6:1. 

243 KCL." Misc. 74/1 ff 34v, 43 
'Hatcher's Book' lists members of King's College under the years of their first admission to 
the college. Halliwell was admitted in 1532, Preston in 1553. 'Hatchet's Book' is the unique 
source for the identification of Halliwell as the author of Dido (Appendix 6:2). Preston was 
junior proctor of the university in 1565-6. For more detail about Preston, see Appendix 16 
and Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, vol 1, pp 181-2, n 2; 245. This Thomas Preston m ay 
also be the author of Cambyses (see Introduction, p 823, n 66). 

244 Wing: F2416 p 139 
Preston's brass may still be seen in the floor of the antechapel at Trinity Hall. It is dated 1598 
in Monumental Brasses in Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely, 4th ed, rev (Cam bridge, 1970), 6. 

246 sJ^: SB4.1 f 265 
Possibly Henry the painter (1.4) was a member of the Preist family, some of whom were pain- 
ters and among whom the first name Henry occurs (Appendix 6:1, Preist the Barber, note). 

248 TCA f 136v 
Smith, College Plays, p 108, suggests that 'Crumenaria' (1.27) may be the same play as 'de 
Crumena perdita' mentioned in the Trinity College accounts for 1554-5 (p 191, 1. 17). 

249 ct;^: Collect. Admin. 13 f 87v 
William Gibbons, having removed from Oxford, is first recorded at Cambridge in this docu- 
ment, which precedes by several months evidence of the baptism and death of his firstborn 
son, Richard, in July 1566, recorded in Holy Trinity Church registers (Edmund H. Fellowes, 
Orlando Gibbons, p 15). Richard 'gravers showemaker' (1.25) is apparently to be identified 
with the 'Richerd Gravenes' who stood surety for the waits' collars in 1567-8 (p 254) and is 
further identified as a shoemaker on f 190 of Collect. Admin. 13. 

250 TCA f 173v 
On the possible identification of lephthes, see Appendix 9. 

253 DOL: Bowtell 2 f 78 
William Mason ('masen' (1. 25)) was a musician, named earlier in William Gibbons' suit of 

253-4 CRO: PB/57 ff 262, 262v 
Copy in cRo: PB/6, p 45. 


The town council herewith conferred the mastership of the town waits on William Gibbons. 
The five collars imply five waits. 

255 sA: SB4.1 f 398 
Smith, 'Academic Drama," p 222, mistranscribes 'in the hall' (1.29) as 'in the gallery' (Appendix 
11, 1568-9). 

257 cuA: U.Ac. 2(!) p 231 
The junior proctor was Edmund Rockray. In light of later disturbances at Chesterton, it is 
more probable that the proctor was bringing back this dancer to face some form of disciplinary 
action than to obtain his or her services on behalf of the university. 

259 cuA: Luard 187 ff 9v, !1v, 12-12v 
Copies in cuA: Collect. Admin. 1, ff ! 72, 177, ! 78; Collect. Admin. 2, ff ! 83-3v, ! 89, 190; 
and many other official documents. 
The statutes of 12 Elizabeth, not officially superseded until 1882, served as a foundation 
for the university's campaign against admitting professional players within the five-mile pre- 
cinct of the university. A copy of the text of f 9v, made for the proctors' use, is contained 
in Misc. Collect. 13, p 213, under the title 'Playes or games'; see also injunctions in English 
dated 7 July 1595 and 14 November 1600. 
Iniunctions against Christmas lords and saltings (p 259, 1.41-p 260, 1.8) date back to ! 548-9 
and 1557-8 respectively. 

264 PHA single mb 
For a similar use of live hunting dogs, see the King's College performance of Hippolytus in 
1552 and endnote. 

265 QuA: Book 4 f 94 
Reynalde (1.22), not otherwise mentioned in the Records, may have been one of the Cambridge 
waits: compare to payments to Richard Graves by Jesus College in 1577-8 and 1578-9. 

265 -rcA: Box 27.1 f 285 
Smith, 'Academic Drama,' p 168, misreads 'Thomas Watson' (I. 34)as 'E. Watson.' 

266 cuA: U.Ac. 2(!) p 252 
Although 'playes' (1. ! 6), used in a similar context in 1573-4 (p 271 ), may suggest stage plays, 
it is perhaps more likely that activities at Gog Magog Hills were sports of the kind named in 
! 6 ! 9-20 (pp 570-3). This present reference antedates by several years the 1576 attestation of 
the name Gog Magog Hills cited by P.H. Reaney, The Place-Names of Cambridgeshireand 
the Isle of Ely (Cam bridge, ! 943), 35-6: 'There seems to be little doubt that.., these hills owe 
their present names to the figure of Gogmagog cut in the downland turf, either inside 
Vandlebury Camp or on the hillside near it. Camden attributes the name to the scholars of 
the university (studiosi vocant), while Layer... attributes to them the actual cutting of a high 
and mighty portraiture of a giant ... within the said trench" which he had seen himself.' 


269 cu^: CUR 79 (Art. 4) single sheet 
Both this letter and the next are rough drafts. The privy council letter of 30 October 1575 was 
evidently issued in response to these complaints. The incident of 'two yeres past' (1. 19) 
(1571-2) is otherwise unrecorded. For 'last yeres attempt' (1.31), see University Audit Book 
for 1572-3. 

270-1 cu^: CUR 79 (Art. 4*) single sheet 
The'attempte of breakyng of the peaxe the dec(ember) of this yeare' (p 270, 11.26-7) has not 
been identified. The 'intended Rebellyon' (1.29) probably refers to the rebellion of the northern 
earls (1569). Robinson, the organizer of the games, was active again 1579-80. 

271-2 cu^: CUR 44.1 (Art. 137) single sheet 
Though the university needed Burghley's assistance to stop the games themselves, with this 
order it exercised its authority to prevent its own students from attending. 

274 gc^ nf[f 1] 
'Hookes le singing man of Elye' (1. 22): see a similar entry in Trinity College accounts for 

276-7 cu^: Lett. 9 (A.4) single sheet 
Copies in PRO: SP15/12, ff 221-2v (Burghley's undated draft, with many corrections); BL: 
Lansdowne 20, ff 134-4v (Art. 52); aL: Lansdowne 71, ff 200-200v (Art. 82); and cu^: Collect. 
Admin. 5, ff 166-6v. Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Elizabeth, 1601-3, Addenda 1547- 
65, pp 575-6, assigns the PRO copy doubtfully (and incorrectly) to 1565. This letter was sent 
from Windsor and signed by William Cecil, Lord Burghley; Thomas Radcliffe, earl of Sussex; 
Francis Russell, earl of Bedford; Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester; Sir Francis Knollys; James 
Croft; Sir Thomas Smith; and Francis Walsingham. 
This letter, the response of Burghley and the privy council to the university's letters of 28 
March 1574, is the foundation of all subsequent prohibitions not only of 'showes of vnlefull, 
hurtfull pernicious & vnhonest games' (p 276, 1.20), but also of performances by professional 
phyers. Such prohibitions include the university's refusal to license players on 21 June 1580; 
its letters on 19 and 20 September against Robinson's second attempt to show games; and its 
actions against players on 27June 1590 and 1 September 1592. The powers granted in the letter 
were officially renewed and explicitly extended to include prohibitions of plays on 29 July 
1593, and confirmed (along with this extension) by royal letter on 23 July 1604, 4 March 1605, 
and 26June 1632. The 'privatt exercises of the yowthes, meete & vsuall for their recreation' 
listed among the exceptions here (p 277, 11.5-6) doubtless included both college outdoor rec- 
reation and the college plays (cf the similar saving clause in James I's letter of 1604). 

279 cRo: PB/57 f 365 
Copy in cRo: PB/6, p 234. 

281 cu^: U.Ac. 2(1) p 265 
The university sponsored a comedy for presentation to Elizabeth at its mass visit to Audley 
End 26-7July. Boas, University Drama, p 111, n 2, suggests that the comedy 'apparently 


was not acted.' He bases this suggestion on a report that 'the Schollers, honourablie dismist, 
returned home to Cambridge that nyght about midnyght, for in Walden they could get no 
lodging' (Nichols, Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, vol 2, p 114). The fate of the body of scholars 
as a whole, however, has no necessary bearing on the fate of those who came prepared to en- 
tertain the queen with a play. Evidence from college accounts for this year and the next, 
moreover, suggests that the performance came off as planned: see especially Christ's College 
accounts for 1578-9. 
The events at Audley End are recorded by Nichols and by Richard, Lord Braybrooke, The 
History of Audley End (London, 1836), 74-7. Gabriel Harvey's participation is further 
analysed by Virginia F. Stern, Gabriel Harvey: His Life, Marginalia and Library (Oxford, 
1979), 39-46. 

281 CHA: BI/3 f 304 
The payment to 'the Quenes trumpeters at the playes' (1. 39) probably refers to the play(s) 
presented to Elizabeth at Audley End on July 26-7, in the last quarter of the previous academic 
year. The payment probably does not mean that Christ's College itself put on the play(s): its 
last confirmed play was performed in 1567-8. 

282-3 GCL: 759/421 pp 10-11 
The college annals for this period were commissioned in 1655 and written by William Moore 
between 1656 and 1659. For another account of the issues treated in this excerpt, see p 286 
and endnote. 

284 sJA: SB4.2 f 60v 
The payment for 'paper to write out ye bookes for ye tragedy' (1.20) constitutes a rare reference 
to play books or part books (see also Queens' College accounts for 1549-50 and Trinity Col- 
lege Senior Bursar's Accounts for 1620-1). 

284 SJA: SB4.2 f 80 
Probably the supper was 'bestowed on dr Legge' (1. 27) in recognition of his authorship of 
Ricbardus Tertius. The 'nettes to hange before the windows ofye Hall' (1.28) were probably 
used to darken the hall during daytime performances: see also the college accounts for 1594-5, 
and Trinity College accounts for 1612-13 ('for windowes stopping with marts,' p 499,1.30). 

284-5 SJA: SB4.2 f 80v 
Payments cited from this page are followed by further payments for boards, parchment, and 
two great baskets. Since no clear connection is made between these payments and the play 
production this year, they have not been transcribed in the Records. 

285 sJa: SB4.2 f 82v 
The glass was not necessarily broken at the plays, but references to windows earlier in this 
account are suggestive. 

285 xc f 323 
This Senior Bursar's booklet is different from the rest in volume 2 in that it contains rough 

EN DNO'I'ES 1225 

perhaps this is to be interpreted as a claim to be university wait, although he does add that 
Gibbons is also subject to university jurisdiction 'eoque pretextu' (p 333, I. 10). 

333-4 cu^: Comm. Ct. II.4 ff 45v-6v 
John Martyn's deposition is the fourth in a series which began in 1589-90 with the depositions 
of Bird, Walker, and Andrewe. 
Gibbons" four responses (p 335) are to a different set of articles from the seven to which 
Bird, Walker, Andrewe, and Martyn responded. It is possible that the 'articles of exceptions' 
(1.4) to which he replies are the same as those filed by Bird in the vice-chancellor's court (pp 
332-3), although it is difficult to see how Gibbons' third response relates either to Bird's third 
article (p 332) or to the probable contents of the original third article, and in fact these 'articles 
of exceptions' may be lost. Whatever the contents of the third article, in his reply Gibbons 
asserts that in July 1590 Bird had expressed a willingness to settle the suit. Gibbons' testimony 
suggests that his original suit must have been filed between 21 June 1590 and the Oxford com- 
mencement in July 1590. 

337 QUA: Book5 f 26v 
The name of the comedy (1. 19) is unknown. It may be noted that George Montaigne, who 
was involved with Meriton in the college plays of 1594-5, is said to have acted Miles Gloriosus 
(ie, Pyrgopolynices), doubtless in Plautus' comedy of that name (Appendix 3, 1628). 

338 cts^: U.Ac. 2(1) p 318 
Copy in cts^: V.C.V. 3.1, f 3. 
The 'new Musicke stage' (1. 13) was apparently erected in Great St Mary's Church for per- 
formances during commencement: see similar entry in 1599-1600 (p 376, 11.34-6). See uni- 
versity accounts for 1549-50 and 1599-1600 for other instances of music paid for by the uni- 

338-9 Wing: F2440 p 70 
Fuller's remarkable tale concerning the gentlewoman (p 339, II. 3-7) should be compared to 
his tale of John Palmer in Richardus Tereius (1578-9). 

339-40 BL: Lansdowne 71, Art. 82 f 201 
This and the following items concerning the university's appeal to Burghley and the privy 
council are printed, with useful comments, by Chambers and Greg, 'Dramatic Records from 
the Lansdowne Manuscripts,' pp 190-8. The 'lettres" (p 339, 1. 27) of the privy council are 
the letter of 30 October 1575. A similar warrant, also addressed to Richard Cobb as one of 
the constables, was issued in 1589-90. 
The records of this year give an unusually detailed account of the movements of the q ueen's 
men. The company was debarred from playing on 10June, but returned on or shortly before 
1 September under the leadership of either Laurence or John Dutton, secured the licence of 
Lord North, posted bills on the college gates, and succeeded in performing at least once in 
Chesterton, across the river from the site of Sturbridge Fair. (The queen's players received 
10s from the town; one of the company also received a payment of 2s 6d from Trinity College 
either as a gratuity or for services unknown.) 

1226 ENDNOTE$ 

The phrase 'roomes, houses or yardes' (p 340, 1.4) may refer to sites where plays were ac- 
tually performed in Chesterton, but the language is too conventional to be taken as evidence. 
All three terms probably refer to inns rather than to private dwellings. 

340-1 BL: Lansdowne 75, Art. 8 f 16 
This letter was sent from Cambridge and signed by Robert Some, vice-chancellor; Thomas 
Byng; Thomas Legge; Thomas Preston; Laurence Chaderton; Roger Goad; and Thomas 
The stated purpose of this letter was to renew the 'almost expired' (p 341, 1.9) force of the 
privy council letter of 30 October 1575. The requested letter was finally produced on 29 July 
1593. The 'supplicacion," the 'breefes of our Charters,' and the copy of the letter of 30 October 
1575 (p 341, 11. 15-17), all of which accompanied the university letter, are bound together 
with the letter in BL: Lansdowne 75. Concerning the 'like occasion heretofore' (p 340,1.40- 
p 341, 1. 1), see 1579-80. 

341-3 BE: Lansdowne 71, Art. 83 ff 202v-3 
This letter was sent from Cambridge and signed by Robert Some, vice-chancellor; Thomas 
Byng; Thomas Legge; Thomas Preston; Roger Goad; Thomas Neville; and Laurence 
This is the supplication mentioned in the previous letter. The phrase 'seauentene yeares since' 
(p 341,1.37) probably refers to incidents of 1574-5 and to the privy council letter of 30 October 
1575, and possibly to events in the intervening period (eg, 1579-80?). The 'auncient Charter' 
(p 342, 1.9) is the charter of Henry m (24 July 1270) prohibiting tournaments (printed by John 
Willis Clark, Letters Patent of Elizabeth and James the First Addressed to the University of 
Cambridge, with Other Documents (Cambridge, 1892), 61-2). 

346-7 13/.: Lansdowne 71, Art. 84 f 204 
This letter was sent from Cambridge and signed by John Still, vice-chancellor; Roger Goad; 
Robert Some; Humphrey Tyndall; William Whitaker; Edmund Barwell; and John Jegon. 
Printed, with useful comments, by Chambers and Greg, 'Dramatic Records from the 
Lansdowne Manuscripts,' 198-200. Greg and Chambers, p 198, note that Elizabeth's 'appetite 
for academic drama' may have been whetted by her visit to Oxford the previous September. 
They suggest that Heneage was using a 'wile,' particularly since Lord Strange's men and Pem- 
broke's men did perform after all. 
The claim that the university had 'no practize in this Englishe vaine' (p 347, 11.2-3) is some- 
what disingenuous, since Gammer Gurton's Needle was performed at Christ's c 1550-1, 
'english plaies' are mentioned in the Trinity College accounts for 1559-60 (p 208, 1. 24), and 
Nicholas Udall's Ezechias (in English) was performed for Elizabeth in 1564. Nevertheless, 
the habit of playing in Latin was generally observed before the Parnassus plays at St John's 
College beginning in 1598-9 and Club Law at Clare in 1599-1600 (Appendix 6:1). 

347-8 13L: Lansdowne 75, Art. 5 f 10 
This letter was sent from Cambridge and signed by Thomas Legge, vice-chancellor; Robert 
Some; Edmund Hounde; Thomas Neville; Edmund Barwell;John Duport; Humphrey Tyn- 
dall; Thomas Byng; Thomas Preston; and Laurence Chaderton. 


The phrase 'longe since' (p 347, 1.28) refers back to 18 September 1592, a period of some 
ten months. The requested letter was finally produced on 29July, twelve days after this re- 
minder was dispatched (see next item). 
The Cambridge report by Philip Stringer on the experience of 'some of our Body vnto ... 
Oxford' (p 347, 1. 36) for the royal visit of 22-8 September 1592 survives in CUA: Add. 34 
(see REED Oxford collection, forthcoming). 

348-9 PRO: PC2/20 pp 516-17 
Copy in Oxford University Archives: Reg. L, ff 262-2v. 
The registered copy in PRO: PC2/20 is undated; the date is supplied from the Oxford Uni- 
versity copy. The Cambridge University copy has not been traced. This letter is a renewal 
of the letter of 30 October 1575 as requested by the university on 18 September 1592 and again 
on 17July 1593; in addition, the new letter formally confirms the right of the university to 
prohibit professional players. Although the university claimed this right in its letter of 1579-80 
(pp 290-1), no earlier document with statutory force granted that right in so many words. 

352 gCA nf [f 2v] 
Smith, 'Academic Drama,' p 218, misreads 'Thornefe' (1. 16) as 'T. Hornesby.' 

355 IX)L: Bowtell 3 f 110 
The lord chamberlain's players were Shakespeare's company. On the vexed question of 
whether Hamlet was performed in Cambridge on this or any other occasion, see Appendix 10. 

355 BL: Lansdowne 78, Art. 16 f 34 
This letter was sent from Cambridge and signed by Thomas Neville, master; George Lee; 
Jeremiah Ratcliffe; John Sledd; Gregory Milner; William Hall;Samuel Herne; and Cuthbert 
Printed, with useful comments, by Chambers and Greg, 'Dramatic Records from the 
Lansdowne Manuscripts,' pp 213-14. 

355-6 Bodl.: Gough Cambridge 46 ff 13, 14 
Copy in CUL: Mm. 1.43 (Baker 32), pp 529-31. The passage is cited at greater length (from 
Baker) by G.C. Moore Smith (ed), Laelia: A Comedy Acted at Queens" College, Cambridge, 
Probably March 1st, 1595 (Cambridge, 1910), x-xii. 
College halls were darkened by hanging mats or nets over the windows: see St John's College 
accounts for 1578-9, and the Trinity College comedy account of 1612-13. 

356 Wing: F2416 p 156 
Fuller dates the performance of Laelia 1597-8, erroneously assigning it to the year of the death 
of Burghley... and the installation of Essex as chancellor of the university. Smith (ed), Laefia, 
pp va-xv, notes that the performance of Laelia has been incorrectly assigned not only to 1598, 
following Fuller, but also to 1590. For a follow-up discussion of the date, see Smith, 'The 
.Cambridge Play Laelia," Modern Language Review, 6 (1911 ), 382-3. See the Queens' College 
Inventory of 1546-7 for an earlier play of Laelia Modenas. 


Brigit Edmunds (the wife); and William Covell, s'B (ie, the modern BD degree), fellow of 
Queens' (the co-respondent). John Edmunds, Jr, was the son of John Edmunds, St, former 
alderman and mayor, and grandson of John Edmunds, master of Peterhouse 1522-44. Cooper, 
Athenae, vol 1, p 86, notes that the grandfather 'was privately married to a sister of the wife 
of John Mere, esquire bedel, and had a son John, first called Mere and afterwards Edmunds, 
who was mayor of Cambridge.' 
This presentment led to three cases before the vice-chancellor's court: proceedings against 
Brigit Edmunds for adultery with William Covell; proceedings against William Covell for 
adultery with Brigit Edmunds; and a suit of divorce against Brigit Edmunds brought by her 
husband, John Edmunds, Jr. 
The business became heated early, and Edmunds sued for a peace bond against Covell the 
same day proceedings began. Although Brigit denied her guilt at first, she confessed upon her 
second court appearance (30 August), and on 9 October was delivered a set form of penance 
to bedone on three successive Sundays in her parish church (CUR 11, Art. 20(2)). She does 
rot appear to have contested the divorce suit (brought on 4 September), although she was not 
able to appear on 6 September to hear further proceedings in the case because she was then 
lying in childbed. As of 4 October there had been no further proceedings in the case of divorce, 
and she is still named as 'wyef of Iohn Edmunds the yonger' in the schedule of penance. In 
fact, although as of 19 November she faced a possible penalty of excommunication for not 
performing her penance, she is still being cited as Edmunds' wife (f 159). 
The suit against Covell dragged on over four court days (28 and 30 August, 3 and 6 Sep- 
tember) as the Edmunds family and servants tried to discredit him from compurgation, dis- 
credit his compurgators, and produce eyewitnesses to the adultery. On 6 September Covell 
did finally make a successful compurgation and was dismissed with his good character restored, 
although he was still named as Brigit's partner in the schedule of 9 October. 

364-5 cuA: V.C. Ct. 1.3 ff 116-16v 
The accusation that Montaigne 'redd lectures to me of bawdrye' (p 365, 1. 10) is elaborated 
on f 117: Montaigne declared that during a trip to Ely by boat, he 'tooke Bocchas in ffrenche 
... and englished the same to them; wherein he saith there was hoe bawdrye at all.' Brigit Ed- 
murds, however, affirmed that on another occasion 'it was the Palace of pleasure which he 
red to hit.' The reference is to William Painter, The Palace of Pleasure (London, 1566; src: 
19121, and subsequent editions). 
'Licea,' doubtless Covell's pet name for Brigit according to the classicizing manner of the 
time, may be drawn from the poetry of Giles Fletcher, father of the Cambridge playwright 
Phineas Fletcher. Giles' sonnet sequence Licia orPoemes of Love (src: 11055), although issued 
anonymously and without imprint, was probably published in Cambridge in 1593. 
John Crowfoote was a member of a family notorious in Cambridge for scrapes with the 
law. His father, Thomas, was keeper of the White Horse (V. C. Ct. I. 4, f 285). John matricu- 
lated from Corpus Christi College in 1586, receiving his ^ in 1590-1 and his MA in 1594, 
but was suspended 27 October 1595 'propter demerita sua' (V.C. Ct. 1.30, f 175v; see also 
ff 142v, 146, 152). He was ultimately disqualified as a compurgator because of this suspension 
(V.C. Ct. 1.3, f l17v). 
The incident in which John Crowfoote was 'drawn by the heels from a common play' 
(p 365, 1. 22) may be recorded in two depositions of I March 1596 describing an affray of 


Thursday, 27 February, six months prior to the date of the adultery case. The first of these 
depositions, by Edward Smith, is CUR 6.2 (Art. 41): 

That mr Riddinge arresting ye sayd Crofoote he ,rvpon Thursday night 
at ye Elephant" Crofoot dyd resiste ,'him" wherevpon mr Riddinge 
charged this deponent ,rand Prime with others 1 in ye Queenes name to ayde 
him and this deponent layinge handes on him Crofoot he Crofoot dyd 
smite this deponent with his fist and ye sayed Riddinge still Charginge ye 
sayed [Crofoot] deponent to lay hand on him he still resisted and layed 
hould on a post from whence this deponent and otheres dyd pull him and 
going down ye stayrs he sawe Crofoot drawe his dagger and offer to smite 
at mr Ridding with ye poynt of his dager rthrough his arm' backward as 
yf he would haue stabbed him. and If] before he came to ye stayrs and vpon 
ye stayres and [(.)] in ye entry %fthe house' and soe all along,rye streates 1 
going to ye toulbooth dyd often repeat these woordes viz Riddinge I wilbe 
revenged on you base Rascall yat thou art thus to [(.)s] vse me and sayed 
ye like ,rwoordes' vnto Jail yat] vs yat were about him and sayed he would 
haue all [the] there bloodes viz mr Riddinges and al ye rest and called Prime 
whitlivered knave and sayed he woold be specyally revenged on ye sayed 
Prime. And in ye carringe of him to ye tolboth both in ye house and in 
ye streates he cryed murther murther helpe gentlemen will you see a master 
of artes murthered and this crye he often repeated. And when he came 
within ye prison he strook Prime with his fist and strooke this deponent 
alsoe with his fist and would haue smitten this deponent with a candestick 
but yat he was put by with Riddinge and all this was doone in ye presence 
of,rthis deponent 1 mr Riddinge mr Sill Andrewe ye Porter of St Iohns Be- 
njamin Prime and ye ost of ye house was there also at ye beginninge. 
Edwardi + Smith 

The second deposition, by Benjamin Prime (Art. 42), contains the same essential details, 
but adds that some of Crowfoote's crying aloud occurred 'in the courte ryardl' after he had 
been led down the stairs. If this was the occasion of the common play, then that play was ap- 
parently performed in an upstairs room of the Elephant and not outdoors, although the 
Elephant had a courtyard. 
The entire Crowfoote family was subsequently involved in a "sturre & hurley burley" at the 
White Horse on 2 December 1597, when Benjamin Prime 'distrained a brasse pott in the 
kitchen there' upon an accusation that Thomas had been engaged in 'dresseing of fleshe' (V.C. 
Ct. I. 4, ff 13v- 14v). Prime found himself in violent conflict not only with Thomas, the father, 
but with Thomas's wife, their son John, and another young son unnamed. Thomas Crowfoote 
(called Crawford) was later committed to the gatehouse at Westminster, but released upon 
a submission dated 4 January 1602 (Misc. Collect. 8, ff 32-2v). On 20 January 1606 Alice 
Crowfoote was whipped by Thomas Purkis, probably for prostitution (U. Ac. 1 (2), 1605-6, 
f so). 


365-7 cu^: V.C. Ct. 1.3 ff l19v-20v 
'The Comedye of ffatum' (p 367, 1.12) is unknown: it is almost certainly not the play entitled 
Fatum Vortigerni (Appendix 6:2, Faturn). 

370 EMA: BUR.8.1 p 11 
This is the only reference to (William) Bird as the recipient of a payment (for service as a wait ?) 
since 1590-1: see Introduction, p 741. 

373 sJ^: SB4.2 f 531 
Smith, 'Academic Drama,' pp 225-6, cites payments for mending hall windows this year and 
in subsequent years to 1601-2. None of these entries contains a mention of plays and thus 
none is included here; nevertheless, the Parnassus group was performed during these years 
at St John's, and the glass may have been broken during the plays (Appendix 6:1). 

373-4 TC^ f 227v 
Apparently the college hired timber and other material normally used for the stages in Great 
St Mary's Church. For a description of the St Mary's stage, see p 507, 1. 33-p 508, 1. 28. 

376-7 cu^: U.Ac. 2(1) p 360 
The 'stage in St. Maries for the Musicians on the Queenes daie' (p 376,1.35) was first con- 
structed in 1591-2 as a supplement to the commencement stage. The university accounts for 
1549-50 record a performance by King's College choir alone. 

377 .IEL.- R.2.5 opening 29 
W.W. Greg, in his review of Smith (ed), Club Law (Cambridge, 1907), in Modern Language 
Review, 4 (1908-9), 268-9, describes JEL: R.2.5 (then classed R.3.42) as 'a preliminary outline' 
of Fuller's History of the University. He suggests that 'the dating of Club Law in the latter 
is probably due to some careless slip.' He continues: 'I think it may now be taken as certain 
that the date of Club Law is the winter of 1599-1600, and that Niph|e in the play stands for 
the Mayor of Cambridge, John Yaxley.' 

377-8 Wing: F2416 p 156 
Fuller's narrative seems partly verified by the town complaint of 1600-1, but his assignment 
of the performance to 1597-8 is probably incorrect (see preceding note), and Fuller is often 
given to sacrificing probability for the sake of an entertaining tale (see 1578-9, 1590-1 ). The 
text of Club Law was discovered by Smith in St John's College Library and edited by him 
in 1907. For the town complaint, see 1600-1. For other references to 'club law' - the use of 
clubs by students in affrays - see William Soone's description of Cambridge (cited by Cooper, 
vol 2, p 329), and see documents concerning various riots from 1582-3 to 1611-12 (see Index). 

378-9 cu^: CUR 16 (Art. 6) single sheet 
The keeper of the Bear at this date was Mary Gibbons, widow of William (Appendix 13). In 
1643, 1644, and 1662 the Black Bear, which was the same inn, was used for political assemblies; 


from 1773 to 1809 it was used as a concert hall by the Music Club (vcu, p 115). Presumably, 
therefore, it had a capacious hall, which would also have been suitable for plays. 
For a similar complaint about length of hair, see the Kelly case of 1631-2 (p 645). 

380 KCa nf [f 1] 
On the identity of this 'Gibbins' (1. 4), see Introduction, p 745. 

380 KCa nf [f Iv] 
The founder's feast referred to in 11. 12-13 is probably for the anniversary of the death of Henry 
v, observed in May. The situation is complicated, because the college also held 
'commemorationes' of the founder each quarter, but an unqualified reference such as this one 
is probably to the main memorial at the anniversary. 

381 cua: Misc. Collect. 8 f 85 
This announcement of university regulations, signed by John Jegon vc, reaffirms orders of 
7July 1595; 'comon plaies' (1.41), however, stands in the place of 'Common bowling places' 
(p 357, 1. 8) in that document. 

382 PRO: SP12/279 (Art. 66(2)) f l14v 
Copy in BL: Harley 7047 (Baker 20), f 82v. (PRO: SP 12/279 Art. 66(1 ) is a letter from the uni- 
versity in the same case.) 
Further complaints in the same vein but not mentioning plays are printed in Transactions, 
vol 2, pp 208-15. Presumably the play in question was Club Law: see Fuller's account, 1599- 

385-90 cuA: V.C. Ct. 1.5 ff 221v-3, 223v-4v 
The occasion of the riot which is the subject of these depositions was a play at St John's College, 
as revealed by the fact that Anthony Thompson of St John's served as stage keeper (p 389, 
1.3), and glass was broken in the college hall. Perhaps the riot occurred during the performance 
of The Return from Parnassus (Appendix 6:1). 

392 IX)L: Bowtell 3 f 243 
This entry was apparently inserted at a later date, as it is written in black ink, the rest of the 
page in brown. 

395-7 cuA: Lett. l la.A.8.a single sheet 
Copies in cu: Collect. Admin. 8 (Tabor's Book), pp 713-15; Bodl. : Rawlinson, Statutes 7, 
pp 185-7; and BL: Harley 7037 (Baker 10), f 351. 
This is a royal confirmation of university privileges granted in letters of 30 October 1575 
and 29 July 1593. The privileges were confirmed again by Charles  in 1631-2. See also the 
letters patent of 4 March 1605. At the conclusion of the registered copy in Collect. Admin. 
8, p 715, the registrary has added the following summary: 

In Charta regis Iacobi prohibentur premissa, et alia spectacula otiosa 
rquemcunque  Lucri causa populo presentari[tur], et vt constet quam 

1234 ENDNO'I'ES 

424 DOL: Bowtell 3 f 412 
The letter has not been traced; evidently it concerned the riot between St John's College and 
Trinity College: see the stage named on p 457, 1. 6. 

424-31 CUA: V.C. Ct. 1.23 pp 1-5, ff 
Pages 6, 8, and 14 of this manuscript are blank. The following pages are presumed out of order: 
pp 10, 13x, 12x, 33. Two items on otherwise blank p 34 are cited in footnotes to items on 
p 31. Material on the following pages concerns other cases: pp 36, 37, top of pp 38, 40. 
Rules of transcription outlined in Editorial Principles (pp 815-16) have been relaxed in the 
transcription of this document to give the reader a better idea of the organization of the original. 
In particular, numbers used as cross-references from allegations to depositions, or from one 
deposition to another related one, although originally written sometimes in the text and some- 
times in the margin, have for the most part been moved to the margin and treated without 
distinction. Conversely, names originally written sometimes in the margin and sometimes in 
the text have for the most part been moved to the text and treated without distinction. Names 
which occur in the margin as reference aids, however, have been left in the margin, particularly 
since they are often associated with reference numbers. For more information about the hand 
of James Tabor, see pp 815-16. 
Cooper, vol 2, p 601, assigns this riot in error to 1600-1. J.W. Clark published the text 
of Part 1, together with notes that remain useful, in The Riot at the Great Gate of Trinity 
College February 1610-11, cAs, Octavo Series, 43 (Cambridge, 1906). Clark did not know 
of Part 2. For a synopsis of the riot, see Appendix 17. 
The college asked that Jarmin Ward be deposed on two questions concerning townsmen 
hired as stage keepers (p 430, 11.28-35). Although the three witnesses named all claimed to 
have heard him say he had refused an offer of 40s to be a stage keeper (p 443, 11.24-7; p 443, 
1.39-p 444, 1.2;p 466, 11.14-22), he denied it (p 435, 11.1-5), and claimed to have said simply 
that he would not have been a stage keeper for any money (p 444, 11. 13-15, and endnote below 
to pp 440-8). Ward's testimony seems to include a denial of the claim that his son-in-law 
Boyes, identified as a bookbinder on p 466, 1.18, was a stage keeper for Trinity, and the sole 
witness who mentions it testifies only that he heard Ward say so, not that he himself knew 
it (p 443, 11. 19-22 and p 466, 11. 20-3). 

431 CUA: V.C. Ct. 1.23 p 7 
Clark, The Riot at the Great Gate of Trinity College, p 42, identifies Smart (1.6) as porter 
of Trinity; he also identifies 'Kinge ye porter,' named in the following paragraph (1. 18), as 
porter of Trinity (Clark, p 41). In Part 2, however, which Clark did not know, Smart and 
King are associated with St John's, and in particular with Nicholas Jackson, a servant of St 
John's who is also identified as a porter (eg, p 469, 1.7: see index for further references). These 
identifications make better sense of the questions for examination and of King's deposition 
on p 451 : he testifies that he had been lured to Trinity College, where Thomas Kemp offered 
him a bribe for his cooperation. 
Elsewhere in Part 1 the porter of St John's is identified as 'Francis ye Porter' (eg, p 455, 
1.25). This Francis received livery as a college servant from 1605-6 to 1610-11 (sJA: SB4.3, 
ff 151,220, 264). Francis' predecessor in the college accounts was Robert Longe, called 'Robert 
the Porter' (SB4.3, ff 29, 151, 176); hence Francis is more likely a first than a last name; see also 


'Andrewe ye Porter of St Iohns,' p 1230. In any case, Francis the porter was the only one 
of all those identified as porters who was a liveried servant of the college. 

437-9 cu,: V.C. Ct. 1.23 pp 17-18 
While it is true that many of the stage keepers were r,s, as Carr states he was told in his tes- 
timony on p 438, Daniel Boyes, who may have been a stage keeper, was a townsman. 

440-8 cu,: V.C. Ct. 1.23 pp 19-26 
Jeffrey Allott's 'master who went to the Comedye' (p 441, 1. 24) has not been identified. 
IfJarmin Ward were 'admitted a Snt Iohns man' (p 443, 1.27), it would have been not in 
the formal, academic sense (he was illiterate), but as a hired servant of the college. However, 
this claim is put forward only as hearsay by John Simonds and not confirmed by Ward's own 
testimony on p 443, nor is it mentioned in Simonds' second deposition on p 466. The expres- 
sion 'xl s & xl to' (forty shillings and another forty) is idiomatic and not to be taken literally. 
It is also used in Fulgens and Lucres, 1. F1.1072 (Alan H. Nelson (ed), The Plays of Henry 
Medwall (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1980), 57, 184). 

451-2 cu,: V.C. Ct. 1.23 p 30 
Evidently Smart the porter (p 452, 1.24) was to have been examined, but was not. See discussion 
of porters in endnote to p 431. 

457 cu,: V.C. Ct. 1.23 p 39 
A punishment which involved setting offenders in the stocks with inscriptions announcing 
their faults was also meted out in 1606-7 (p 407). Evidently the scribe intended but failed to 
record the inscriptions in the blank area to the right of the names. 

457-8 cu,: V.C. Ct. 1.23 p 33 
The five names in the second list ('Mr Dillacre,' p 457, 1.30, to "Robert Slegg,' 1.34) are ac- 
companied by reference numbers, not to the depositions contained earlier in this MS, but to 
those contained in Part 2, cv,: V.C. Ct. II.15. 

459-60 cu,: V.C. Ct. II.15 f 1A, ff 
The following pages are presumed out of order: ff 3Av, 3B, 3Bv. A fair copy of two depositions 
from Part 1, p 16, occurs on f 13v, which is otherwise blank. One line from another case occurs 
on f6. The general notes on the layout and handwriting which appear in the endnote to pp 
424-31 also apply to this manuscript. 

463-4 cu,,,: V.C. Ct. II.15 f 2 
St John's drew students largely from the north, including Yorkshire, Trinity from the south; 
thus the rivalry (p 464, 11. 1, 7, 16) was partly regional. 

467-8 cu,: V.C. Ct. II.15 f 5 
The Wrestlers (p 467, 11. 26-7) was an inn located at the intersection of St Andrew's Street 
and Petty Cury, across the street from Barnwell Gate; for an illustration, see Atkinson, 
Cambridge Described, p 73. 


497-501 TC^: Box 29.281a pp 63, 69-70 
This minutely detailed expense account for the Trinity College plays Adelphe and $cyros, both 
by Samuel Brooke, is written in a cramped and often obscure hand. 
Henry Wriothesley, earl of Southampton (p 498, 1.6), Shakespeare's sometime patron, was 
present at the college comedies ('Memorandum Concerning Royal Visit': see pp 502-11 for 
an account of the visit, especially pp 503 and 510). Judging from a second reference to South- 
ampton (p 500, 1. 23), both payments were for fetching apparel from his estate. 
Was 'mr wilbye' (p 498, 1. 12) John Wilby the madrigalist? Roger North was the son of 
the late-sixteenth-century Lord North, who died in 1600; the Norths were a musical family. 
For more detail about Wilby, see Appendix 13. Both Wilby and North are mentioned again 
further along in the account (p 499, 1. 33). 
Throughout the accounts, the word following the preposition 'to' refers to a tradesman or 
is a proper name; hence 'Modye' and 'papaly stag' (p 498, 1. 25) are interpreted as names. 
The payment for 'horsing vp 3 musitions" (p 498, 1.29) may refer to musicians hired from 
London: see p 500, 1. 30, '5 musitians from London.' 
The payment for 'a pastorall clothe' (p 500, I. 20) constitutes a rare explicit piece of evidence 
for painted cloths used for backgrounds. On 'howses' (1. 20), see Introduction, p 717. The 
'centaure' (1.21) was a prop for $cyros, at the opening of which the bow and hide of a defeated 
centaur are carried on stage. 

501 ct^: U.Ac. 2(1) p 445 
Copy in ct^: V.C.V. 3.22a. 

501-2 cu^: Collect. Admin. 8 pp 455, 456 
Abstract in CUL: Mm.1.42 (Baker 31), p 244. (See next item for another version.) 
These are the first of many 'Orders & monitions' issued for royal visits. This monition has 
sometimes been misdated 1635-6 (eg, by Cooper, vol 3, p 273, n 2), apparently through con- 
fusion over the identity of the palsgrave. (Frederick v visited Cambridge in 1613, his young 
son Charles Lewis in 1636.) See Introduction, pp 715-17, for a discussion of the arrangement 
of the hall. 

502-3 cu^: Collect. Admin. 8 pp 468, 469 
Abstract in CUL: Mm. 1.42 (Baker 31), p 244. 

503-4 GCL: 73/40 ff 232-2v, ff 
Nichols, Progresses of James x, vol 2, p 607, n 3, notes that this document was announced 'to 
the Society of Antiquaries by C.H. Hartshorn, Esq. of St John's College, in a Letter to Thomas 
Amyot, Esq., Treasurer of the Society, and was read at their meetings, Jan. 13 and Jan. 20, 
1825.' He adds: 'It will probably be found in the Appendix to this Volume.' Nichols did not, 
however, print the document; hence it is given in full here. The dates of the plays are sometimes 
given in error as 3 and 4 March (eg, by Cooper, vol 3, pp 56-7) rather than 2 and 3 March. 
On order of foliation, see Document Descriptions, p 796. 
Supply 'and' for sense after "Prince Charles' on p 503, 1.31, since the king's 'sonnes' here 
are Prince Charles and the king's new son-in-law Frederick v, the elector palatine, who married 


Princess Elizabeth on 14 February, less than three weeks earlier. The late Prince Henry's con- 
nection with Oxford occurred in the form of his matriculation from Magdalen College in 
August 1605 (DNB). 

505--6 GCL: 73/40 ff 233v--4 
Both Neville and Tyndall were aged and infirm, and for this reason not 'able to goe with ye 
rest of ye companie' (p 506, 11. 2-3). Tyndall died in 1614, Neville in 1615. 
The Gate of Humility Cad portam humilitatis,' p 506, 11.8-9) is one of four named gates 
in the college, the others being Wisdom, Honour, and Virtue (see p 506, 11.23-8). The gates 
were provided by Dr Caius. Before being moved in 1868, the Gate of Humility opened onto 
Trinity Street (Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, An lnventoryofthe Historical 
Monuments in the City of Cambridge (London, 1959) pt 1, 73). 

506-8 GCL." 73/40 ff 238-8v 
The chaplain's prayer 'for Prince Henrie' (p 506, 1.20) was a painfulfaux pas, for Henry had 
died the previous November. 
The writing is so cramped as to be virtually illegible in some places. For another reference 
to tracing the foot of a distinguished visitor (probably on the leads of the roof), see Tram- 
actions, vol 2, p 355. See also Bodl. : Rawlinson poet. 147, ff l-lv, 'On the Prime of his Lady's 
foot curt on the leadds of Kings Colledge chapple' (Margaret Crum (ed), First-Line Indexof 
English Poetry, H 1077). Perhaps the phrase 'Name to be pressed. &c' (p 506, 11.34-5)was 
part of a similar ri*ual. 

510 GCL: 73/40 f 236 
Nichols, Progresses of James l, vol 4, pp 1086-7, supplies a third paragraph not in this docu- 
ment, taken from/3L: Harley 7041 (Baker 14), apparently citing 'Buck's Book' (QCL: 89). 

510-11 GCL: 73/40 ff 240--40v 
As on many such occasions, visitors of rank, including 'diuerse other gentlemens sonns' 
(p 511, 11. 18-19), came forward in an attempt to acquire unearned degrees. 

514 Wing: HI71 p 24 
John Hacket played the roles of Cannius in Adelphe and Lycida in Scyros (see Appendix 7 
for cast lists). 

514 BRO: Trumbull Alphabetical MSS, vol XXXa, no 44 f [1] 
The king did not in fact visit Oxford following this visit to Cambridge. 

514-15 sJ: D105.25 f [1] 
The college tenant 'mr Iugge' (p 515, 1. 8) was Thomas Jugge, created MA on this occasion but 
not a student and probably ignorant of Latin. 

515 PRO." SP14/72 f 139v 
The same text occurs in Chamberlain's letter of 10 March to Sir Ralph Winwood: cited in 
McClure, Letters of John Chamberlain, vol 1, p 434. 


517 Jea: A/C 1.3 p 379 
Since the most recent certain record of a play at Jesus College is from 1598-9, and the next 
is from 1622-3 (p 586, 11.36-7), this 'stage' may have been for a construction scaffold. The 
date of 4 February, however, suggests a stage for a play by its proximity to Candlemas. 

519 tc^ f 227v 
Mason died this year; his burial is mentioned on f 227. See also Appendix 13. 

519 tca f 228v 
Judging from its name, the 'repeating Chamber' (1.41) was a rehearsal room ; conceivably it 
was the same as the tiring chamber. See the college Junior Bursar's Accounts for 1614-15 (and 
endnote) for other references. 

520 Ic^ f 189v 
'Litle Lunman and others suche Idle ffelowes' (11. 13-14), possibly entertainers, have not been 
identified. See p 672, footnote to i. 4, for language of similar harshness. 

522 CHA: T.I f [2v] 
The charge of ls for the comedy was laid upon three scholars under Mead's tuition; a fourth, 
Jonas Styles, was not charged (ff [12-12v]). 

523 oc^ nf [f 2v] 
The Gate of Humility ('Humilitas gate,' 1. 5) is one of four named gates in the college: see 
1612-13 account of royal visit (p 506, 11. 8-9) and endnote. 

526 tca f 257 
Stephen Wilmott (1. 10) had served as a Trinity College chapel musician since as early as 
1609-10 (Senior Bursar's Accounts 4, f 174); this is the first time he is also identified as town 
musician. For more information about Wilmott, see Appendix 13. 
The 'keay for the commedy' (11.15-16) may have been related to one of the keys and locks 
mentioned in the Junior Bursar's Accounts for this year (p 527, 11. 38-9, p 528, 11. 3-7). 

526-7 xcA f 258 
The 'Rayles on the stage' (p 52 7, 1.1) were evidently distinct from the rail which divided the 
lower part of the hall (see university orders beginning in 1612-13). For an illustration of a 
stage rail, see the frontispiece to Roxana, Appendix 19, p 1038. 

527-8 tca ff 353bzsv, 361 
Together with a similar payment from 1619-20, these references to 'the Attyring chamber' 
(p 527,1.32), 'a doare coming out of the masters Lodging into the Hall' (p 528, 11.3-4), and 
'adore going out of the tyreing house into the Hall' (p 528, 11.6-7), indicate that the tiring 
chamber was located behind the wall at the upper end of the hall. (See also Orders and Mon- 
itions, especially those of 1628-9, 1631-2, and 1635-6, in which university officials attempted 
to prevent unauthorized entrance to the comedies from the master's lolging via the tiring 
chamber.) Of the two doors at the upper end, one apparently led to the master's lodge, the 


552 sA: D105.195 f [1] 
The 'blasoninge of Ignoramus armes' (11.26-7) is related to a series of blazons in Chappell's 
Susenbrotus. The two surviving copies of the play (Appendix 6:1) contain blazons of the puri- 
tan, the Jesuit, the usurer, and the pedant. An independent text in BL: Add. 34218, f 163v, 
excerpts all four of these blazons and adds a fifth, 'That of Ignoramus': 

Hee beares parte per pale, sable & purple, a barre betweene 3 Angels, his 
helmet a coyfe mantled with 2 Indentures Labelled, his dorce a fallinge 
band with a sett ruffe vppon it, his crest a horseleache. Supporters, Iohn 
a stile of Norfolk and Iohn a Nokes of Devon: the Word Dum viuo thriuo! 

552-3 cuA: V.C. Ct. 1.8 f 233v 
Thomas Dounton, Edward Jubey, and the rest were the palsgrave's men: see Bentley, ms, vol 
1, pp 135-57. This document, which was unknown to Bentley, reveals that the company was 
still intact and on tour toward the end of March 1616. 

560 cuA: V.C.V. 3(27d) single sheet 
Copies in ct3: V.C.V. 3.28a, f i (bifolium, neat); and V.C.V. 3.28b (bifolium, rough). See 
Sheet of Accounts 1614-15 (pp 531-2) and endnote. 

561-2 cuA: Comm. Ct. V.8 pp 146-7 
Sir Edward Hinde was the first knight to serve as mayor of Cambridge. The university held 
that, in licensing the lord of taps, Sir Edward was overstepping his authority. John Hill was 
vc 1616-17. The university challenged the mayor's power of appointment again in 1637-8. 

565-7 cuA: U.Ac. 2(1) pp 499-500 
Copy in cuA: V.C.V 3.27d. See Sheet of Accounts 1614-15 (pp 531-2) and endnote. 

567 ccA p 137 
The assessment upon members of the college for the wages paid to the waits recalls the practice 
at Christ's (Appendix 14, except that here the assessment appears to be limited to fellows and 
'senior pensioners.') This entry offers the earliest evidence in the Records that the Cambridge 
waits were expected to sing as well as play instruments. Similar evidence occurs in the waits' 
articles of 1627-8 (p 613). 

569 xcA f 10v 
On 'the doore that cometh out of the tyringe chamber into the... Masters lodginge' (11.32-3), 
see college accounts for 1614-15, pp 527-8 (and endnote). 

570-2 cuA: V.C. Ct. 1.9 ff 211v-12 
Games were played at the Gog Magog Hills in 1573-4; although no records of intervening 
performances survive, this document suggests that they continued with little interruption. The 
games of this year are notably similar to entertainments contemplated for a London am- 
phitheatre which came to the planning stage this year but which was never built: see Leslie 


Hotson, 'The Projected Amphitheatre,' Shakespeare Survey, 2 (1949), 24-35; information 
summarized in Jcs, vol 6, pp 291-304. Among the proposals: 'For Latine Playes, the helpe 
of both the Vniuersities, when Tyme shall require for the Entertainment of Princes, or any 
Embassadours from foraigne Nations' (Hotson, p 29). 

572-3 Marsden: College Life pp 109-10 
The OED gives 1610 as the earliest use in English of'Olympic' in the phrase 'Olympic games' 
(see p 572, 11. 30-1). Similarly, performances announced for the projected London am- 
phitheatre were designated 'Olympiades' (Hotson, p 29). 
The Cambridge bullring was erected in 1603-4 and repaired in 1623-4 and 1631-2; thus 
while the bullring may have fallen into disrepair by 1619-20, it had scarcely been banished 

573 Marsden: College Life pp 116-17 
This is the only Cambridge reference to a rope-dancer, unless the 'dawnser' sent for at Ches- 
terton by the university in 1568-9 was such an entertainer. 

573-4 sJA: D105.18 ff [1-1v] 
In spite of the fact that Gwyn effected the transfer of Rutland Snowden ('my first borne sonne,' 
p 573, 11. 25-6) from Christ's College to St John's following this request, and the fact that 
Valentine Cary was elevated to bishop of Exeter in 1621, Gwyn was not made dean of St Paul's, 
a position which went instead to John Donne. 

576 TCA f 352v 
The payment to 'Mr Coote for candles Inck & paper for the Comedy' (1. 16) constitutes a 
rare reference to play books or part books. See also Queens' College accounts for 1549-50, 
and St John's College accounts for 1578-9. 

578 cc p 139 
During March and April 1621, Francis Bacon, lord chancellor of England and high steward 
of Cambridge (1617-23), recently created Lord Verulam, stood trial for bribery; the day of 
his confession and fall was 30 April. Over the next year (ie, during the time of the Corpus 
Christi College plays) he recovered somewhat from his disgrace, in part through the self- 
serving intervention of Buckingham. This story has been retold by John T. Noonan, Jr, Bribes 
(New York, 1984), 334-65. The college stood by its own, though somewhat equivocally, since 
it placed restrictions on plays in the vernacular and agreed that in future its plays would be 
more carefully supervised. Hull and Brodrib had reason for concern:in 1619John Wrenham 
lost both his ears and was sentenced to life imprisonment for making unproved charges against 
Bacon (Noonan, pp 335-9). 

579 PB: Mctx nf 
Since King James is not known to have visited Cambridge this year, the occasion of the pay- 
ment remains uncertain. 

ENDNOTE$ 1245 

581 cRo: PB/7 f 116 
This year the town corporation undertook to deal with a growing debt by reducing its standing 
obligations, including the annual payment to the waits: Cooper, vol 3, pp 146-7, gives full 
details. So far as the waits were concerned, however, the orders had no effect, for the town's 
payments to the waits continued unabated both this year and in subsequent years. 

582 cc^ p 141 
This codicil amends the previous year's prohibition of plays in the vernacular; the amendment 
was duly inserted into the earlier memorandum. The 'Decanum' (l. 37) or 'Dean' was evidently 
the college's Christmas lord. 

583 cc^ p 142 
The Christmas tumult may be related to the ceremony of the Christmas 'Dean.' A full list 
of the perpetrators and punishments which follows in the chapter book is printed in Masters 
and Lamb, History of Corpus Christi College, p 164n. 

585-6 cts^: Collect. Admin. 8 pp 453, 454 
Abstract in ctsL: Mm. 1.42 (Baker 31), p 243. 
The prohibition of rude noises, omitted from the orders of 1624-5, is expanded in the orders 
of 1628-9. 

586 'Ro: SP15/43 f 1 
The Jesus College comedy has not been identified (see Appendix 6:1, Adrastus Parentans). 
John Hacker was the principal author of Loiola, Edmund Stubbs evidently a reviser, while 
Robert Ward was author of Fucus Histriornastix (see Appendix 6:1). 

587 BL." Harley 389 f 289 
Ash Wednesday in 1623 fell on 26 February. On the exact date of this performance of Loiola, 
see Appendix 6:1. 

588 QUL: 89 pp 159, 160, 162 
Copy in BL: Harley 7041 (Baker 14), 70. 
King James came to Cambridge for the performance of Loiola, but he saw Fucus Histriornas- 
tix at Newmarket: see Appendix 6:1. 

589 BL: Harley 389 f 298 
Copy in cu: Mm. 1.43 (Baker 32), p 363. 

592 QtS^: Book 26 nf 
On the last folio occurs the following entry, of uncertain date and uncertain significance: 
'Ignoramus 1-0.' 

594 cu^: Comm. Ct. V.9 f 52v 
For nearly contemporary information on the showing of an elephant, see sos, vol 6, p 291. 


597--8 CUA: V.C. Ct. III.27 (Art. 121) single sheet 
Copy in CUA: Collect. Admin. 8, pp 452-3. 

598 PRO: SP14/176 f 91 
The exact projected date of the comedy is not known; a reasonable estimate is 10 December. 
The name of the intended comedy is also unknown (Appendix 11, 1622-3). 

598 PRO: SP14/176 f 78v 
The 'play presented lately at Newmarket' (1.31 ) was Fucus Histriomastix, presented c 12 March 
1623, some two years earlier. The 'ri(me)' (1. 30) was probably 'On Fucus' (Appendix 5). 

599 CUA: T.X.19 f 11 
Michael Palmer was evidently master of a second company of Cambridge musicians. For more 
information on Palmer, see Appendix 13. 

605 CHA: BI/7 f 97v 
Entries on this page are repeated on f 92. 

608 S3A: SB4.4 f 222 
King Charles visited Cambridge 1-3 March (p 737); perhaps 'twise' (1.15) in this entry signifies 
two payments rather than two visits. 

608 ssA pp 229, 234 
Payments to waits before this date (eg, 1626-7) were 6s, while payments after 1635-6 (eg, 
1636-7) are 5s; conceivably the college decided this year to reduce its payments from 6s to 
5s, perhaps seizing the opportunity for change provided by the death of master wait Stephen 
Wilmott. One of the two entries for this and subsequent years is an accounting error: see 

609 PRO: LC5/132 p 91 
The 'Comedy' (1.39) may have been Thomas Vincent's Paria, performed 3 March 1628 before 
Charles  (Appendix 6:1). 

610 3L: Harley 390 f 345v 
Since the visit was 'private & accidentall' (1.8), it did not make full demands on the hospitality 
of the university. 

611-14 CUA: CUR 9 (Art. 10(1)) ff 1-5 
Apropos 'insufficience of voyce' (p 613, 1. 15), see Corpus Christi College Chapter Book of 
1619-20 for earlier evidence that waits were required to sing as well as to play on instruments. 

615-16 EMA: BUR.8.2 f [2v] 
Through an error which occurred in recent rebinding, this leaf has been placed second rather 
than first in the volume. 


performance in 1622-3. The only other known performance, however, occurred on 10 Feb- 
ruary 1619 (Appendix 6:1). 
Still another notice of these events occurs in the notebooks of John Finet, printed in Albert 
J. Loomie (ed), Ceremonies of Charles : The Note Books of John Finer, 1628-1641 (New York, 
1987), 71-2 (not discovered by the editor in time for inclusion in the Records). 

622 VRO: SP16/149 (Art. 108) f 151 
Oxford is not known to have produced a play for the king this year, so presumably Brooke 
is comparing disputations, not plays. There is no evidence that Brooke, now master of Trinity 
College, did write the pastoral and comedy for Shrovetide 1630. (Plays by Brooke had featured 
prominently in royal performances in 1612-13 and 1614-15.) 

624 OuA: Book 6 f 39 
Possibly this payment was for the Trinity College comedy ofFraus Honesta, performed 24 
September 1629 (Appendix 6:1), and not for a Queens' College play. 

625 ctsA: Lett. 12 (D.3) f [I] 
See the similar exchange of letters between Burghley and Hatcher in 1579-80. The 'Queen 
of Bohemias Players' (1.23) (ie, the players of Princess Elizabeth) are described by Bentley, 
Jcs, vol 1, pp 176-97. Ash Wednesday this year fell on 10 February; thus the projected per- 
formances would have occurred during Lent. On 3 March, some three weeks after the date 
of Holland's letter and still within Lent, the company played at Norwich (REED Norwich 1540- 
1642, p 204). 

626 ctsA: T.X.20 f 78 (rev) 
This item is also noted in the university audits of 1628-9 (p 619, II. 8, 13). 

630 EMA: BUR.8.2 f [I] 
For more information about 'Seatre one of ye Musitians' (1. 33), see Appendix 13. 

631 :c [f 3] 
The college payments for comedies were for the Trinity and Queens' college plays. 

633-4 -rc f 295 
The phrase 'one yat had beene sick' (I. 38) presumably refers to Seatree (Appendix 13). 

636-7 ctA: CUR 27 (Art. 6) f 1 
Copies in ct: Collect. Admin. 8, pp 464-7 (dated 1630: '0' apparently supplied later); and 
CtL: Mm.l.42 (Baker 31), p 244 (briefly noted with date 1630). 
This document, in the hand of James Tabor, has often been misdated 1630; Cooper, vol 
3, pp 250-1, gives the correct date. 

637 BL: Harley 7000, Art. 172 f 314v 
This letter anticipates a visit which did not come off as projected. Of the 'three Comedies' 
(11.23-4) mentioned here, two were the English plays being prepared by Peter Hausted (The 



RivalFriends) and Thomas Randolph (The Jealous Lovers); the third, a Latin play, was not 
performed, or at least not for the king and queen. Bentley, Jcs, vol 4, pp 954-5, reasonably 
suggests that the Latin play was Thomas Pestell's Versipellis (Appendix 6:2). 

637-8 PRO: Cl15/N3/8548 f fly] 
The interpretation of'seruices' (p 638, 1.2) as plays is confirmed by Pory's letter of 3 March. 
Sir Henry seems to know of only one play in English. 

638 pRO: C115/M35/8395 f [1] 
Since Ignoramus was first performed on Wednesday, 8 March 1615, the anticipated anniversary 
oflgnoramus is off by only one calendar day and accurate as to the day of the week. The coin- 
cidence was spoiled, however, by the postponement of the visit to 19-20 March. 

640 PRO: C115/M35/8397 f [lv] 
Amid a number of documents giving false leads and incorrect dates, Pory's letter serves as a 
definitive account of both performances. 

640 QUL: 89 p 189 
Copies in BL: Harley 7041 (Baker 14), pp 63-4; CUL Mm. 1.44 (Baker 33), p 235 ('From Mr 
Pern's Book esq r Bedell,' original not traced); and ct3A: Misc. Collect. 34 (19th c. pen transcript 
of Baker 33). 
Buck's Book assigns the royal visit to 22 March, a misdating followed by some others (see 
next note). 

640-1 Wing: F2416 p 166 
Fuller, probably following Buck's Book, misdates the performance. 

641-2 PRO: SP16/215 ff 14, 14v 
David Masson, Life of Milton, vol 1, p 222: 'The writer, who was clearly a member of Corpus 
Christi, does not append his name; nor is the person named to whom the letter was sent.' Pos- 
sibly the writer was Richard Love, who succeeded Butts as master of Corpus Christi and 
became next vc after Comber (1633-4). Masson, who supplies more particulars, adds (p 244, 
n 1): 'There are in the State Paper Office several letters of Butts's own, while he was Vice- 
Chancellor, on University business, written in a large, hurried hand.' 
Henry Butts hanged himself on Easter Sunday, 1 April 1632. Although the three sources 
cited here attribute his death to repercussions from the performance of Hausted's The Rival 
Friends, these particular repercussions were, if anything, merely the last straw. Butts had been 
appointed vc for the third time in succession, a very great honour perhaps bestowed in ap- 
preciation for his three-year struggle against the plague in Cambridge (some details recorded 
in cuA: CUR T.X. 19 and T.X. 20, Butts' personal diary). Nevertheless, his ambition to be- 
come master of Trinity College was thwarted with the royal appointment instead of Thomas 
Comber (who succeeded as vc upon Butts' death.) Apparently a quarrel then arose between 
Butts and Comber over which play should be presented first to the king and queen (both were 
played in Trinity College hall). Butts won the battle (since Queens' play was performed first), 
but lost the war (sinceTrinity's play was almost universally preferred). Butts was also criticized 


for permitting a mass presentation of degrees to unqualified recipients at royal command (see 
also the granting of unearned degrees in the commencement of 1612-13), and may have been 
under suspicion of misappropriating funds collected in his fight against the plague (Masson, 
vol 1, p 222). A modern medical judgment would probably ascribe his death to a state of ner- 
vous collapse. Because he died by his own hand, Butts' goods were forfeited to the crown 
and eventually granted to Holland (Cooper, vol 3, p 252), the very person who is accused 
of giving Butts the fatal 'check' (see p 642, I1.9-12). 

643-5 Bodl.: Rawlinson A.128 ff 1, 2 
The reference to leading 'a Lady or gentlewoman by ye arme' (p 644, 1.15) constitutes a rare 
piece of evidence that women were present in the general audience. 
Similar objections to long hair (p 645, 1.10) were raised in the case of Pepper, 1599-1600. 

645-7 cuA: Lett. 12.A.30 single sheet 
Copy in cuA: Collect. Admin. 8, pp 704-6. 
This letter is reaffirmation of James 's letter of 23 July 1604, indeed nearly a verbatim copy. 

647 cuA: Comm. Ct. V.9 f 130 
On 17 May 1634 'Bartholomew Cloysse with Six Assistantes' appeared in Norwich with 
'diuerse rare engins' (REED Norwich 1540-1642, pp 214-15). 

648 CLA: Safe A:l/2 nf 
The subscription campaign for rebuilding St Paul's Cathedral had been launched by Laud in 
1631 when he was bishop of London. Two years later, Laud was promoted to archbishop of 
Canterbury and succeeded in the see of London by William Juxon, who renewed the appeal 
in May of 1634 (DvB). Presumably the marginal entry and a similar gift recorded in Queens' 
College accounts (p 650) for this year were early contributions to the renewed appeal. The 
payment for 'the Comedy' (p 648, 1.4 and 1.9m) evidently refers to the comedy (or comedies) 
of 1631-2: see Trinity Hall receipt for this year. 

649 PsA: Mcx nf 
The payment 'Pro Comedifi' (1.13) evidently refers to the comedy (or comedies) of 1631-2: 
see Trinity Hall receipt for this year. 

650 QuA: Book 25 nf 
This undated fragment has been assigned to this year on the evidence of similar entries in the 
Clare College accounts. The payment 'For the Comedy' (1.11) evidently refers to the comedy 
(or comedies) of 1631-2. 

652 CHA: B1/7 f 283 
The 'pore musition' (1.20) was presumably Seatree (Appendix 13). 

659 DOL: Bowtell 5 f 188v 
On (Robert) Gibins (1. 37), see Appendix 13. 


660 PRO: SP16/293 f 197 
For more detail about this incident, see Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Charles *, vol 8, 
p 270. The phrase 'some foolish Buship' (!. 11) is a slighting reference to Laud. 
Edward Cropley, mayor in 1612-13 and 1638-9, was a 'zealous churchman' (Gray, Mayors, 
p 33). Another document in this case is SP 16/296, 27 August 1635, in which Preist explains 
that he had been drunk and that "divers of his neighbours told him that he had used unseemly 
actions in the market-place, and had spoken against the Bishops and the Book of Recreation, 
but was not told those particular words mentioned in the information' (CSPD, Charles *, vol 
8, p 356; also cited by Cooper, vol 5, p 390). Perhaps Cropley was also recalling the Star 
Chamber session of 17 February 1634, where, in the course of sentencing William Prynne, 
the court decided that stage plays were to be reformed but not abolished (DtVB, William Laud). 

660 KCL: Misc. 74/1 f 78v 
Richard Juxon, about twenty-four years of age at the time of his death, was the brother of 
William Juxon, bishop of London 1633-60 and archbishop of Canterbury 1660-3. Venn notes 
that the death occurred 'at the Blue Boar, Cambridge.' Venn's evidence for this statement has 
n0t been traced. The Blue Boar survived as a public house until 1986; only its fagade has been 

660 CHA: BI/7 f 342 
For more information about money for 'the towne musick ... gathered vpon the schollers,' 
see Appendix 14. 

661 CLA: Safe A:I/2 nf 
The prince elector who visited this year was Charles Lewis, young son of Frederick v, who 
had visited in 1612-13. 

664 CRO: P30/4/2 p 4 
The'Birth of the prince' (!. 22) evidently refers, with a mistake as to sex, to the birth of Princess 
Elizabeth on 28 December. 

664 PRO: SP16/303 f 249 
.This warrant is embedded among warrants concerning defaults at musters; hence the correc- 

666-7 cuA: CUR 27 (Art. 7) single sheet 
Copies in cu: CUR 44.1 (Art. 152: Tabor's rough draft); and Grace Book E (pasted onto 
inside of front cover). 
This is the latest surviving instance of the routine Orders and Monitions for royal visits. 
The first of the two plays may have been Senilis Amor (see Appendix 6:1 and Jcs, vol 5, p 1408). 

667 SF: Fondo Mediceo del Principato, Filza 4199 f [2] 
Although Salvetti anticipates a visit of King Charles accompanied by the prince palatine, in 
fact the prince came without the king. 


667-8 Bodl.: Tanner 70 (Art. 79) f [lv] 
Still another notice of these events occurs in the notebooks of John Finet, printed in Loomie 
(ed), Ceremonies of Charles j (not discovered by the editor in time for inclusion in the Records). 
The following passage, cited from Loomie, p 194, adds several material points to the infor- 
mation to be found in the Records: 

The 4th of February his highness went in company of the earl of Holland 
and others to Cambridge for sight of that university and of the comedyes 
there prepared for him. He... was before four of the clock seated in the 
hall for sight of a latine comedy then ready to be acted, which had been 
before appointed for after supper but was by my persuasion (with 
intimation to the Vice Chancellour of his but newly recovered health to 
be lykely to be indangered by his sitting up late and watching) turned to 
an afternoons work. 
The next morning after breakfast he was present at another latine 
comedy and by four in the afternoon was in his coach, which carryed him 
that night to Bishops Stortford... 

668-70 cuA: CUR 15 (Art. 13) ff [1-2] 
Though its exact date is unknown, this document is placed here because of its reference to 
1634 as the recent past. Seatree's name, together with references to his wife and to a musician 
described as poor, sick, or incarcerated (for debt?), occur in various accounts throughout the 
1630s (see Index and Appendix 13). Additional references occur in the diary of Henry Butts 
1629-32 (CUR: T. X.20). The vc in 1635-6 was Henry Smith; his predecessor was William 
The "musicon & his Cumpany' (p 668, 1.29) were evidently John Browne and the university 
waits. The identity of the 'other musicmn' (p 669, 1.24), not one of the university waits, is 

670 CHA: BI/7 ff 385, 385v 
The 'musitians wife' (11. 19, 24) was presumably the wife of Seatree. 

671 KCA [f 2] 
William Daniel was a member of the King's Revels: see Nungezer, Dictionary of Actors; Jcs, 
vol 2, pp 420-1; and other volumes of REED. 

672 QUA: Book 27 p 90 
These payments are too large to be the annual fees to the waits, which may be represented 
instead by the payment, recorded on the flyleaf, of 5s for 'Musitians & their dyer' (1. 15). 
Perhaps the large payments are for services performed in the college chapel. 

672-3 QuA: Book 49 ff 6v, 7 
The note that the costumes were taken from the treasury 'to be ayred' (p 672, 1.34) may in 
fact apply to those which were returned a few days after they were taken out, but the long 


delay in returning the other costumes may suggest that they were loaned out, as was more 
clearly the case in 1638-9. Queens' College had no play this year. 
'My Lord Feildings suite' (p 672, !. 36) was presumably a suit donated by Basil Feilding, 
styled Viscount Feilding, or possibly by his father, William Feilding, earl of Denbigh. Both 
were graduates of Queens' and men of wealth and power. 

676-7 QUA: Book 6 f 77 
This is the first mention of the college 'Acting-chamber' (!. 32) under that name, but see 
'conclaue theatriorum' of 1548-9 (p 158, !1.23-4), and Appendix 11, 1637-8, Queens' Col- 
lege. On 'ye new Stage-house' (p 676, !. 38), see the same appendix. The phrase 'Mr Hughe's 
yard' (!. 40) refers to the yard of the large house at the corner of Queens' Lane and Silver Street 
occupied at this time by Francis Hughes, esquire bedell. 

678-9 QUA: Book 27 pp 128, 91, 129 
The entries on pp 128 and 129 occur in the formal accounts for 1637-8. The scribe used a for- 
merly blank page in the accounts for 1636-7 (p 91) to transcribe the full bill for the comedy 
of 1637-8; he also provided the cross-reference from p 91 to p 128. 
The play performed this year was William Johnson's Valetudinarium (Appendix 6:1). 

680 ct;^: U.Ac. 2(1) p 664 
Copy in ct;^: V.C.V. 4.10.a, f lv. 
Apparently this payment represents an attempt to renew the letter of 26 June 1632, though 
it is not clear why that letter was not still in force. Presumably professional players were still 
attempting to perform at Cambridge and still challenging the validity of any letter on which 
the ink was dry. 

680-1 cu^: Comm. Ct. V.9 ff 194v-5 
This document provides unique pre- 1642 evidence for the lord of taps' costume (for further 
information on this costume, see Atkinson, Cambridge Described, p 206 and Palmer, 
Cambridge Borough Documents, vol 1, p 166). A similar dispute between the town and the 
university over authority to appoint the lord of taps is recorded in 1617-18. 

681-3 BL: Harley 7019 f 78 
On the origin and history of'ye Lecture... in Trinity Church in Cambridge' (p 682, 11.25-7), 
see Porter, Reformation and Reaction, pp 262-3. 

683 CH^: BI/7 ff 446, 449 
The external expenses account is called, evidently in error, 'Expenses in the kitchen and 
storeroom.' Could 'clarke a poet' (1.29) be Robert Clarke, the Catholic poet (d. 1675: ONB)? 

684-5 QUA: Book49 f 9 
This is the only occasion on which a college is known for certain to have loaned costumes 
out, but see similar Queens' entries in 1636-7. 
'Mr Connoway at Hinckston' (p 684, 1.40) was John Connoway, minister at Hinxton, Cam- 
bridgeshire, 1617-57. 


841 cu^: Collect. Admin. 3 ff 26v-7 
Copies in cu^: Collect. Admin. 1 (Senior Proctor's Book), ff I Iv-12; Collect. Admin. 2 
(Junior Proctor's Book), ff 66v-7; and Misc. Coll. 4 (Stokys' Book), ff 30v- I. This statute 
is numbered 44 or 46 depending on the source. 
Cooper, vol I, p 110, dates this order about 1368. M.B. Hackett, The Original Statutes 
of Cambridge University: The Text and its History (Cambridge, 1970), Appendix n, dates the 
order 'before 1390.' 

842 SJA: D57.136 single sheet 
Although this bill of expenses is undated, the name 'mayster artur" suggests a connection with 
the plays of Thomas Arthur as mentioned by Bale (see next item). Since from 1525 Arthur 
was engaged in the controversies alluded to by Bale and had only become a fellow of St John's 
in 1518, a date in the first half of the 1520s seems the most reasonable conjecture for these plays. 

842 src: 1296a pp 709-10 
Thomas Arthur was a member of St John's College (see previous note). Both these plays are 
lost (Appendix 6:2). 

842-3 sJ^: C7.2 ff 255v-6 
This undated costume inventory may be compared with more or less exactly dated St John's 
College inventories from 1540-1, 154 I-2, 1548-9, 1556-7, and 1562-3. (An inventory from 
1546-7, without a detailed listing of constituent items, should also be noted.) Although some 
relationship may be discerned with each of the detailed lists, particular affinities may be seen 
with inventories from the 1540s, eg: golden letters (p 843, !. 22) occur explicitly in 1540-I 
(p 123, !. 14); two dragons (p 843, !. 4) occur in 1541-2 (p 127, !. 33) and 1548-9 (p 162, 
!. 20); and two French hoods (p 843, !. 25) occur in 1548-9 (p 160, !. 8). Similarities in hand- 
writing between this inventory and that of 1540- I, written by William Rustyd (p 122), suggest 
he may have copied this one also. 

843 sJ^: C7.2 f 255 
A costume for Miles (p 843, !. 32) - presumably Pyrgopolynices of Plautus' Miles Gloriosus - 
also occurs in the college inventories of 1541-2 (p 126, !. 20) and 1562-3 (p 219, !!. 35-6). 
Although this brief list was copied into the Register on the folio immediately preceding those 
containing the previous list, differences in handwriting and vocabulary suggest it was not writ- 
ten by the same scribe. It has been tentatively dated to the following decade on the basis of 

845 Georg Braun: De Praecipuis totius vniversi vrbibus p 1 
For a translation of the complete letter, see Cooper, vol 2, pp 328-30. For a comprehensive 
history of Braun's and Hogenberg's cartographical enterprise, including editions and trans- 
lations into German and French, see Georg Braun, Civitates orbts terrarum, R.A. Skelton (ed), 
voi 1 (Amsterdam, 1965), Introduction. 

846 src: 17453 sig B2v 
Boas, University Drama, pp 82-8, cites arguments, based chiefly on this passage and the next, 

1256 ENDNOTE$ 

both part of the Martin Marprelate controversy, for identifying John Bridges (Venn, John (!)) 
as author of Gammer Gurton's Needle. Further on this subject, see Appendix 6:1, Gammer 
Gurton's Needle, note. 

847-8 STC: 746 sig Kiij 
Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, was admitted to Trinity College as fellow commoner in 1577, 
matriculated in 1579, and received an MA in 158 ! (Venn); hence his claimed presence squares 
well with a date of 1580-1 for the performance of Pedantius (see Appendix 6:!, note). 

848 STC: 18377 sig Hlv 
On Nash's ascription of Pedantius to (Anthony) Wingfield, see Appendix 6:!, note. 

848-9 STC: 18369 sig B4 
The line 'Vrbs, vrbs, ad arma, ad arma' (p 849, 1.5) occurs in Richardus Tertius, Part ,, act 
3, scene 2, 1.8 (Lordi's edition: see Appendix 6 :! ). It is the first line of a speech of ten lines 
assigned to a 'Chorus procerum tumultuantium' (chorus of nobles in an uproar); perhaps, as 
Nash relates, the line was spoken not by the entire chorus, but by one member of the chorus. 
The actors making up this chorus are not named in the cast list (Appendix 7). 

849-50 STC: 18369 sigs M4-N1 
Gabriel Harvey's 'foure familiar Epistles' (p 849, 1.23) is STC: ! 2900; his 'Musarum Lachrymae' 
(p 849, 11.25-6) is STC: ! 2905. Thomas Nash's 'Piers Pennilesse' (p 849, 1.28) is STC: ! 8371-5. 
Further on Tarrarantantara and Duns furens, see Appendix 6:2. The Peterhouse stocks 
(p 850, !. 8) are mentioned in PHA: Computus Roll for ! 577-8, single mb, under 'Payments 
within college.' 

850-1 Vatican Library: Reginensis latinus 666 ff 155v-6 
Entire document printed in G.W. Groos (ed and tr), The Diary of Baron Waldstein: A Travel- 
ler in Elizabethan England (London, 1981); discussed by G.K. Hunter, 'Recent Studies in 
the English Renaissance,' Studies in English Literature, 23 (1983), 148-50. 

852 STC: 17834 sigs Oo5-5v 
On Watson's Antigone, sometimes ascribed to Cambridge, see Appendix 6:4. 

852 KCL: Misc. 74/! f 55v 
William Chace is listed under ! 583, the year of his admission to King's College. For a full 
description of 'Hatchet's Book,' see Introduction, pp 758-9. 

853 cut: Add. 34 f 35 
Presumably the 'pastorall' which the writer had seen at King's College was Pastor Fidus (Ap- 
pendix 6: ! ). 

853 CUL: Add. 34 f 37 
This entry constitutes the sole evidence for a Cambridge performance of Ajax Flagellifer. This 



play was prepared in 1563-4 for presentation to Elizabeth, but the performance was cancelled 
(pp 235, 238). 

853-4 src: 13309 sigs C3v-4 
Heywood's Apology was answered in 1615 by J ohn Greene's Refutation oftle Apology for 
Actors, which in turn was cited by William Prynne in 1633: see Prynne's text, p 856, and 

854 src: 13309 sig F4v 
The 'learned Gentleman' is John Harington (see p 850). 

855 Bodl.: Ashmole 788 f 205 
Philip Kynder was born in 1597 (Venn): this comment is assigned to 1615 since that was his 
eighteenth year. 

855 src: 19502 sigs E3v-4 
Priscianus vapulans (1.22) was presumably not a Cambridge play: see Jcs, vol 5, pp 1397-8. 

855-6 Harcourt (ed): The Life of Doctor Preston pp 36-7 
The'Montaine' which was 'already growne to some bigness' (1.39) was George Montaigne, 
in 1615 master of the Savoy, chaplain to the king, dean of Westminster, and two years away 
from his appointment in 1617 as bishop of Lincoln (Venn). Another passage from Bali's Life 
of Preston is cited in the Records, p 544. See also the full document description in the intro- 
duction, pp 807-8. 

856 src: 20464a sigs Rrrlv-2 
Prynne's marginal notes, which cite various authorities, are omitted from this transcription 
because they are so profuse as virtually to overwhelm the text. Prynne is indebted to the fol- 
lowing, among others: John Greene, Refutation of the A pologie for Actors (London, 1615), 
src: 12214-15, pp 17-18 (Greene's Refutation is an answer to Heywood's Apology (1612), 
cited pp 853-4); and John Rainolds, Tb" Ouertbrow of Stage-playes (London, 1599), src: 
20616, also 20617-18. This passage is cited at greater length in REED, Oxford, forthcoming. 

857 Bodl.: Tanner 465 f 44 
S.V. Gapp, "Notes on John Cleveland,'/'M/_a, 46 (1931), 1078-9, singles out the line 
'Putt on thy socks, & tread the stage againe' (1.19), stating: 'Not the least interesting suggestion 
of thepoem is that Cleveland may have been connected with the stage.' Bentley, Jcs, vol 3, 
p 165, includes Cleveland among his list of playwrights exclusively on the evidence of 
this line, adding however: 'There are no known dramatic works of the poet John Cleveland 
and not even any direct assertion that he wrote any .... ' In fact, Cleveland's first college, 
Christ's, produced no plays after 1567-8, while his second, St John's, is not known to have 
produced any plays later than 1619-20. In sum, if Cleveland established a reputation for par- 
ticipating in plays, it was almost certainly not in connection with anything he did while at 


857 PRO: SP16/331 Art. 14 p 3 
Document cited at greater length in REED, Oxford, forthcoming. Was Carnarvan thinking of 
Hausted's The Rival Friends as the very worst play he had ever seen? 

858 Bodl.: Rawlinson Poet. 246 f 27 (single sheet) 
Abraham Cowley's 'English Pastorall' (1. 19) was Love's Riddle, composed at Westminster 
School before he came to Cambridge, while the 'Latin Comedy' (l. 20) was almost certainly 
Naufragium joculare (Appendix 6:1): see 'cs, vol 3, p 173. 
Rose Macau lay makes the earlier performance of Cowley's NaufragiumJoculare (1637-8) 
a central incident in her historical novel, They Were Defeated (London, 1932). 

858 Longleat: Portland Papers, vol xxiv f 84 
Entire document printed in Gervase Holies, Memorials of the Holies Family, 1493-166, A.C. 
Wood (ed), Camden Society, 3rd ser, 55 (London, 1937). 

859 Wing: M2090 p 14 
Masson, Life of Milton, vol 1, pp 221-5, places Milton in attendance at the second performance 
of Fraus Honesta, 24 September 1629 (see Appendix 6:1). Reasonable though such conjecture 
may be, no positive evidence survives for the particular play or plays Milton may have at- 
tended, or had in mind while composing this passage. William Riley Parker, Milton: A Bio- 
graphy, vol 2 (Oxford, 1968), 740, n 59, more cautiously gives a list of plays Milton might 
have seen, from Mewe's Pseudomagia to Randolph's Jealous Lovers (see Appendix 8). 

860 Wing: H169 p vi 
Although Loiola was acted at least twice, it was acted before James only on 12 March 1623 
(Appendix 6:1); no known document confirms or even suggests a second performance before 
the king. 
Neither the 'ingenious Pen' (1.9) which composed the prologue in question nor the prologue 
itself has been identified. 

860 London: 1787 p lxxii 
John Hayward was admitted to Clare College in 1736, received his BA in 1739-40, and became 
a fellow of the college in 1742 (Venn, John (11)). Boas, University Drama, p 325, n 1, offers 
the following skeptical comment: 'Revera has now disappeared, and Hayward can scarcely 
have read Club Law, or he would not have spoken of it as written "to expose the puritans. ' 
Club Law was an authentic play whose lost text was recovered only in this century (see 1907 
edition noted in Appendix 6:1). Granted that the existence of Club Law was known indepen- 
dently, from Fuller's description (Records, pp 377-8), nevertheless the subsequent substan- 
tiation of Hayward's claim regarding the existence of Club Law may give some reason for 
confidence in his claim concerning Re Vera. Further on Re Vera, see Appendix 6:2. 

862 STC: 23332 sig Mm 7 
This edition of Stow's Chronicle (London, 1618) contains Edmund Howes" continuation to 
1618; hence Howes rather than Stow composed the note concerning Ignoramus. 


incidents from this episode, and from Villiers' involvement in masque before the king at 
Whitehall in January 1615 (see Es, vol 3, pp 389-90) to the performance of Ignoramus at Cam- 
bridge on 8 March or 13 May, and McElwee seems to have built on Coke's fabrication. 

Patrons and 
Travelling Companies 


The following list has two sections. The first gives companies alphabetically by patron, 
according to the principal title under which the playing companies and entertainers 
appear. Cross-references to the principal title are given from other titles named in 
the Records. The second section lists companies which are identified by place of 
origin; names of counties are supplied when the identification of a town or village 
is sufficiently certain. 
The biographical information supplied here has come entirely from printed sources, 
the chief of which are the following: S.T. Bindoff (ed), The HistoryofParliament: 
The House of Commons 1509-1558, 3 vols (London, 1982); Calendar of Patent Rolls 
(edited through 1576); Calendar of State Papers; G[eorge] E[dward] C[okayne], The 
Complete Peerage... ; The Dictionary of National Biography; James E. Doyle, The 
Official Baronage of England Showing the Succession, Dignities, and Offices of Every 
Peer from 1066 to 1885, 3 vols (London, 1886); P.W. Hasler (ed), The History of 
Parliament: The House of Commons 1558-1603, 3 vols (London, 1981); Letters and 
Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry vm, 21 vols and Addenda (London, 1864-1932); 
F. Maurice Powicke and E.B. Fryde (eds), Handbook of British Chronology; and 
Josiah C. Wedgwood and Anne D. Holt, History of Parliament: Biographies of the 
Members of the Commons House 1439-1509 (London, 1936). 
All dates are given in accordance with the style in the sources used. The authorities 
sometimes disagree over the dates of birth, death, creation, succession, and office 
tenure. Where this evidence conflicts, the Calendar of State Papers, Calendar of Patent 
Rolls, and similar collections are preferred: for example, List of Sheriffs for England 
and Wales from the Earliest Times to A.D. 183l, Public Record Office, Lists and 
Indexes, no 9 (London, 1898); J.H. Gleason, The]ustices of the Peace in England: 
1558to 1640(Oxford, 1969); andJ.C. Sainty, 'Lieutenants of Counties, 1585-1642," 
Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, Special Supplement no 8 (May, 1970). 
Normally each patron entry is divided into four sections. The first lists relevant 
personal data and titles of nobility with dates. Succession numbers are given only 
for the most important titles and for titles given in the Records. These numbers follow 
the absolute sequence given in The Complete Peerage rather than the relative ones 
which begin afresh with each new creation. Knighthood dates are included only for 


minor gentry not possessing higher titles. The second section lists appointments 
showing connections local to Cambridgeshire and surrounding counties and includes 
those known to have been used in titles of playing companies. Purely expeditionary 
military titles have been largely omitted, along with most minor Scottish and Irish 
landed titles. For patrons holding peerage titles, minor civil commissions not given 
in The Complete Peerage and The Dictionary of National Biography have been 
omitted. Readers desiring further information on these patrons are advised to consult 
the Calendar of Patent Rolls and Letters and Papers of Henry viii. 
Where possible, the date of an appointment is taken from the date of a document 
assigning that position. If the appointment is stated in the document to be 'for life,' 
then these words follow the title of that post. If the original document has not been 
edited and a secondary source is used which states 'until death,' then this form appears. 
Otherwise dates of appointment and termination are given, if available. If the length 
of time an office is held is not known, then only the date of appointment is given. 
Alternatively, if the only evidence comes from a source dated some time during the 
period of tenure, then the word 'by' plus date appears. If only the date of termination 
is known, 'until' is used. Finally, if no dates at all are available, 'nd' follows the title 
of the job. A '?' following a date indicates uncertainty regarding the dating of a 
document in the sources or differentiation in the case of several patrons by the same 
name who might have held the post. For all minor commissions such as commissions 
of the peace 0P), years only are given. If the dates of these commissions cover several 
years in sequence, then the earliest and latest years of the sequence are separated by 
a dash. 
The third section, for which information is often incomplete or unavailable, 
contains the names and locations of the patron's principal seats, and locations of other 
properties he or she is known to have held. Extensive property lists have been 
condensed. Place names for which no standard modern spelling is available are 
enclosed in single quotes to indicate spelling from the original source. 
The fourth section is an annotated index by date of the appearances of each patron's 
company or companies in the Records. Following the date are the page numbers in 
parentheses where the citations occur. If a patron's company appears under a title 
other than the usual or principal one, this other title is in parentheses next to the 
designation of the company. Companies named according to a patron's civil 
appointment are indexed under the name of that post as it appears in the Records: 
for example, 'Lord Admiral,' 'Chancellor.' All other companies appear under their 
patron's principal landed title. If a patron has more than one type of company, all 
entries for a given type are grouped together in chronological order. Each group of 
entries is then listed according to the earliest year that company appears in the Records. 
If two or more companies first appear in the same year, alphabetical order is followed. 
The reader may also wish to refer to the indexes for additional references to some 
of the patrons and to various unnamed companies and their players. When it has been 
possible to identify a patron of an unnamed company, the reference has been included 


here; otherwise such references are only in the index. Noble patrons are listed in the 
indexes under their family names or, in the case of women, under their maiden names. 


acc acceded gov governor 
adm admiral JP Justice of the Peace 
bapt baptized jt joint 
bef before KG Knight of the Garter 
bet between lieut lieutenant 
capt captain MP Member of Parliament 
co county nd no date 
cornrn commissioner parl parliament 
cr created vc Privy Councillor 
custos rot custos rotulorum pres president 
d died succ succeeded 
eccles ecclesiastical summ summoned 
gen general Univ University 

Companies Named by Patron 

Elizabeth Beauchamp (16 Sept 1415-18 June 1448), daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 
Lord Bergavenny; succ suo jure Baroness Bergavenny, 18 Mar 1421/2. Married 
Edward Nevill, by 18 Oct 1424. 


Joan FitzAlan (1375-14 Nov 1435), married William Beauchamp, Lord Abergavenny 
(d 8 May 1411 );held castle and honour of Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, Wales, in 
dower until death. 
minstrel/s 1427-8 (25) 

John of Lancaster (20 Jun 1389-15 Sept 1435), 3rd son of Henry IV, qv, cr 1 st duke 
of Bedford and I st earl of Kendal 16 May 1414 and ! 2th earl of Richmond 24 Nov 
1414. p Linc 1412-14 and 1416; guardian of the kingdom 11 Aug 1415, 25Ju11417, 
and 10Jun 1421 ; protector of the kingdom 5 Dec 1422; lord high adm 26Ju11426. 
Seats at Berkhamstead and Hertford, Herts, Tutbury, Staff, and Kenilworth, Warw; 
lands in several counties, including Essex. 
entertainers 1422-3 (23) 

Jasper Tudor (c 1430-21 Dec 1495), cr 16th earl of Pembroke by 20 Jan 1452/3 and 
3rd duke of Bedford 27 Oct 1485; attainted 4 Nov 1461 ; restored 1470-1 ; attainted 
1471 ; fled England after 4 May 1471 ; restored to earldom 12 Dec 1485. P Suff 1490, 
1492, and 1494, Linc 1491-3 and 1495, Northants 1491 and 1493-4, Camb 1493 and 
1495, Hunts 1493, Leic 1493-5, Rut 1493, Beds 1494, Norf 1494, Essex 1495-6; pc 
27 Oct 1485; earl marshal of England 1492. Seat at Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, 
Wales; lands in many counties, including Herts and Linc. 
entertainers 1493-4 (71) 

Edward Stafford (3 Feb 1477/8-17 May 1521), son of Henry, 2nd duke of 
Buckingham, restored as 3rd duke of Buckingham, 8th earl of Stafford, 7th earl of 
Buckingham, and 9th Baron Stafford Nov 1485. pc 1509; beheaded 17 May 1521. Seats 
at Thorn bury, Glouc and Brecon Castle, Brecknockshire, Wales; manor at Penshurst, 
Kent; lands in many counties, including Beds, Essex, Hunts, Norf, Northants, and 
entertainers 1503-4 (79) 
trumpeters 1518-19 (90) 

George Villiers (28 Aug 1592-23 Aug 1628), cr Viscount Villiers and Baron Whaddon 


27 Aug 1616, 8th earl of Buckingham 5 Jan 1616/17, 1st marquess of Buckingham 
1 Jan 1617/18, and 4th duke of Buckingham and 1st earl of Coventry 18 May 1623. 
Chief justice in eyre south of Trent by 20 Nov 1619 until death; pc 4 Feb 1616/17; 
high steward honour of Grafton, Northants 1622; lord high adm 28 Jan 1618/19 until 
death;chancellor Cambridge Univ 2 Jun 1626 until death; assassinated 23 Aug 1628. 
Seats at Whaddon, Bucks, New Hall, Essex, Brooksby, Leic, and Burghley House, 
Rut; residence at York House, Twickenham, Midd, from 1624; lands in several 
counties, including Essex, Linc, and Surf. 
trumpeters (chancellor) 1627-8 (605-6) 
trumpeters (duke) 1627-8 (607-9) 

musicians (duke) 
trumpeters (duke) 

1627-8 (605) 
1628-9 (617) 

John Byron (c 1599-Aug 1652), cr I st Baron Byron 24 Oct 1643. Lieut of the Tower 
26 Dec 1641 - by 10 Feb 1641/2. Seats at Rochdale, Lanc and Newstead Abbey, Nott; 
lands in Nott. 
musician/s 1640-1 (696) 

Chancellor see George Villiers (under Buckingham), Holland, and Lord Chancellor 

Lionel of Antwerp (29 Nov 1338-17 Oct 1368), by right of marriage 5th earl of Ulster, 
Ireland, bef 26 Jan 1346/7 and cr 1st duke of Clarence 13 Nov 1362. Guardian of 
England 1 Jul 1345, 25 Jun 1346; Seat at Clare, Surf. Residence at Dublin Castle, 
entertainers (Lord Lionel) 1362-3 (7) 

Thomas Cromwell (c 1485-28 Jul 1540), cr I st Baron Cromwell 9 J ul 1536 and 16th 
earl of Essex 17 Apr 1540. pc by Jan 1531 ; chancellor of the excheq uer 12 Apr 1533 
until death; steward duchy of Lancaster for Essex and Herts, manor of Writtle, Essex, 
9Jun 1536, Havering atte Bower, Essex, 3 Dec 1537, and honour of Rayleigh, Essex, 
20 Sept 1539; master of the rolls 8 Oct 1534-10 Jul 1536; jt constable Hertford Castle, 
Herts 1534 until death; chancellor, high steward, and visitor Cambridge Univ 1535 
until death; JP Herts 1537-40, Linc 1537-40, Surf 1537-9, Hunts, Norf, Camb 1538- 
9, Essex and St Albans, Herts 1538 and 1540, Leic 1538-9, Northants 1538-9, 
Peterborough, Northants 1540; lord privy seal 2 Ju11536 until death; lord chamberlain 
18 Apr 1540; imprisoned in the Tower 10Jun 1540; attainted 29Jun 1540; beheaded 
28Ju11540. Principal residence at Austin Friars, London; seat also at Oakham, Rut; 


lands in many counties, including Beds, Camb, Essex, Herts, Leic, Linc, Norf, 
Northants, Rut, and Suff. 
performers 1536-7 (112) 
players 1537-8 (114) 
1539-40 (119) 

Edward Stanley (10 May 1509-24 Oct 1572), probably styled Lord Strange until he 
succ as 12th earl of Derby, 1 lth Lord Strange, 4th Lord Stanley, and lord of the Isle 
of Man 23 May 1521.  9 Aug 1551, 17 Aug 1553, and 24 Nov 1558. Seats at Lathom 
and Knowsley, Lanc and Knockin, Shrops; lands in several counties, including Linc. 
player 1532-3 (106) 
players 1535-6 (110) 

Henry Stanley (Sept 1531-25 Sept 1593), son of Edward, 12th earl of Derby, qv, 
styled Lord Strange until summ to parl as 12th Lord Strange 23 Jan 1558/9; succ as 
13th earl of Derby, 5th Lord Stanley, and lord of the Isle of Man 24 Oct 1572. 
by 20 May 1585; lord steward of the household after Sept 1588-93. Seats at Lathom 
and Knowsley, Lanc and Knockin, Shrops. 
players (Lord Strange) 1565-6 (249) 
trumpeters 1590-1 (330) 

Dudley see Warwick 

Duke see George Villiers (under Buckingham), Ludovic Stuart (under Lennox), and 

Henry Bourchier (c 1472-13 Mar 1539/40), succ as 15th earl of Essex, 2nd Viscount 
and 6th Lord Bourchier 4 Apr 1483. JP Camb, Hunts, Leic, Linc, Northants, Rut 
1493, Herts 1493, 1497, 1500-1, 1503, 1506, 1509-12, 1514, 1519, 1521-2, 1524, 
1528, 1531-2, and 1537-40, and Essex 1496, 1498-1502, 1504, 1506, 1508-15, 1520, 
1523, 1525-6, 1528, 1530-2, 1536, 1538, and 1540;  1505. Seat at Gaynes Park, 
Essex; lands in several counties, including Essex and Herts. 
trumpeters 1530-1 (103) 

Robert Devereux (19 Nov 1566-25 Feb 1600/1), styled Viscount Hereford until he 
succ as 19th earl of Essex, 6th Lord Ferrers, and 9th Lord Bourchier 22 Sept 1576. 
vc 25 Feb 1592/3; chancellor Cambridge Univ 1598 until death; beheaded 25 Feb 1600/ 
1. Seats at Chartley, Staff and Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, Wales; residence at Essex 
House, the Strand, Midd; lands in several counties, including Hunts. 
trumpeter 1592-3 (344) 



Robert Devereux (bapt 22 Jan 1590/1-14 Sept 1646), son of Robert, 19th earl of Essex, 
ely , styled Viscount Hereford until restored as 20th earl of Essex, 7th Lord Ferrers, 
and 10th Lord Bourchier 18 Apr 1604. vc 19 Feb 1640/1; lord chamberlain of the 
household Ju11641-2. Seats at Chartley, Staff and Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, Wales: 
residence at Essex House, the Strand, Midd. 
trumpeters 1616-17 (554) 
trumpeter/s 1617-18 (557) 
trumpeters 1617-18 (558-9) 
1625-6 (600) 

Ralph Eure (24 Sept 1558-1 Apr 1617), succ as 3rd Lord Eure 12 Feb 1593/4. Seats 
at Ingleby Greenhow, Malton Castle, and Stokesley, all in Yorks, NR. 
trumpeter 1616-17 (554) 

William Eure (c 1579-buried 28 Jun 1646), son of Ralph, 3rd Lord Eure, qv, succ 
as 4th Lord Eure I Apr 1617. Seats at Malton Castle, Yorks, NR, and Witton Castle, 
trumpeters 1619-20 (569) 

Exeter (duke) 
Thomas Beaufort (bef 1396-31 Dec 1426), cr 1st earl of Dorset 5 Jul 1411 or 1412 
and 2nd duke of Exeter 18 Nov 1416. Lord high adm for life 3 M ar 1411 / 12; JP Norf 
1406-8, 1410, 1413-16, 1418, and 1422-4, Lynn, Norf 1407-8, 1410, and 1414-15, 
Surf 1411, 1413-14, 1417, 1419, and 1422-4, Essex 1417, 1419, and 1422-4, Camb 
1424-5, and Hunts 1424; lord chancellor 31 .Jan 1409/10-5 Jan 1411/12. Lands in 
several counties, including Linc and Norf. 
entertainer/s 1424-5 (24) 

Henry Holand (27Jun 1430-Sept 1475), son of John, 3rd duke of Exeter, qv (under 
Huntingdon), succ as 4th duke of Exeter and 15th earl of Huntingdon 5 Aug 1447. 
Lord high adm 14 Feb 1445/6-60; JP Beds, Hunts, and Northants 1471 ; constable 
Fotheringhay Castle, Northants for life 19 Dec 1459; attainted 4 Nov 1461 ; fled to 
Flanders 1463-Feb 1470/1; held in custody 26 May 1471-20 May 1475. London 
residence at Coldharbour; lands in many counties. 
entertainers 1453-4 (34) 

Exeter (earl) 
William Cecil (Jan 1565/6-6.u11640), styled Lord Burghley until he succ as 2nd earl 
of Exeter and 3rd Baron Burghley 8 Feb 1622/3. MP Stamford, Linc 1586 and 1589 
and Rut 1597; JP Northants 1601 and Linc by 1619; jt high steward honour of 
Bolingbroke, Linc 1598; custos rot, Linc 1619; lord lieut Northants 27 Feb 1623 until 


in Warwick Castle, Warw 10 Jul 1648; beheaded 9 M ar 1648/9. Seat at Kensington, 

Midd; lands in various counties. 
trumpeters (chancellor) 
trumpeters (chancellor) 

1628-9 (616) 
1631-2 (629-33,635) 
1631-2 (632) 
1631-2 (632) 
1638-9 (686) 

John Holand (29 Mar 1395 or 1396-5 Aug 1447), restored in blood and succ as 14th 
earl of Huntingdon 1417; cr 3rd duke of Exeter 6 Jan 1443/4. Constable of the Tower, 
sole 20 Aug 1420 and jt 28 Feb 1446/7; Jv Beds 1426, 1435, 1437, 1439-40, and 1443, 
Essex 1427, 1429, 1431-5, 1437-8, 1441-3, and 1446, Herts 1427, 1429, 1431, 1433, 
1435, 1437, 1439, 1443, and 1445, and Hunts 1428-9, 1432, 1437, 1441-3, and 1446; 
deputy marshal of England 15 Nov 1432-12 Sept 1436; lord high adm during pleasure, 
sole2 Oct 1435 and jt 14 Feb 1445/6; c Nov 1426-May 1445. London residence at 
Coldharbour; lands in several counties, including Beds, Herts, and Hunts. 
minstrel/s 1427-8 (25) 

Richard Plantagenet (6 Jan 1367-14 Feb 1400), son of Edward, prince of Wales, and 
Joan of Woodstock, daughter of Edmund, earl of Kent; cr prince of Wales 20 Nov 
1376; acc as Richard n 21 Jun 1377; crowned 16 Jul 1377; abdicated 29 Sept 1399. 
apeward 1382-3 (11) 
entertainer 1394-5 (15) 

Henry of Windsor (6 Dec 1421-21 May 1471), son of Henry v and Catherine of 
Valois, acc as Henry v 1 Sept 1422; proclaimed king of France 21 Oct 1422 (John, 
1st duke of Bedford, qv, appointed protector 5 Dec 1422); crowned king of England 
6 Nov 1429 and of France 16 Dec 1431 ; deposed 4 Mar 1461 ; restored 3 Oct 1470; 

crowned again 13 Oct 1470; deposed finally 11 Apr 1471. 


1433-4 (27) 
1434-5 (27) 
1435-6 (27) 
1442-3 (29) 
1442-3 (29) 
1458-9 (39) 


performer (duke of Lancaster) 


Edward of York (28 Apr 1442-9 Apr 1483), son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd duke 
of York, qv, and Cecily Neville, acc as Edward IV 4 Mar 1461 ; crowned 28Jun 1461 ; 
fled England 3 Oct 1470-14 Mar 1471; restored 11 Apr 1471. 
performers 1466-7 (46) 
performer/s 1469-70 (50) 
performers 1469-70 (50) 
1471-2 (52) 
1472-3 (54) 
1473-4 (55) 
1475-6 (57) 
entertainers 1467-8 (46) 

Richard Plantagenet (2 Oct 1452-22 Aug 1485), son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd duke 
of York, qv, and Cecily Neville; cr 3rd duke of Gloucester 1 Nov 1461; protector 
of the realm 9 Apr 1483; acc as Richard nl 26 Jun 1483; crowned 6 Jul 1483. 
performers (lord protector) 1482-3 (62) 
minstrel/s 1483-4 (63) 
1484-5 (65) 
entertainer/s 1485-6 (65) 

Henry Tudor 'of Richmond' (28 Jan 1457-21 Apr 1509), son of Edmund Tudor, earl 
of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort, qv (under Richmond and Derby (countess)), 

acc as Henry vii 22 Aug 1485; crowned 30 Oct 1485. 


1489-90 (68) 
1489-90 (68) 
1490-1 (69) 
1490-1 (69) 
1493-4 (70) 
1498-9 (74) 
1499-1500 (75) 
1500-1 (76) 
1500-1 (76) 

Henry Tudor (28 Jun 1491-28 Jan 1547), son of Henry vii, qv, and Elizabeth of York, 
qv; cr prince of Wales 18 Feb 1503; acc as Henry viii 22 Apt 1509; crowned 24 Jun 
entertainers (prince) 1503-4 (79) 



entertainers 1513-14 (86) 
1536-7 (112) 
interluders (prince) 1503-4 (78) 
1503-4 (78) 
performers (prince) 1508-9 (82) 
performers 1510-11 (84) 
minstrels 1515-16 (87) 
1521-2 (92) 
minstrels/waits 1525-6 (98) 
minstrels 1530-1 (103) 
1532-3 (106) 
trumpeters 1517-18 (89) 
waits 1517-18 (89) 
1538-9 (116) 
players 1527-8 (99) 
1534-5 (108) 
1537-8 (114) 
1540-1 (124) 
conjurer 1532-3 (105) 
juggler 1532-3 (106) 
1534-5 (109) 
jester 1542-3 (129) 

Edward Tudor (12 Oct 1537-6 Ju11553), son of Henry vm, qv, and Jane Seymour; 
acc as Edward v121 Jan 1547; crowned 20 Feb 1547. Edward Seymour, 5th duke of 
Somerset, qv, appointed protector. 
players (prince) 1537-8 (115) 
1539-40 (119) 
1543-4 (130) 
players 1547-8 (149, 154) 
1549-50 (166) 
jester 1548-9 (163) 
1552-3 (184) 

James Stuart (19 Jun 1566-27 Mar 1625), son of Henry, Lord Darnley and Mary 
Smart, queen of Scots, acc as James v of Scotland 24 Jul 1567 and as James  of England 
24 Mar 1603; crowned 25 Jul 1603. 



1603-4 (392-3) 
1603-4 (393) 
1604-5 (398) 
1605-6 (400, 403) 
1606-7 (405) 
1609-10 (418-20) 
1611-12 (490) 
1614-15 (521-5, 528, 
1615-16 (546-7, 549) 
1617-18 (557, 559) 
1619-20 (567, 569-70) 
1620-1 (574-6) 
1621-2 (579-80) 
1622-3 (582, 584-5) 
1623-4 (591-2) 
1624-5 (594-6) 
1624-5 (594) 
1603-4 (394) 

Charles Stuart (19 Nov 1600-30 Jan 1649), 2nd son of James I, qv, and Anne of 
Denmark, qv; cr prince of Wales 4 Nov 1616; acc as Charles 127 Mar 1625; crowned 
2 Feb 1625; beheaded 30 Jan 1649. 
trum peters (prince) 1617-18 (558) 


1619-20 (567) 
1620-1 (577) 
1621-2 (578-9, 581) 
1623-4 (590-1,593-4) 
1625-6 (600) 
1627-8 (605-7) 
1631-2 (629-33,635) 
1631-2 (632) 
1632-3 (648-9, 651) 
1633-4 (652,654, 656) 
1633-4 (653) 
1635-6 (661-2) 
1636-7 (670-1) 
1637-8 (674-6, 679) 
1638-9 (683-4, 686) 
1638-9 (684) 
1627-8 (605) 



players (Lord Robert) 

1564-5 (246) 
1571-2 (264) 
1579-80 (291) 

1560-1 (212) 
1561-2 (216) 

Ludovic Stuart (29 Sept 1574-16 Feb 1623/4), succ as 2nd duke and 18th earl of 
Lennox 26 May 1583 and cr i 5th earl of Richmond and Baron of Settrington 6 Oct 
i 6 i 3 and 2nd duke of Richmond and 1 st earl of Newcastle upon Tyne i 7 May i 623. 
Hereditary great chamberlain Scotland 26 May 1583; pres privy council Scotland 1586; 
chamberlain of the household Scotland 1590; lord high adm Scotland 4 Aug 1591 until 
death; pc 4 May i 603; naturalized i 8 Jul i 603; deputy earl marshal i 6 i 4; lord steward 
of the household 1615-24. Seat at Richmond Castle, Yorks, NR. 
trumpeters 1617-18 (558) 
trumpeters (earl of Lennox) 1620-1 (575) 
trumpeters 1621-2 (579, 581) 
1622-3 (583) 

trumpeter 1613-14 (518) 
trumpeter 1614-15 (525) 

James Stuart (6 Apt 1612-30 Mar 1655), grandson of Ludovic, qv, styled Lord 
Darnley, succ as 4th duke and 20th earl of Lennox and 10th earl of March 30Ju11624 
and de jure as 3rd Lord Clifton 21 Aug 1637, and cr 3rd duke of Richmond 8 Aug 
i 641. Hereditary lord chamberlain Scotland and lord high adm Scotland 30Ju11624; 
pc Scotland 29 May 1633 and 17 Sept 1641; pc 28 Jul 1633; lord steward of the 
household 5 Dec i 64 i. Seats at Cobham Hall, Kent and Leighton Bromswold, Hunts. 
trumpeters 1635-6 (662) 

Robert Bertie (c 16 Dec i 582-23 Oct 1642), succ as 14th Lord Willoughby de Eresby 
Jun i 60 i and cr i st earl of Lindsey 22 Nov i 626. Hereditary lord chamberlain i 3 Apr 
i 626; PC i 0 Jul i 628; jt lord adm 20 Sept 1628 and lord high adm i 0 Apt i 635; lord 
lieut Linc 23Jan 1629 until death; high steward Lincoln, Linc 1638; recorder Lincoln 
i 639. Seat at Eresby, Linc; residence at Lindsey House, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Midd; 
lands in Linc. 
musicians (Lord Willoughby) 1612-13 (497) 
trumpeter/s 1628-9 (616) 


Lord Admiral 
Thomas Seymour (c 1508-20 Mar 1548/9), brother of Edward, 5th duke of Somerset, 
qv, cr 1st Baron Seymour 16 Feb 1546/7. Steward duchy of Lancaster for Essex and 
Herts 28 May 1544 until death; PC 23-8 Jan 1547 and 2 Feb 1547-18 Jan 1549; lord 
high adm 17 Feb 1546/7-18 Jan 1549; JP Essex and Herts 1547; arrested and 
imprisoned in the Tower 17Jan 1548/9; attainted 5 Mar; beheaded 20 Mar 1548/9. 
Seats at Sudeley Castle, Glouc and Bromham, Wilts; London residence at Seymour 
Place, near Temple Bar, Midd; lands in several counties, including Essex. 
players 1548-9 (163) 

Charles Howard (c 1536-14 Dec 1624), succ as Baron Howard 11 or 12Jan 1572/3 
and cr 10th earl of Nottingham 22 Oct 1597. Chamberlain of the household 1 Jan 1583/ 
4-ju11585; PC by 5 Mar 1583/4 until death; lord high adm 8 Ju11585-27Jan 1618/19; 
chief justice in eyre south of Trent 15 Jun 1597 until death; lord steward of the 
household 24 Oct 1597-Nov 1615. Seat at Effingham, Surr. 
players 1588-9 (323) 

Lord Chamberlain 
Henry Carey (4 Mar 1525/6-23 Jul 1596), cr 1 st Baron Hunsdon 13 Jan 1558/9. Jp 
Essex and Herts 1562, 1564, and 1584; PC 16 Nov 1577; lord chamberlain of the 
household Jul 1585; chief justice in eyre south of Trent 1589 until death; lord lieut 
Norf and Surf 3 J ul 1585 until death;recorder Cambridge, Camb and high steward 
Ipswich, Surf 1590. Seats at Buckingham and Hunsdon, Herts; lands in various 
counties, including Essex and Herts. 
players 1594-5 (355) 

See also Pembroke 

Lord Chancellor 
Thomas Audley (c 1488-30 Apr 1544), cr Baron Audley 29 Nov 1538. Town clerk, 
Colchester, Essex, jt 1514-15 and sole 1515-32; P Essex 1520, 1523, 1525-6, 1528, 
1530, 1532, 1536, 1538, and 1540-2, Beds 1532, 1536, and 1542, Camb 1532, 1536, 
1538-9, and 1542, Herts 1532 and 1537-40, Hunts 1532, 1536, and 1538, Leic 1532 
and 1538-9, Linc 1532, 1536, 1538-40, and 1542, Norf 1532, 1538, 1540, and 1542, 
Northants 1532, 1536, and 1538-40, Rut 1532, 1536, and 1542, Surf 1532, 1537-9, 
and 1543, St Albans, Herts 1538-40, Cambridge, Camb and Peterborough, Northants 
1540; MP Colchester 1523 and Essex 1529; keeper of the great seal 20 May 1532; lord 
chancellor 26 Jan 1533 until death; steward duchy of Lancaster for Essex and Herts 
Jul 1540 until death; constable Hertford Castle, Herts 1540 until death. Seats at 
Berechurch, Earls Colne, and Saffron Walden, all in Essex; lands in Essex, Herts, and 
Surf; house at Christchurch, Aldgate, London. 
players 1538-9 (116) 

Lord Lionel see Clarence 

Lord Privy Seal 
John Russell (c 1485-14 Mar 1554/5), cr Baron Russell 9 Mar 1538/9 and 3rd earl of 
Bedford 19Jan 1549/50. PBeds 1536, 1542-3, and 1547, Hunts 1536, 1538-9, 1544, 
and 1547, Northants 1536, 1538-40, 1543, and 1547, Herts 1538, 1539, 1540, 1543, 
and 1547, Camb and Essex 1542, 1544, and 1547, Norf and Rut 1542-3 and 1547, 
Linc 1542-4 and 1547, Surf 1543-4 and 1547, Leic 1544 and 1547; Pc 1536 until death; 
comptroller of the household 18 Oct 1537-9; lord high adm 28 Jul 1540-17Jan 1543; 
lord keeper of the privy seal 3 Dec 1542 until death; constable and keeper castle and 
park of Rockingham, Northants 3 Jun 1544; steward manor of Stamford, Linc 3 Jun 
1544-7 and 1548 until death. Seats at Chenies, Bucks and Berwick, Dots; residence 
at Russell House, the Strand, Midd; lands in several counties, including Camb, Hefts, 
Linc, Northants, and Surf. 
players 1543-4 (130) 

Lord Protector see Richard Plantagenet (1452-85) (under King) and Somerset 

Lord Treasurer 
William Paulet (by c 1483-10 Mar 1571/2), cr 1st Baron St John 9 Mar 1538/9, 13th 
earl of Wiltshire 19 Jan 1549/50, and 1 st marquess of Winchester 11 Oct 1551. Comm 
of musters Ampthill, Beds 1536; v Beds, Camb, Essex, Herts, Hunts, Leic, Linc, 
Norf, Northants, Rut, and Surf 1547, 1562, and 1564 and Isle of Ely, Camb 1564; 
comptroller of the household May 1532-Oct 1537; treasurer of the household 18 Oct 
1537-Mar 1538/9; PC 19 Nov 1542 until death; lord pres of the Council by Nov 1545- 
Feb 1550; lord chamberlain c 16 May 1543-Oct 1545; lord steward of the household, 
c 24 Nov 1545-Feb 1549/50; chief iustice in eyre south of Trent 17 Dec 1545-Feb 
1549/50; lord treasurer of the exchequer 3 Feb 1549/50 until death; lord keeper of 
the great seal 6 Mar 1547-21 Dec 1558; master of the household 19 Jan 1550. Seats 
at Basing and Netley, Hants and Chelsea, Midd; London residence at Austin Friars; 
lands in several counties, including Herts and Leic. 
players ! 551-2 (176) 

See also Suffolk (earl) 

Lords of Council 
Unidentified members of the privy council, which had a large and fluctuating 
trumpeters 162!-2 (577) 
! 623-4 (589-90) 


John Lumley (c 1533-11 Apr 1609), restored in blood 1547 and summ to parl as 6th 
Baron Lumley 5 Oct 1553. Arrested and imprisoned in the Tower Sept 1569-Apr 
1573. Seat at Nonsuch until 1590 and at Lumley Castle, Dur; London residence in 
St Olave's, Tower Hill; lands in several counties. 
players 1571-2 (264) 

Edmund de Mortimer (6 Nov 1391-18 Jan 1424/5), succ as 5th earl of March, 8th 
earl of Ulster, and Lord Mortimer 20 Jul 1398. Jp Essex 1413-14, 1416, and 1423-4 
and Surf 1414 and 1417; councillor of regency 9 Dec 1422. Seats at Wigmore, Heref 
and Clare, Surf; lands in many counties, including Essex, Linc, Norf, and Surf. 
entertainers 1423-4 (23) 

Leonard Grey (c 1490-28 Jun 1541), brother of Henry Grey, 6th marquess of Dorset; 
styled Lord Leonard Grey and cr 1st Viscount Grane 2 Jan 1535/6. Jp Leic 1515, 1524, 
1526, and 1531-2; imprisoned in the Tower c 1 Jun 1540; beheaded 28 Jun 1541. Seat 
at Graney, co Kildare, Ireland; residence at St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. 
minstrels 1535-6 (111) 

John de Mowbray (1392-19 Oct 1432), succ as 12th earl of Norfolk, 4th earl of 
Nottingham, and 8th Lord Mowbray and Segrave 8 Jun 1405 and restored as 2nd duke 
of Norfolk 30 Apr 1425. Summ to parl as earl marshal 22 Mar 1412/13; pc and 
councillor of regency Dec 1422; Jp Norf 1414-16, 1424, and 1428-31, Surf 1414, 1417, 
1422-4, and 1431-2, Beds 1426, and Essex 1429 and 1431-2. Seat at Epworth in the 
Isle of Axholme, Linc; lands in several counties, including Leic and Northants. 
entertainer/s 1423-4 (23) 

Ralph de Neville (c 1291-5 Aug 1367), s ucc as 2nd Lord Neville of Raby after 18 Apr 
1331. Lord steward of the household by 1331 ; p Linc 1332; keeper of the realm Jul 
1338 and Jun 1340. Seat at Raby, Dur; lands in various counties. 
entertainers 1361-2 (6) 

John de Mowbray (12 Sept 1415-6 Nov 1461), son of John de Mowbray, 2nd duke 
of Norfolk, qv (under Marshal), succ as 3rd duke and 13th earl of Norfolk, 5th earl 
of Nottingham, and 9th Lord Mowbray and Segrave 19 Oct 1432. Hereditary earl 
marshal 19 Oct 1432; p Norf 1436-8, 1441, 1444-5, 1447-8, 1450, 1452-8, and 


1460-1, Surf 1436, 1438-40, 1442-5, 1448-50, 1452, 1454-5, and 1457-61, and 
Northants 1461 ;  by Apr 1437; comm oyer and terminer Norwich, Norf 1451 ;chief 
justice in eyre south of Trent 11 Ju11461. Principal seat at Framlingham Castle, Surf; 
lands in Surf. 
performers 1448-9 (31) 

Thomas Howard (1473-25 Aug 1554), styled Lord Howard 1483-1514, cr 14th earl 
of Surrey I Feb 1513/14 and succ as 8th duke of Norfolk 21 May 1524. Earl marshal 
28 May 1553;JPNorf 1504, 1510-12, 1514-15, 1524, 1526, 1531-2, 1538, 1540, 1542- 
3, and 1554, Surf 1504, 1506-7, 1509-15, 1524, 1526, 1529, 1531-2, 1537-9, 1543-4, 
and 1554, Linc 1515, 1522, 1524, 1526, 1528, 1531-2, 1536-40, 1542-3, and 1545, 
Hunts 1524-5, 1528, 1531-2, 1536, 1538, and 1544, Leic 1524, 1526, 1531-2, 1538-9, 
and 1544, Northants 1524, 1526, 1528, 1531-2, 1536, 1538-40, and 1543, Rut 1524, 
1526, 1531-2, 1536, and 1542-3, Beds 1525, 1529-30, 1532, 1536, and 1542-3, Camb 
1525, 1530, 1532, 1536, 1538-40, 1542, and 1544, Essex 1525-6, 1528, 1530, 1532, 
1536, 1538, 1540-2, and 1544, Herts 1525-6, 1528, 1531-2, 1537-40, and 1543, and 
Cambridge, Camb 1540; lord high adm 4 May 1513-Jul 1525; pc by May 1516 and 
10 Aug 1553; treasurer of the exchequer 4 Dec 1522-Feb 1546/7; high steward 
Cambridge Jun 1529; imprisoned in the Tower 12 Dec 1546; attainted 2 7Jan 1546/7; 
released and restored in blood and honours 3 Aug 1553. Seat at Kenninghall, Norf; 
lands in several counties, including Leic, Linc, Norf, and Surf. 
players 1542-3 (129) 

Thomas Howard (10 Mar 1537/8-2 Jun 1572), grandson of Thomas, qv, styled earl 
of Surrey, restored in blood and honours 2 Sept 1553 and succ as 9th duke of Norfolk 
and 15th earl of Surrey 25 Aug 1554. Hereditary earl marshal 25 Aug 1554; lord lieut 
Norf and Surf 1558-26 Oct 1559; high steward Cambridge, Camb by 1559; JP Norf 
and Suff 1562 and 1564;  Nov 1562; imprisoned in the Tower 8 Oct 1569-3 Aug 
1570; attainted 16 Jan 1571/2; beheaded 2 Jun 1572. Seat at Kenninghall, Norf; 
residence at the Charterhouse, Midd. 
players 1556-7 (200) 

Roger North (27 Feb 1530/1-3 Dec 1600), succ as 2nd Lord North 31 Dec 1564. uP 
Camb, 1555, 1559, and 1563; P Camb 1558/9, 1562, and 1564 until death, and Surf 
and Isle of Ely 1579 until death; comm of musters Camb 1565, May 1569, 1573-4, 
1580, 1584, and 1597; alderman and burgess Cambridge, Camb 1568; custos rot Camb 
1573/4; lord lieut Camb and Isle of Ely 20 Nov 1569 and 8 Apr 1588 until death; 
steward duchy of Lancaster for Camb, Norf, and Suff 1572; high steward Cambridge 
1572; pc 30 Aug 1596; treasurer of the household 30 Aug 1596 until death. Seats at 
Kirtling, Camb and Mildenhall, Suff; residence at the Charterhouse, Midd; lands in 
Camb and Surf. 


players 1591-2 (338) 

William Parr (1513-28 Oct 1571 ), cr Baron Parr 9 Mar 1538/9, 17th earl of Essex 23 
Dec 1543, and 1st marquess of Northampton 16 Feb 1546/7; attainted 18 Aug 1553; 
restored in blood 5 May 1554; restored to marquessate 13Jan 1558/9. Steward honour 
of Rayleigh, Essex 25 Sept 1541, manor of Writtle and honour of Beaulieu, Essex 25 
May 1543, and honour of Grafton and various manors, Northants for life 11 Jun 1559; 
vc Mar 1543/4-Nov 1553 and 25 Dec 1558; JP Essex 1547, Northants 1562 and 1564, 
and Isle of Ely 1564; lord lieut Beds, Camb, Hunts, Norf, and Northants Jul 1549; 
10rd chamberlain for life 4 Feb 1549/50; imprisoned in the Tower 26 Jul 1553; released 
31 Dec 1553. Seats at Parr, Prescot, Lanc, Greens Norton, Northants, and Kendal, 
Westmld; lands in several counties, including Essex, Leic, Linc, Norf, Northants, and 
players 1550-1 (173) 

Henry de Percy (3 Feb 1392/3-22 May 1455), succ as 5th Lord Percy 19 Feb 1407/8 
and cr 5th earl of Northumberland 16 Mar 1415/16. Councillor of regency 16 Nov 
1422. Seats at Alnwick and Warkworth, Northumb. 
entertainers 1424-5 (24) 

Henry Algernon Percy (14 Jan 1477/8-19 May 1527), succ as 9th earl of 
Northumberland, 8th Lord Percy, and Lord Poynings 28 Apr 1489. Imprisoned in 
the Fleet 1516. Seats at Alnwick, Northumb and Wressell, Yorks, ER; residence in 
Aldgate, London. 
entertainers 1499-1500 (75) 
1500- I (77) 

Henry Percy (c 1502-30 Jun 1537), son of Henry Algernon Percy, 9th earl of 
Northumberland, qv, succ as 10th earl of Northumberland, 9th Lord Percy, and Lord 
P0ynings 19 May 1527. c 26 May 1532. Seats at Alnwick, Northumb and Wressell, 
Yorks, ER. 
trumpeters 1530-1 (103) 

Algernon Percy (29 Sept 1602-13 Oct 1668), summ to parl as 4th B aron Percy 28 Mar 
1626 and succ as 14th earl of Northumberland 5 Nov 1532. c Mar 1636 and 31 May 
1660; lord high adm 19 Mar 1637-42. Seats at Petworth, Suss and Wressell, Yorks, 
El; residences at Syon House near Brentford, Midd and at Northumberland House, 
the Strand, Midd. 
trumpeters 1637-8 (675) 


John de Vere (8 Sept 1442-10 Mar i 512/13), succ as 13th earl of Oxford 26 Feb 1461/2. 
JPCamb 1461, 1466, 1468, 1470, 1485-6, 1493, 1495-6, 1498, 1500, 1502, 1505, and 
1511-12, Essex 1461, 1464-5, 1467-8, 1470, 1485, 1488, 1490, 1495-6, 1498-1502, 
1504, 1506, and 1508-13, Norf 1461-2, 1465-6, 1470, 1485-7, 1490, 1494, 1496-9, 
1501-4, and 1510-12, Surf 1461, 1465-8, 1470, 1485-6, 1488-90, 1492, 1494, 1496- 
7, 1499-1501, 1503-4, 1506-7, and 1509-12, Hunts 1470-1, 1487, 1490, 1493, 1496, 
1498-9, 1502, 1504, 1506, and 1508-10, and Herts 1485-90, 1493, 1497, 1500-1, 
1503, 1506, 1509-12; imprisoned in the Tower Nov 1468; pardoned 5 Apr 1469; 
attainted 1475; attainder reversed 1485; lord high adm 21 Sept 1485; constable Castle 
Rising, Norf 22 Sept i 485 and Clare Castle, Surf 4 Dec i 493; pc and hereditary lord 
chamberlain after i 485; steward manors of Bardfield and Thaxted, Essex and Clare 
and Sudbury, Surf 28 Nov 1486; comm of array Essex 1513. Seat at Hedingham Castle, 
Essex; lands in several counties, including Beds, Essex, Hants, Hefts, Leic, Linc, 
Norf, and Surf. 
entertainers 1488-9 (67) 
entertainer/s 1488-9 (68) 
1493-4 (71) 
entertainers 1498-9 (74) 
1499-1500 (75) 
1503-4 (79) 

John de Vere (c 1516-3 Aug 1562), styled Lord Bolebec 1526 until he succ as 16th 
earl of Oxford 21 Mar i 539/40. JP Essex i 54 i-2, 1544, i 547, i 554, and i 562; comm 
of array Essex 1545; lord lieut Essex, jt 25 Sept i 550-3 and sole 17 Jan 1557-29 Oct 
i 558 and i May i 559; PC 3 Sept i 553. Seat at Hedingham Castle, Essex; manor at Earls 
Colne, Essex; lands in several counties, including Essex and Surf. 
players 1560-1 (212) 
1561-2 (216) 

players 1562-3 (222) 

Edward de Vere (i 2 Apt i 550-24 Jun 1604), son of John, 16th earl of Oxford, qv, 
styled Lord Bolebec until he succ as 17th earl of Oxford 3 Aug 1562. Lord great 
chamberlain 3 Aug 1562; chief comm of musters Essex 1579. Seats at Hedingham 
Castle, Essex and Hackney, Midd; lands in Essex. 
players 1579-80 (290-1) 

Possibly 1562-3 (222) 


Frederick of Wittelsbach (26 Aug 1596-29 Nov 1632), son of Palsgrave Frederick IV 
and LouisaJuliana of Orange-Nassau; succ as Palsgrave Frederick v of the Rhine 19 
Sept 1610; married Elizabeth Stuart, qv (under Queen of Bohemia), 14 Feb 1613; 
crowned king of Bohemia 4 Nov 1619; deposed 8 Nov 1619. 
players 1615-16 (552-3) 

William Herbert (8 Apr 1580-10 Apr 1630), styled Lord Herbert 1580 until he succ 
as 22nd earl of Pembroke 19 Jan 1600/1. Imprisoned in the Fleet Mar-May 1601 ;  
29 Sept 1611 ; lord chamberlain of the household 23 Dec 1615-26; jt earl marshal 25 
Sept 1616; high steward Norwich Cathedral, Norf 4 Oct 1625;  Scotland 29 Jun 
1617; lord steward of the household by 3 Aug 1626-30; jt lord adm 20 Sept 1628; 
chief justice in eyre south of Trent for life 8 Sept 1629. Seat at Wilton, Wilts; London 
residence at Baynard's Castle; lands in several counties. 
trumpeters 1622-3 (584) 
trumpeters (lord chamberlain) 1623-4 (593) 

Edward Plantagenet (1473-c 9 Apr 1484), son of Richard Il, qv (under King), and 
Anne Neville, qv (under Queen), cr 13th earl of Salisbury 15 Feb 1477/8, 7th duke 
of Cornwall 26 Jun 1483, prince of Wales and 19th earl of Chester 24 Aug 1483. Seat 
at Middleham Castle, Yorks, NR. 
minstrel/s 1483-4 (63) 

Arthur Tudor (20 Sept 1486-2 Apr 1502), I st son of Hen ry v, qv (under King), succ 
as 8th duke of Cornwall at birth and cr prince of Wales and 20th earl of Chester 29 
Nov 1489. Keeper of the realm and king's lieut 2 Oct 1492. Seat at Ludlow Castle, 
Shrops; lands in several counties. 
entertainers 1493-4 (71) 
1498-9 (74) 
1499-1500 (75) 
performers 1498-9 (73) 
1500-1 (76) 
pipers 1499-1500 (75) 

Henry Frederick Stuart (19 Feb 1593/4-6 Nov 1612), 1st son of James , qv (under 
King), succ as 11 th duke of Rothesay, Scotland, at birth and 13th duke of Cornwall 
24 Mar 1602/3 and cr prince of Wales and 22nd earl of Chester 4Jun 1610. Seats at 
St James, Midd and Nonsuch and Richmond, Surr; lands in several counties, including 

trumpeters 1610-11 (422) 


Charles Stuart (29 May 1630-6 Feb 1685), son of Charles I, qv (under King), and 
Henrietta Maria, succ as 16th duke of Cornwall at birth; declared prince of Wales 12 
May 1638 and 24th earl of Chester by 4 Apr 1646; exiled 2 Mar 1645/6-26 May 1660; 
became king de jure 30Jan 1648/9; proclaimed king 5 May 1660; acc as Charles u 29 
May 1660; crowned 23 Apr 1661. 
trumpeters 1640-1 (694-7) 

Prince Elector 
Charles Lewis of Wittelsbach (22 Dec 1617-28 Aug 1680), son of Frederick v, qv 
(under Palsgrave), and Elizabeth Stuart, qv (under Queen of Bohemia); exiled in 
England by 28 Nov 1635-Mar 1649; restored as elector palatine 1648. Residence at 
Somerset House, the Strand, Midd. 
trumpeters 1635-6 (663) 

See also King 

Margaret of Anjou (23 Mar 1430-25 Aug 1482), daughter of Ren, duke of Anjou 
and count of Provence and Isabella of Lorraine; married Henry Vl, qv (under King), 
in France by proxy 24 May 1444 and in England 23 Apr 1445; crowned 30 May 1445. 
entertainers 1444-5 (30) 

Anne Neville ( 11 J un 1456-16 Mar 1485), daughter of Richard, 16th earl of Warwick, 
qv, and Anne de Beauchamp; married Richard, duke of Gloucester, qv (under King) 
12 Jul 1472; crowned 6 Jul 1483. 
minstrel/s 1483-4 (63) 

Elizabeth of York (11 Feb 1466-11 Feb 1503), daughter of Edward IV, qv (under 
King), and Elizabeth Wydevill; married Henry vii, qv (under King) 18 Jan 1486; 
crowned 25 Nov 1487. 
entertainer/s 1490-1 (69) 
entertainers 1498-9 (74) 
1500-I (77) 

Anne Boleyn (1507-19 May 1536), daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 12th earl of Wiltshire 
and Elizabeth Howard;married Henry viii, qv (under King) 25 Jan 1533; crowned 
1 Jun 1533; beheaded 19 May 1536. 
min strels 1532-3 (106) 

Catherine Parr (c 1512-5 Sept 1548), daughter of Thomas Parr and Maud Green, 
married 1/Edward Borough (d bef Apr 1533), 2/John Neville, 3rd Lord Latimer 


(d 2 Mar 1542/3) 1533, 3/Henry vm, qv (under King) 12 Jul 1543, and 4/Thomas 
Seymour, Baron Seymour of Sudeley, Glouc 1547. 
performers 1544-5 (131 ) 

Mary Tudor (18 Feb 1516-17 Nov 1558), daughter of Henry viii, qv (under King), 
and Catherine of Aragon; acc as Mary I of England 19 Jul 1553; crowned 1 Oct 1553; 
married 25 Jul 1554, Philip, king of Naples and Jerusalem, and king of Spain from 
16 Jan 1556. 
trumpeters 1552-3 (184) 
players 1558-9 (206) 

Elizabeth Tudor (7 Sept 1533-24 Mar 1603), daughter of Henry viii, qv (under King), 
and Anne Boleyn, qv (under Queen); acc as Elizabeth I 17 Nov 1558; crowned 15 
Jan 1559. 
players 1561-2 (216) 
1562-3 (222) 
1563-4 (226) 
1565-6 (249) 
1569-70 (259) 
1572-3 (266) 
1583-4 (311) 
1584-5 (313) 
1590-1 (332) 
player 1591-2 (337) 
players 1591-2 (338, 340-3) 
trumpeters 1563-4 (226) 
1601-2 (383-5) 

Anne of Denmark (12 Dec 1574-2 Mar 1619), daughter of Frederick n of Denmark 
and Norway and Sophia of Mecklenburg; married James l, qv (under King) 20 Aug 
1589; crowned queen of England 25Ju11603. Her acting company continued in her 
name for several years after her death. 

1605-6 (402) 
1605-6 (403) 

Queen of Bohemia 
Elizabeth Stuart (mid-Aug 1596-13 Feb 1662), daughter of J ames I, qv (under King), 


trumpeters 1632-3 (649) 

John Talbot (c 1413-10 Jul 1460), succ as 5th earl of Shrewsbury, 7th Lord Furnivalle, 
Lord Talbot, Lord Strange, and earl of Waterford, Ireland 17Ju11453.3P Leic 1442 
and Herts 1443, 1454-5, and 1457; pc bef 21 Nov 1453; lord treasurer 5 Oct 1456-Oct 
1458. Seat at Sheffield Castle, Yorks, WR. 
performers ! 456-7 (37) 

Shropshire see Shrewsbury 

Edward Seymour (c 1500-22 Jan 1551/2), brother of Thomas, 1st Baron Seymour, 
qv (under Lord Admiral), cr I st Viscount Beauchamp 5 Jun 1536, 8th earl of Hertford 
18 Oct 1537, Baron Seymour 15 Feb 1546/7, and 5th duke of Somerset 16 Feb 1546/7. 
JP Beds, Camb, Essex, Hefts, Hunts, Leic, Linc, Norf, Northants, Rut, and Surf 
1547; pc 1537 and 10 Apr 1550; lord high adm 28 Dec 1542-Jan 1542/3; lord great 
chamberlain 16 Feb 1542/3-17 Feb 1546/7; councillor of regency and lieut of the realm 
9 Jul 1544; protector of the realm 12 Mar 1546/7; lord treasurer of the exchequer 10 
Feb 1546/7; earl marshal 17 Feb 1547; high steward Cambridge, Camb 1547; 
chancellor Cambridge Univ 14 Nov 1547 until death; deprived of all offices and 
imprisoned in the Tower 14 Oct 1549-6 Feb 1549/50; pardoned 16 Feb 1549/50; 
imprisoned in the Tower again 16 Oct 1551 ; beheaded 22 Jan 1551/2. Seats at Hatch, 
Somers and Wolf Hall, Wilts; residence at Somerset House, the Strand, Midd; lands 
in several counties, including Essex, Hefts, Linc, Norf, and Surf. 
player (lord protector) ! 547-8 (149) 
players (lord protector) 1547-8 (154) 
players 1550-1 (172) 

Thomas Wriothesley (10 Mar 1607/8-16 May 1667), succ as 5th earl of Southampton 
and Baron Wriothesley 10 Nov 1624 and 2nd earl of Chichester 21 Dec 1653. Lord 
lieut Norf 1660-1 ; PC 3 Jan 1641/2 and 27 May 1660; high steward Cambridge Univ 
1642 until death; councillor to the prince of Wales, qv 1644/5; lord treasurer 8 Sept 
1660 until death; jt earl marshal during pleasure 26 May ? 1662. Seats at Little Shelford, 
Camb and Titchfield, Hants; residences at Southampton House, Holborn, Midd and 
from c 1652-62, in Bloomsbury, Midd. 
trumpeters ! 625-6 (600) 

Thomas Wentworth (13 Apr 1593-12 May 1641), cr Baron Wentworth and baron of 
Newmarcb and Oversley 22 Jul 1628, Viscount Wentworth 13 Dec 1628, and 1st earl 


of Stratford and baron of Raby 12 Jan 1639/40. Imprisoned 4 Jul-Dec 1627; pc 10 
Nov 1629; imprisoned 11 Nov 1640; attainted 8 May and beheaded 12 May 1641. Seat 
at Wentworth, Woodhouse, Yorks, WR. 
trumpeters 1640-1 (695) 

Ferdinando Stanley (c 1559-16 Apt 1594), son of Henry, 13th earl of Derby, qv, 
styled Lord Strange from 1572; summ to parl as Lord Strange 28 Jan 1588/9; succ as 
14th earl of Derby and lord of the Isle of Man 25 Sept 1593. Seats at Lathom and 
Knowsley, Lanc and Knockin, Shrops. 
players 1591-2 (338) 

See also Henry Stanley under Derby 

John de la Pole (27 Sept 1442-bet 29 Oct 1491 and 27 Oct 1492), succ as 2nd duke, 
2nd marquess, and 9th earl of Suffolk 2 May 1450. JP Norf 1460, 1463-6, 1469-76, 
1478-83, 1485-7, and 1490 and Suff 1460, 1464-8, 1470-1, 1473, 1475-6, 1478-86, 
1488-90, and 1492; comm of array Norf and Surf 1469-72 and 1487. Seat at Wingfield, 
performers 1465-6 (43) 

Charles Brandon (c 1484-22 Aug 1545), cr 5th Viscount Lisle 15 May ! 513 and 4th 
duke of Suffolk 1 Feb 1513/14; surrendered viscounty 20 Apr 1523. jP Norf 1512, 
1514-15, 1524, 1526, 1531, 1538, 1540, and 1542-3, Suff 1512, 1514-15, 1520, 1524, 
1526, 1529, 1531, 1537-9, and 1543-4, Beds 1529-30, 1532, 1536, and 1542-3, Camb 
1530, 1536, 1538-9, 1542, and 1544, Essex 1530, 1532, 1536, 1538, 1540-2, and 1544, 
Herts 1531, 1537-40, and 1543, Hunts 1531-2, 1536, 1538, and 1544, Leic 1531, 
1538-9, and 1544, Linc 1531-2, 1536-40, and 1542-4, Northants 1531-2, 1536, 
1538-40, and 1543, and Rut 1531, 1536, and 1542-3; pc bef 15 May 1513 until death; 
earl marshal 21 May 1524-20 May 1533; pres privy council Feb 1529/30 until death; 
chief justice in eyre south of Trent 27 Nov 1534 until death; lord steward of the 
household bef 13 Apr 1540 until death. Seat at Tattershall Castle, Linc; lands in Essex, 
Linc, Norf, Northants, Rut, and Surf. 
players 1537-8 (115) 
players (lord of Suffolk) 1538-9 (116) 

Suffolk (duchess) 
Katherine Willoughby (22 Mar 1518/19-19 Sept 1580), suo jure 12th Baroness 


Willoughby de Eresby; married 1/Charles Brandon, 4th duke of Suffolk (d 22 Aug 
1545), qv, c 7 Sept 1533, and 2/Richard Bertie, probably early 1553; fled England 5 
Feb 1554/5; returned summer 1559. Residence at Westhorpe, Surf, from c 1528; seats 
at Eresby, Grimsthorpe, and Tattershall Castle, Linc, from c 1536; all lands seized 
by the crown 1557; returned Aug 1559. 
players 1561-2 (216) 

Suffolk (earl) 
Thomas Howard (24 Aug 1561-28 May 1626), son of Thomas, 9th duke of Norfolk, 
qv, restored in blood 19 Dec 1584; styled Lord Thomas Howard until summ to pad 
as Lord Howard 5 Dec 1597; cr llth earl of Suffolk 21 Jul 1603. High steward 
Cambridge Univ, Feb 1601-14; lord lieut Camb 17Ju11602, Surf 18Ju11605; ec25 
Apr 1603; lord chamberlain of the household 4 May 1603-10 Ju11614; jp Norf 1608; 
high steward Ipswich, Surf 6 Jun 1609; chancellor Cambridge Univ 8 Jul 1614 until 
death; treasurer of the exchequer 10 Jul 1614-20 Jul 1618; imprisoned in the Tower, 
Nov-Dec 1619. Seat at Saffron Walden, Essex; mansion at Audley End, Essex; 
residence at the Charterhouse, Midd. 
trumpeters 1614-15 (524) 
trumpeter (lord treasurer) 1614-15 (525) 
trumpeters (lord treasurer) 1616-17 (554) 

Robert Radcliffe (c 1483-27 Nov 1542), restored as 7th Lord FitzWalter 3 Nov 1505 
and cr 1st Viscount FitzWalter 18 Jun 1525 and 6th earl of Sussex 8 Dec 1529. Jp Essex 
1511-15, 1520, 1523, 1525-6, 1528, 1532, 1536, 1538, and 1540-1, Norf 1511-12, 
1514-15, 1524, 1531-2, 1538, and 1540, and Surf 1511-15, 1520, 1524, 1529, 1531-2, 
and 1537-9; jt comm of array and jt capt Essex 1512/13; pc by 5 Feb 1525/6; 
chamberlain of the exchequer 3 Jun 1532 until death; chief steward honour of Beaulieu, 
Essex 28 May 1536 and manor of Writtle, Essex 1 Aug 1540; lord chamberlain for 
life 3 Aug 1540. Seat at Attleborough, Norf; lands in several counties, including Essex. 
players 1538-9 (1 I6) 

players 1542-3 (129) 

Henry Radcliffe (c 1507-17 Feb 1556/7), son of Robert, 6th earl of Sussex, qv, styled 
Lord FitzWalter 1529 until he succ as 7th earl of Sussex and 2nd Viscount and 8th 
Lord FitzWalter 27 Nov 1542. Jp Essex 1536, 1538, 1540-1, 1547, and 1554, Norf 
1538, 1543, 1547, and 1554, and Camb and Suff 1554; comm for defence of the coast 
Norf 1539; lord lieut, jt Norf Apr 1551, May 1552, and May 1553 and sole Norf and 
Suff 14 Jul 1556 until death; PC 17 Aug 1553; chief justice in eyre south of Trent 19 
Nov 1553 until death. Seat at Attleborough, Norf. 


players 1542-3 (129) 

Thomas Radcliffe (c 1525 or 1526-9 Jun 1583), son of Henry, 7th earl of Sussex, qv, 
styled Lord FitzWalter 27 Nov 1542-53; succ as 8th earl of Sussex and 3rd Viscount 
and 9th Lord FitzWalter 17 Feb 1556/7. MP NorfJan-Mar 1553; JP Essex and Norf 
1554, 1562, and 1564 and Suff 1562 and 1564; chief justice in eyre south of Trent 
3 Jul 1557 until death;  30 Dec 1570; steward New Hall, Beaulieu Jul 1572 and 
Maldon at death, both in Essex; lord chamberlain of the household 13 Jul 1572 until 
death;chief comm of array, sole Beds, Cambs, Hunts, Norf, and Surf and jt Essex 
and Herts 1579. Seat at New Hall, granted 28 May 1574 and at Woodham Walter, 
Essex; house at Bermondsey, Surr and manors in Essex. 
players 1568-9 (257) 
1570-1 (262) 
1572-3 (266) 
1574-5 (273) 

John Tiptoft (c 1375-27Jan 1442/3), in right of marriage styled lord of Powis after 
28 Feb 1421/2 and summ to parl as 1st Lord Tiptoft 7 Jan 1425/6. Comm of array 
Hunts 1402 and 1405 and Camb 1405; MP Hunts 1404 and 1406; steward manor and 
lordship of Bottisham, Camb 1 Nov 1405; JP Camb 1406-7, 1410, 1412-14, 1422-5, 
1429, 1431, 1435, 1437, 1439, and 1441-2, Hunts 1406-7, 1409, 1411, 1413, 1416, 
1429, 1432, 1437, and 1439- 42, and Cambridge, Camb 1429-30 and 1437-8; 
treasurer of the household 8 Dec 1406-Jul 1408; lord treasurer of the exchequer 
14Jul 1408-11 Dec 1409; councillor of regency 22 Aug 1422 and  9 Dec 1422-24 
Aug 1442; lord steward of the household bef 28 Jul 1426-1 Mar 1431/2. Lands in 
several counties, including Camb and Leic. 
entertainer 1423-4 (23) 
entertainer/s 1424-5 (24) 
minstrel/s 1427-8 (25) 

William Vaux (bef 14 Aug 1535-20 Aug 1595), succ as 3rd Lord Vaux by Oct 1556. 
Comm of musters Northants by 20 Aug 1569; P Northants 1569; imprisoned in the 
Fleet 18 Aug 1581; probably released bet Oct and Dec 1588. Seat at Harrowden, 
bearward 1580-1 (297-303) 

Richard Neville (22 Nov 1428-14 Apr 1471), son of Richard, 10th earl of Salisbury, 
qv, in right of marriage styled Lord Bergavenny, confirmed in the earldom of Warwick 


23ju11449 and cr 16th earl of Warwick 2 Mar 1449/50; succ as 1 lth earl of Salisbury 
30 or 31 Dec 1460. Chamberlain of the exchequer 6 Dec 1450; jP Leic 1454, 1456-8, 
1460-I, 1464, 1467, and 1469- 70, Northants 1454 and 1458-71, Linc 1460-1 and 
1463-71, Norf 1460-6 and 1469-70, Beds 1461 and 1467-71, Camb 1461-6, 1468, 
and 1470, Essex 1461-5 and 1467-70, Herts 1461, 1464-5, and 1470, Hunts 1461-2, 
1464-6, and 1470-1, Rut 1461, 1464, and 1470, and Suff 1461-8 and 1470; vc by 
6 Dec 1453; steward honour of Leicester and Castle Donington, Leic 18 Nov 1460; 
attainted 20 Nov 1459; attainder reversed Oct 1460; lord chamberlain 22 Jan 1460/1 
and 7 May 1461 ; lord high adm 13 Feb-Ju11462 and 2Jan 1470/1. Seats at Middleham 
and Sheriff Hutton, Yorks, NR; held castle and honour of Abergavenny, 
Monmouthshire, Wales; lands in several counties. 
entertainer 1466-7 (44) 
performer 1466-7 (45) 
perforrner/s 1469-70 (50) 

John Dudley (c 1504-22 Aug 1553), restored in blood 1512, succ as 7th Baron Lisle 
c 1530, cr 7th Viscount Lisle 12 Mar 1541/2, 19th earl of Warwick 16 Feb 1546/7, 
and 1st duke of Northumberland 11 Oct 1551. Vice-adm Feb 1537-Jan 1543; lord 
high adm 26Jan 1543-17 Feb 1547 and 28 Oct 1549-14 May 1550; vc 23 Apr 1543-Jul 
1553; lord chamberlain of the household 17 Feb 1547-1 Feb 1550; lord steward of 
the household 20 Feb 1550-3; lord p res of the privy council Feb 1550-Jul 1553; earl 
marshal 20 Apr 1551 ; chancellor Cambridge Univ 1552-3; imprisoned in the Tower 
25 Jul 1553; beheaded 22 Aug 1553. Seats at Halden, Kent, Chelsea and Syon, Midd, 
and Dudley Castle, Staff; residence at Durham House, the Strand, Midd; lands in 
many counties, including Hunts, Northants, and Rut. 
trumpeters 1548-9 (163) 

Ambrose Dudley (c 1528-21 Feb 1589/90), styled Lord Ambrose Dudley from Oct 
1551 ; c r Baron Lisle 25 Dec, and 21 st earl of Warwick 26 Dec 1561 ; imprisoned and 
attainted 1553, pardoned 22 Jan 1554/5, and restored in blood 7 Mar 1557/8. JP Linc 
1562 and 1564; chief comm of musters Northants 1579-80; vc 5 Sept 1573; high 
steward St Albans, Herts 1589 and honour of Grafton, Northants 10 May 1589. Seat 
at Warwick Castle, Warw; lands in several counties, including Leic. 
players (Lord Ambrose Dudley) 1560-1 (212) 
players 1562-3 (223) 

Robert Rich (May orJun 1587-19 Apr 1658), grandson of Robert, 2nd Baron Rich, 
qv, styled Lord Rich 1618-19 and succ as 23rd earl of Warwick and Baron Rich 
24 Mar 1618/19. MP Maldon, Essex 1610 and Essex 1614; lord lieut Essex, jt 8 Sept 
1625-Aug 1626 and 5 Feb 1629-Mar 1641/2 and sole Essex and Norf 5 Mar 1641/2; 
vice-adm Essex befJun 1632; PC 27 Apr 1641 ; lord high adm 1Ju11642, 7 Dec 1643-9 
Apr 1645, and 29 May 1648-23 Feb 1648/9. Seats at Leighs Priory and Rochford Hall, 


Kingston upon Hull, Yorks, ER 

Lincoln, Linc 



Low Countries 

Madingley, Camb 

Norwich, Norf 

Nottingham, Nott 



1548-9 (155) 
1549-50 (164) 
1550-1 (167) 
1552-3 (178) 


1549-50(164, 166) 

1560-1 (210) 

1472-3 (53) 

1640-1 (696) 

1489-90 (68) 

1562-3 (217) 

1552-3 (178) 
1591-2 (337) 
1595-6 (359) 
1605-6 (402) 
1611-12 (489, 490) 
1613-14 (519-20) 
1615-16 (549) 
1631-2 (634) 
1638-9 (686) 
1640- l (696) 
1641-2 (699) 
1598-9 (374) 
1630-1 (626) 
1631-2 (629) 
1633-4 (654) 

Glo ss aries ." Introduction 

The purpose of the glossaries is to assist the reader in working through the records text. The 
criteria for the selection of glossary entries are discussed below, under the headings Latin 
Glossary and English Glossary. The glossaries include both words found in records printed 
in the main text and words found in records printed or quoted in the introduction, appendixes, 
and endnotes. Definitions are given only for those senses of a particular word which are used 
in the records printed in this collection. 
As a rule, only one occurrence of each word, or each form of each word, will be listed; 
'etc' or 'et al' following this reference means that there are more occurrences of that word 
or form. The one occurrence listed is either the sole occurrence or the first chronologically. 
Where common sense dictates, as in the case of difficult words or those with multiple senses, 
more occurrences may be listed for the sake of clarity. Within the references, page and line 
numbers are separated by an oblique stroke. Words occurring within marginalia are indicated 
by a lower-case 'm' following the page and line reference. Manuscript capitalization has been 
ignored, except where proper names are glossed. 

Latin Glossary 

Words are included in the Latin Glossary if they are not to be found in the Oxford Latin 
Dictionary (oLo), now the standard reference work for classical Latin. Words listed in the 
OtO whose meaning has changed or become restricted in medieval or Renaissance usage are 
also glossed. If a word is found in the oto, but appears in the records text in an obscure 
spelling or an unusual or anomalous inflectional form for which the o_o provides no cross- 
reference, that word has been included and its standard lexical entry form indicated, without 
giving a definition. If the spelling variations or anomalous inflectional forms have been treated 
as scribal errors and more correct forms given in textual notes, the forms thus noted have 
not been repeated in the glossary. 
Most of the Latin words used in the records are common classical words whose spelling 
has changed, if at all, according to common medieval variations. The results of these common 
variations are not treated here as new words, nor are forms of glossed words resulting from 
such variations cross-referenced. These variations are: 


English Glossary 

- Scope. The English glossary is not meant to be exhaustive, but only 1/to define words 
or record senses that are genuinely obsolete or likely to be mistaken by a modern reader and 
2/to give the modern equivalents of spellings that would puzzle a beginner. Accordingly words 
and senses given in The Concise Oxford Dictionary (6th and later eds, 1975-present) have 
usually been taken as current and passed over; these include, for example, such words and 
phrases as 'onset' and 'ouer against.' Archaisms still familiar to most educated readers, such 
as 'doth,' 'herein,' 'nigh,' and 'spake,' are omitted. Spelling variants such as 'dutie' and 'dutye,' 
'ffor,' 'lust,' 'payre,' 'seauen,' and 'vniuersitie' ('-y,' '-ye') have usually been passed over, as 
have forms produced by a scribe's failure to mark a common abbreviation, when these are 
reasonably transparent ('condicon,' 'behauor'), and such easily recognized combinations of 
the definite article with a following noun as 'thassistence' and 'thorder.' Abbreviations are also 
mostly omitted. Words such as 'broyer,"yen' (for 'brother,"then') in which a '19' identical 
in form to 'y' has been rendered as 'y,' are glossed for the benefit of readers unfamiliar with 
this convention. 
To these general rules there are two notable exceptions. First, fuller treatment has been given 
to articles of dress; to textiles and other materials used in performance (eg 'fustian,' 
'ninehoales,' 'parrantes,' 'player,' 'sloppes,' and 'wayte') and to words likely to be of special 
interest to the reader, for instance, the specialized vocabulary of pastimes and the performing 
arts. Second, encyclopedic information on political or social history has been provided where 
it seemed necessary to an understanding of the text. This has led to unusually full definitions 
of legal and administrative terms (eg 'assise,' 'recorder'), of officers of the royal household 
(eg'hangers,' 'wardrobe'), and, in this collection, of the peculiar terminology of Cambridge 
University (eg 'bedell,' 'repliar,' 'tasker'). 

-Arrangement. The glossary follows normal alphabetical order; '3' follows "y' and 
follows 't.' Normal headword forms are the uninflected singular for nouns and the infinitive 
for verbs; but nouns occurring only in the plural or possessive, and verbs occurring only in 
one participial or finite form, are usually entered under the form that actually occt/rs. Similarly, 
verbal nouns are subsumed under the infinitive when other parts of the same verb also occur 
in the text, and adverbs are entered under the related adjective when that also occurs. 

- Spelling. Fully glossed words are entered under the spelling most often found in the text. 
When two spellings are equally or nearly equally common, the one nearer modern usage is 
preferred. Other variants are cross-referenced in their alphabetical places, unless the cross- 
reference would come within two entries of the main listing. All noted variants are given under 
the main listing, in alphabetical order within each grammatical form. 
Unfamiliar spellings of words not fully glossed appear in their alphabetical places, but several 
may be grouped into a single entry where that can cause the reader no confusion. Forms 
corrected in the footnotes, or forms cancelled and replaced by the original scribe, are not 
normally entered in the glossary. 

- Citations. For every word, sense, and variant recorded, the earliest example occurring in 
the Records is cited. When a variant occurs only twice, the second occurrence is also cited. 


Otherwise further occurrences are represented by 'etc,' except when it is deemed advisable 
to alert the reader that the sense in question applies in particular later passages. 

- Etymological Notes. Where the definition begins by repeating the headword in a different 
spelling, the latter is normally the headword in the Oxford Enghsh Dictionary and further 
information can be found there. Occasionally it has been thought advisable to cite the authority 
followed or succinctly indicate the glossarians' reasoning process. This information is given 
within square brackets at the end of the entry. For the authorities used, see 'Works Consulted' 

Italian and Spanish Texts 

There are no glossaries for the Italian and Spanish documents. Although sufficiently involved 
to qualify for translation by REED guidelines, they contain no vocabulary not found in standard 
reference dictionaries for those languages. 

Works Consulted 

Cheney, C.R. Handbook of Dates for Students of English History (London, 1978). 
Clark, Andrew (ed). Register of the University of Oxford. Vol 2, pt 1 (Oxford, 1887). 
Cunnington, C. Willett and Phillis Cunnington. Handbook of English Costume in the 
Sixteenth Century. Rev edn (London, 1970). 
- Handbook of English Costume in the Seventeenth Century. 3rd edn (London, 1972). 
Cunnington, Phillis and Catherine Lucas. Occupational Costume in England: From the 
Elez, enth Century to 1914. (London, 1967). 
Curtis, Mark H. Oxford and Cambridge in Transition 1558-1642 (Oxford, 1965). 
Dearmer, Percy. The Ornaments of the Ministers. 2nd edn (London, 1920). 
Glare, P.G.W. (ed). Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford, 1982). lorD] 
Hargreaves-Mawdsley, W.N. A History of Academical Dress in Europe (Oxford, 1963). 
Kurath, Hans and Sherman H. Kuhn, etal. Middle English Dictionary. Fascicules A. !-S.7 
(Ann Arbor, 1952--88).[MED] 
Latham, R.E. Revised Medieval Latin Word-List from British and Irish Sources (London, 
- and D.R. Howlett. Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources. Fascicules 1-3: A-E 
(London, 1975-86). 
Leathes, Stanley M. (ed). Grace Book A: Containing the Proctors'Accounts and Other Records 
of the Uniz,ersity of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1897). 
Liddell, Henry George, Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones, and Roderick McKenzie. A Greek- 
English Lexicon. 9th edn (Oxford, 1940; rpt with supplement, 1968). [LS] 
Matthison, W. and M.A.R. Tuker. Cambridge (London, 1907). 
Micklethwaite, J.T. The Ornaments of the Rubric. Alcuin Club Tract 1 (London, 1897). 
Munrow, David. [MusicalJ Instruments of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (London, 1976). 
The Oxford English Dictionary. Compact edition. 2 vols (New York, 1971). 
Robbins, Rossell Hope (ed). Early English Christmas Carols (New York and London, 1961). 


Rock, Daniel. The Church of our Fathers as seen in St. Osmund's Rite for the Cathedral of 
Salisbury. New edn, G.W. Hart and W.H. Frere (eds). 4 vols. (London, 1905). 
Wright, Joseph (ed). The English Dialect Dictmnary. 6 vols (Oxford, 1898-1905). [/oo] 


abl ablative ME Middle English 
acc accusative mf masculine/feminine 
adj adjective M_ Medieval Latin 
adv adverb Mt Matthew 
^_ Anglo-Latin n noun 
art article nt neuter 
attr attributive or Old French 
c_ Classical Latin p participle 
coil collective pa past tense 
comm common noun phr phrase 
comp compound pl plural 
compar comparative poss possessive 
conj conjunction pp past participle 
dat dative ppl participial 
EG English Glossary pr present tense 
f feminine prep preposition 
fig figuratively pron pronoun 
gen genitive prp present participle 
Gk Greek refl reflexive 
imper imperative sg singular 
in inches sbst substantive 
inf infinitive subj subjunctive 
interj interjection superl superlative 
intr intransitive tr transitive 
Lk Luke v verb 
m masculine vb verbal 

Latin Glossary 


absoluo, -uere, -ui, -utum v tr 1. to release 
from a sentence, especially of 
excommunication; to absolve 841/21, 
408/25; 2. to complete, finish, bring to 
perfection (eg, a work of art) 283/5 
academia, -e n f the university, whether 
considered as a physical site 229/17, etc; an 
institution 229/12, etc; or a community of 
persons 236/7, etc 
academicus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to 
the university 295/29, etc; m pl as sbst 
members of the university of whatever 
status 283/2, etc 
actio, -onis n f 1. activity, action; work (as 
opposed to leisure) 316/22; 2. performance 
(of a play or dialogue) 94/22, etc; hence 
scenica actio, stage production, theatrical 
performance 308/25, et al; see scenicus 
actor, -oris n m literally, one who performs 
or does (something), hence participant, 
here always used of a participant in a play; 
it is unclear whether its meaning is 
restricted to actor in the modern sense 
94/17, etc 
actus, -us n m action, activity; possibly here 
academic disputation publicly delivered; cf 
E6 acte 4/7 
adaugeo, -gere, xi, -ctum v tr to increase, 
here in idiom ad duplum adauctum having 
been doubled 563/20-1 
administrator, ooris n m administrator, one 
in charge of the estate of a deceased person 
or a minor 614/25 

admitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum v tr 1. to admit 
someone to an office or position 253/35; 2. 
with 'in' andacc, to admit someone before 
a court as a witness 388/33 
admoneo, -ere, -ui, -itum v tr to warn 
296/21, hence to issue a formal legal 
warning to offenders 296/7 
adtunc adv at that time, then 388/36 
aduersus prep with acc against, used of a law- 
suit or charge 332/21 
aedendo abl of gerundive over-corrected form 
of edo, -ere qv 
aedificium,-ii n nt literally, building, here a 
temporary structure erected within an 
existing building 236/21 
aedilis, -is n m literally, a Roman Republican 
officer in charge of various public works 
and services such as the games, here by 
extension, member of the university 
chosen to oversee plays 238/6 
aeditus, -a, -um pp over-corrected form of 
edo, -ere qv 
aerarium, -ii n nt literally, public treasury of 
Republican Rome, here the treasury 
containing a college's funds 147/28; 
erarium 205/33 
affirmatiue adv in an affirmative manner; yes 
(of replies) 316/14, etc 
agito, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to put on, 
perform, produce (in form acgitandis) 
alarius, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to 
gambling, especially with dice, in idiom 


taberna alaria public gambling house 
(form presumably results from confusion 
between CL ala and alea) 267/4, et al 
aleatorius, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to 
gambling, especially with dice; in idiom 
domus aleatoria public gambling house 
allegacio, -onis nfallegation, a plea or claim 
made by, or on behalf of, one party to a 
suit against the other 326/22, et al 
allego -are, -aui, -atum v tr to state as true, 
allege, especially used of statements made 
against accused persons 386/4, etc; used of 
statements made by a complainant 332/25, 
etc; made by an officer of the court 487/6, 
allocacio, -onis n f allowance of an 
expenditure as valid 67/36 
alloco, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to allow an 
expense or payment as valid (used of an 
auditor) 56/25, etc 
alumnus, -i n m 1. student 237/8, et al; 2. 
graduate 842/22 
Anglia, -e n f England 65/26, etc 
Anglicanus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to 
England 510/17 or the English language 
Anglice adv in the E nglish lan guage 578/19, 
et al 
annuatim adv annually 207/5, etc 
annuitas, -atis n f annual payment; it is 
unclear whether it is for services rendered 
or as an honorarium 227/15 
annuntiatio, -onis n f announcement, here 
always the announcement by an angel to 
the Virgin Mary (Lk 1.26-38); see dies, 
festum, terminum 
antedictus, -a, -urn adj said or stated before 
301/14, etc 
Antuerpia, -ae n f Antwerp 845/5 
apostolus, -i n m apostle, one of the first 
followers of Jesus 5/29, etc 
applausus, -us n m applause, expression of 
approval 283/2 
appreciator, -oris n m appraiser, here one 

who values the goods of a recently 
deceased person prior to the probate of his 
will 203/19, et al 
apprecio, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to appraise, 
here to value the goods of a recently 
deceased person prior to the probate of his 
will 203/19 
apudprepwith acc 1. at (locative) 69/25, etc; 
2. among (position) 93/33, etc; 3. on, 
upon, at (of work or other activity) 150/4; 
4. in the eyes of, for (someone's) part 
296/15, etc; 5. (of time) at, on 66/13, etc 
archidiaconus, -i n m archdeacon, cleric 
appointed by a bishop to assist him 
principally in administering justice and in 
supervising parochial clergy 363/20, et al 
archigrammataus, -i n m lord chancellor 
(from Gk ctf?)tyf?ctttctg, a chief 
secretary or scribe) 95/8 
arena, -e n f sand, gravel 156/23 
Aristophanes, -is n m Attic dramatist, a 
writer of Old (ie, politically satiric) 
Comedy (c 448-c 380 Bc) 111/21, etc 
aromaticus, -a, -urn adj spicy, pleasantly 
fragrant; as a sbst, it may refer to a sort of 
tree, hence possibly of or pertaining to such 
a tree or its wood? 43/31 
ars, -tis n f skill, craft 567/32; see 
bacchalaureus, magister 
articulariter adv made up of, or in the form 
of, articles 364/9 
articulatim adv article by article or in the 
form of articles 332/26 
articulus, -i n m 1. article, charge laid against 
a person in court 363/25, et al; 2. article, 
part of a series of charges or allegations 
upon which witnesses are interrogated 
326/21, etc 
ascensio, -onis nfa going up, here always the 
going up of the risen Christ to heaven (Acts 
1.6-12); see festum 
aspides see EG 
aspiro, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to reach for, 
attain to (used metaphorically) 282/35 
assensus, -us n m agreement, assent, here 


formal consent of a governing body, eg, a 
town council 253/35 
assideo, -idere, -edi, -essum v intr literally, 
to sit near, sit by, here to preside over a trial 
(used of fellow members of a judicial 
panel), to sit on a panel of judges at a trial 
assistentia, -e n f act of assisting in 
deliberation at a trial (used of one of a 
group of judges) 378/30 
assisto, -ere, astiti v intrliterally, to stand by 
or near, here to assist in deliberation at a 
trial (used of fellow members of a judicial 
panel) 359/31, etc 
Athenae, -arum n f literally, the city of 
Athens 846/12; by extension (with 
reference to Athens as the home of Plato's 
Academy and its successors), a college of 
Cambridge University 295/17 
athleta, -ae n m athlete; in CL, it could refer 
specifically to a wrestler or boxer and may 
do so here 399/14 
attornatus, -i n m legal representative, 
attorney, proxy 614/22; atturnatus 
aucupium, -ii n nt fowling or hawking; here 
context makes the latter most likely 132/37 
auditor, -otis n m 1. student 132/20; 
2. auditor of accounts 143/7, etc 
auentura, -e n f joust 399/8 
auferro, -rre, abstuli, ablatum v tr 1. take 
away (something from someone), deprive 
of the possession or use of 207/1 ; 2. receive 
(eg, as a response) 296/13 
augmentacio, -onis nfthe act of increasing, 
enlarging, here used of altering clothing, 
possibly letting out? 54/34, et al 
auguratio, -onis n f accession, formal 
beginning of a monarch's reign 627/20 
aula, -e nfl. hall, dining area and centre of 
corporate activity in a college 37/1, etc; 2. 
hall, a place of residence and instruction for 
students, originally distinct from a college 
in having no collegium or corporate body 
of fellows, but usually endowed; some 

halls were either incorporated into colleges 
or became colleges; aula Clarensis, Clare 
Hall 409/4; aula Katerine, Catharine Hall 
150/20; aula Pembrokia, Pembroke Hall 
308/24, et al; aula Sancte Trinitatis, 
Trinity Hall 326/28, etc (the proper name 
of a hall sometimes occurs alone with 
names to indicate affiliation with a 
particular hall, eg 308/23); 3. gilda aula 
guild-hall, centre of town government 68/2 
author, -oris n m for auctor qv 
authoritas, -atis n f for auctoritas qv 
autor, -oris n m for auctor qv 
autoritas, -atis n f for auctoritas qv 

bacchalaureus, -i n m bachelor, one holding 
the lowest academic degree in a given 
faculty; unmodified, it probably refers to 
a bachelor of arts (inform bacchulaureus) 
344/17; in various idioms: 1. bacchalaurei 
minores minor bachelors, probably all 
bachelors in faculties inferior to theology 
352/20; 2. in artibus or artium 
bacchalaureus bachelor of arts, BA, one 
holding the lowest degree obtainable and 
the formal prerequisite for all higher 
degrees 308/24, etc; 3. in legibus 
bacchalaureus bachelor of laws, LLB, one 
holding a bachelor's degree in civil and 
canon law 326/25, etc; 4. in sacra 
theologia or sacre theologie bacchalaureus, 
or bacchalaureus in theologia bachelor of 
theology (s'r) or divinity (D), one holding 
a bachelor's degree in theology, the highest 
of the faculties; probably, though not 
certainly, one in, or studying for, holy 
orders 147/25, etc 
baptists, -e n m one who baptizes; see festurn 
barba, -e nfbeard, here probably false beard 
as a stage property 151/25, et al 
barbitonsor, -oris n m barber, one who 
practises minor surgery and dentistry as 
well as hairdressing 7/14, etc 
basilica, -e n f literally, basilica, a church 
designed according to a late Roman 


comedia, -ae n f !. comedy, a play, usually 
in verse, of a humorous or satiric nature, 
especially an ancient comedy 84/28, etc; 2. 
performance of a comedy 95/13 (in form 
comoedia), etc 
comedialis, -e adj of or pertaining to a 
comedy or its performance, comic ! 51/22 
comes, -itis n m 1. earl, a peer ranking above 
a viscount but below a marquess 23/23, etc; 
2. companion, comrade 237/3; 
3. (continental) count; see palatinus 
comicus, -a , -urn adj 1. of or pertaining to 
a comedy or its performance, comic ! 30/18, 
hence fabula or res comica a comedy or its 
performance 95/1-2, etc; 2. witty, 
humorous (of writers) 586/40 
comisium, -ii n nt see comitium 
comitatus, -us n m county 327/25, etc 
comitiua, -e n f company, group 84 !/25 
comitium, -ii n nt here always in pl 
commencement 217/10, etc; comisium 
commeatus, -us n m regular or standard 
provisions of food, here in idiom preter 
commeatum a grant of extra or special 
provisions beyond what was usual 192/14, 
et al 
commemoratio, -onis n f commemoration, 
feast (of a saint): commemoratio sancti 
Palli commemoration of St Paul 75/3 
(probably an abbreviated reference to the 
commemoratio sanctorum Pauli et Petri 
30 June, which was also the observance of 
St Paul's alleged beheading) 
commissarius, -ii n m commissary, a iudge 
presiding over a university court as the 
deputy of the vice-chancellor; the 
commissary's court customarily exercised 
the university's jurisdiction over those not 
members of the university 326/27, etc 
communa, -e n f 1. commons, the standard 
daily provision of supplies, usually 
foodstuffs, made for each member of a 
college 133/21, or the monetary value 
thereof 841/22; 2. daily meals provided for 

a visitor, servant, or workman by a college 
63/37, et al 
communis, -e adj 1. common, communal, of 
or .pertaining to a community, whether the 
umversty 84 !/21,296/36, 333/9, a college 
37/1, etc, or the town 6/36; 2. common, 
general 253/34; see also dies, histrio, 
communitas, -atis n f community, 
commonalty, commons (of a town) 68/35, 
communiter adv in common parlance, in 
English 367/12 
compareo, -ere, -ui, v intr to appear before 
a judge either as a party to an action 249/16, 
etc, or to certify compliance with a court 
order 279/27, etc 
comparicio, -onis n f appearance before a 
judge 388/23, etc 
competens, -ntis adj suitable (for a task), 
capable of serving in some (specified) 
capacity, competent 332/20 
completus, -a, -urn pp finished, done 132/2 ! ; 
as adj full, entire 150/35 
compotus, -i n m see computus 
compurgator, -oris n m compurgator, one 
who supports the oath of an accused party 
by his own oath; in ecclesiastical courts, 
this process, called compurgation, was a 
means by which the accused could be 
cleared of a charge. Normally a man acted 
as compurgator to another man, and a 
woman acted as compurgatrix to another 
woman 364/23, et al 
computus, -i n m 1. the process of drawing 
up the formal annual account of a college 
214/15 (inform computus, -us), 357/28 ?, 
357/29?, 567/30; 2. accounting for specific 
costs 357/28?, 357/29?, 570/11 
conceptio, -onis n f conception (of a baby); 
see festum 
concernens, -ntis prp concerning 
concio, -onis n f 1. sermon 315/13, etc; 
2. assembly, gathering 267/26, et al 


36/20, etc; dies Martis Tuesday 48/17, etc; 
dies Mercurij Wednesday 64/4, etc; dies 
Sabbati Saturday 35/6, etc; dies Veneris 
Friday 61/19, etc; 3. day, day-time (as 
opposed to night) 236/8; 4. day as a 
measurement of time 12/27, etc; 5. day set 
aside for a special purpose 5/29, etc; in 
various idioms: dies cinerum 841/5, 
385/21-2, etc, or primus dies 
quadragesime 315/12, et al, Ash 
Wednesday; dies comitiorum 
commencement day 217/10, etc; dies Lune 
in quindena Pasce 95/35-6 or dies 
videlicet hockmunday i 0 i / i 5 Hock 
Monday, the Monday after the octave of 
Easter; dies viz hokkyng day Hock 
Monday or possibly Tuesday? 50/40-1; 
6. a saint's day: dies Annuntiationis the 
Annunciation, Lady Day, 25 March 
662/17; dies sancti Edmundi Regis St 
Edmund's Day 20 November 6/36, etc; 
dies Innocentium 29/5, etc, or sanctorum 
Innocentium 43/i 1, etc (Holy) Innocents' 
Day, 28 December; dies sancti Iohannis 
euangeliste St John's Day, 27 December 
55/12; dies sancte Margarete St 
Margaret's Day, 20 July 91/17-18; dies 
Michaelis Michaelmas, 29 September 
16/33; dies sancti Nicholai, St Nicholas' 
Day, 6 December 33/18, etc; dies omnium 
sanctorum All Saints' Day 1 November 
6/35; dies Purificationis 19/34, etc, or 
Purificationis beate Marie 20/38-21/1, 
etc, the Purification, Candlemas, 
1 February; dies sancti Stephani 16/17, 
etc, or Stephani 46/20, etc (St) Stephen's 
Day, 26 December; dies sancti Thome 
martiris St Thomas a Beckett's Day, 
29 December 68/14-15; 7. feast day, 
festival, celebration (religious or secular): 
dies profesti festive days 132/27; dies 
augurationis 627/20 or inaugurationis 
Regiae 662/17-18 or Regiae 
inaugurationis 676/14 or Regis 631/34-5 
anniversary of the king's accession; dies 

circumcisionis domini Circumcision Day, 
1 January 87/1; dies corporis Christi 
Corpus Christi Day, the Thursday after 
Trinity Sunday 57/27; dies dedicationis 
dedication day, annual celebration of the 
dedication of a church to its patron saint 
6/3, etc; dies epiphanie Epiphany, 
6 January 8/i 3 (inform ephiphanie), etc; 
dies natalis Domini Christmas, 
25 December 34/1; dies nuptiarum 
wedding day 493/35; 8. with iuridicus 
court-day, day upon which legal business 
could be conducted 385/21, et al 
dieta, oe n f a day's supply of provisions, 
usually foodstuffs 27/29, etc 
diffinitiuus, -a, -urn adjfull, complete, final 
digladatio, -onis n f literally, a gladiatorial 
contest, here in idiom scholastica 
digladiatio a formal school disputation, 
held as a degree excercise or as an 
exhibition for prominent visitors 243/28 
dij form of deus qv 
dimitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum v tr to dismiss (an 
accused person) from court without 
further charges, punishments, or summons 
pending, usually upon payment of court 
expenses and/or a fine 385/26, et al; 2. to 
dismiss, send away, expel 296/19, etc; 
dismitto 407/37 
diruo, -ere, oi, -turn v tr to dismantle a 
previously assembled structure 12 i/36 
diruptio,-onis n f literally, explosion, here 
possibly taking apart, breaking up 174/38 
discupulus, -i n m for discipulus qv 
disgisacio, -onis n f disguising, an 
entertainment held, often at Christmas 
time, in King's College 49/22 
dismitto, -ittere, -isi, -issum v tr see dimitto 
disputacio, -onis nfa formal disputation, an 
academic exercise in which the disputant 
resolves a difficult problem in fields such 
as theology or philosophy 102/15 
disputo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to hold a 
formal disputation, either as a degree 


gentiles (Mt 2.1-12) or the liturgical 
festival commemorating it 133/11, etc; see 
dies, festum, nox, uigilia 
episcopus, -i n m literally, bishop, member of 
the highest of the major orders of clergy, 
here St Nicholas' bishop, boy-bishop, a 
boy, usually a choirboy, chosen to act as 
a mock bishop in liturgical and other 
observances held at the feast of St Nicholas 
12/19, etc; episcopus puerorum 54/35, 
etc; episcopus Sancti Nicholai 50/25 
epitasis, -is nfmiddle section of play in which 
dramatic tension builds as a result of the 
development of the plot (from Gk 
gnoxcotg, a stretching, straining) 119/36 
erarium, -ii n nt see aerarium 
erectio, -onis nfraising (of a building or other 
structure), construction 156/28 
erga prep with acc 1. toward, with respect to 
(of reference, specifying persons affected 
by actions or behaviour) 385/23, etc; 2. for 
(of purpose, with reference to a future time 
or event) 49/22-3 
Essexia, -ae n f Essex 344/30 
euangelista, -e n m evangelist, one of the 
traditional authors of the four canonical 
gospels; see dies, festum 
eunuchus, -i n m a eunuch, here, title of a play 
by Terence or a reference to its chief 
character Dorus 151/13 
Euripides, -is n m Athenian tragic poet (480- 
406 Be), last of the three great tragedians 
of the fifth century 846/11 
examinacio, -onis nfl. judicial questioning 
of an accused party, a compurgator, or a 
witness 388/35; 2. examination of a 
student, exam 132/21 
examinator, -otis n m examiner, one who 
administers an exam 132/31, etc 
examino, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. to examine, 
scrutinize 120/36, et al; 2. to examine 
judicially (used of a judge) 327/32, etc 
exantlo, -are, -aui, -atum v trfor exanclo qv 
exceptio, -onis nfl. reception, receiving (of 
a visitor) 157/14, etc; 2. exception, a 

judicial objection made in response to the 
statement or submissions of the opposing 
party in a suit 335/4 
excessus, -us n m excessive behaviour, acts of 
misconduct, crime 841/22 
Excestria, -e n f Exeter 24/12, etc 
excommunicacio, -onis n f excommun- 
ication, ecclesiastical penalty under which 
the guilty party was punished by exclusion 
from the sacraments and especially the 
reception of communion; at various times, 
further disabilities were imposed as well, 
such as exclusion from all social 
intercourse with other church members 
841/7, et al 
excommunicatus, -i sbst m one who has been 
excommunicated 841 /19 
executio, -onis n f execution, carrying out 
(eg, of an order) 363/4 
executor, -otis n m executor, a man who 
oversees the due execution of the various 
clauses and bequests in a will and is 
accountable to the ecclesiastical authorities 
for so doing 283/6 
executrix, -icis nfexecutrix, a woman, often 
the widow of the testator, acting as an 
executor 694/11 
exigencia, oe n f requirement, exigency 
expenca, -e n f for expensa from expensus, 
-a, -urn qv 
expendo, -dere, -di, -ditum v trto use, make 
use of, consume 5/28, etc 
exposicio, -onis n f exposition, explanation, 
here used with particular reference to the 
Bible, hence, exegesis 102/16 
exspensa, -e n f for expensa from expensus, 
-a, -urn qv 

faber, -bri n m artisan, specifically a smith 
158/37; faber lignarius (also written as one 
word 193/27) woodwright, joiner 179/32, 
fabrilegus, -i n m wright-law, a punning 
nonce-word coined from the roots of 


or natalis Domini 32/24, etc, Christmas, 
25 December; festa natalicia the 
Christmas season, Christmas tide, 125/17; 
festum natiuitatis ducis Eboraci festival 
celebrating the birth of the duke of York 
653/24-5; festum natiuitatis 164/4, etc, 
or natiuitatis domini 132/42, Christmas, 
25 December; festum diui Nicholai 99/5, 
etc, or sancti Nicholai 12/19, etc, feast of 
St Nicholas, 6 December; festum omnium 
sanctorum feast of All Saints, 1 November 
6/11, etc; festum Pasche Easter 39/8-9, 
etc; festum sancti Petri either feast of St 
Peter ad Vincula, 1 August, or abbreviated 
form of feast of Sts Peter and Paul, 29July 
558/23; festum Penticoste Pentecost, 
Whitsunday, the Sunday fifty days after 
Easter 375/40; festum Purificacionis 
17/32-3, etc, or Purificacionis beate 
Marie 15/5, etc, the Purification, 
Candlemas, 2 February; festum Regine 
344/24, etc, or domine Regine 373/3, etc, 
festival celebrating the anniversary of the 
queen's accession; festum 5 i Novembris 
Guy Fawkes' Day, 5 November 422/28, 
etc; festum Reliquiarum Relic Sunday, 
first Sunday after 7July 37/10-11 ; festum 
Stephani 33/4, etc, or sancti Stephani 20/30, 
etc, feast of (St) Stephen, 26 December; 
festum sancti Thome martiris feast of St 
Thomas a Beckett, 29 December 47/7 
feuda, -e n f see feodum 
fideliter adv faithfully, in a trustworthy 
manner 133/22, etc 
tides, -ei n f 1. oath: especially in phrases 
fidem dare to give an oath or guarantee on 
someone's behalf 409/9, etc, or fidem 
facere 333/18, etc, to take an oath; 2. faith, 
trust: in idiom fide optima with or in good 
faith 316/37; 3. assurance 301/16; 4. 
(religious) faith 404/2 
fidicen, -inis n m literally, a lyre player, 
probably a generic term for anyone playing 
a stringed instrument, possibly in English 
usage a harper 671/25 

filius, -ii n m son: 1. in a literal sense 8/5, etc; 
2. filii Israel sons of Israel, the Hebrews of 
the Old Testament 5/28 
finis,-is  n fend 241/19, etc 
finis, -is 2 n f payment in settlement of an 
obligation 5/5 
firma, -e n f rental, leasing 207/13 
fistula,-e n f pipe, literally, reed-pipe, here 
translated by scribe as 'le wayte pypes' 
fistulator, -oris n m literally, one who plays 
upon a reed-pipe, probably a generic term 
for one who plays a wind instrument, in 
English usage possibly a piper 12/20, etc; 
fistilator 15/34 
flagellifer, -eri n m literally, lash-bearer, 
hence, madman, here probably part of the 
title of a Latin translation of Sophocles' 
Ajax, Ajax Flagellifer 238/15 
foedum, -i n nt see feodum 
forale, -is n nt (?from CL foris qv) front, 
beginning (of a book, etc) 38/37 
fraenum, -i n nt over correction offrenum qv 
Francia, -e n f France 404/2, et al 
frater, -tris n m brother 1. in a literal sense 
296/9; 2. by extension, of a fellow member 
of the same community 110/11 ?; 3. in pl 
the brethren, fellow-Christians 316/24; 4. 
member of an order of friars 110/11 ?; 
fratres predicatores friars preacher, the 
Dominicans 49/29 
fraternitas, -atis nfreligious confraternity or 
guild, here referring to a Corpus Christi 
guild 5/5 
froenum, -i n nt over-correction offrenum qv 
fumigium, -i n nt literally, fumigation, here 
probably burning of some substance to 
cleanse or sweeten the air 225/37 
funerale, -is n nt a kind of candle or torch 
93/31, probably an error for funale qv 
fustianum, -i n nt fustian, a type of cloth 
113/3, et al; see EG fustian 

galliprelium, -ii n nt cock-fight 259/24, et al 
gaudeo, -dere, -di, -isus v intrwith abl 1. to 


enioy, reioice in 510/11; 2. to enioy the 
possession of (a privilege) 363/19, et al 
gero, -rere, -ssi, -stum v tr 1. to bear 399/5, 
2. to hold: a. hence of parts of the body, to 
employ, to move or gesture with in some 
way 95/19; b. in idiom vicem gerens one 
holding the place of another, idiomatic 
phrase for a deputy 147/18-19; 3. with refl 
andadv to behave in a certain way 147/20; 
4. to perform, do (something), act (here in 
idiom in supine) 205/23; 5. in passive to 
happen, take place 267/34, hence in idiom 
res gesta deed, exploit, usually of the past 
gesto, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. bear, carry 
236/29; 2. to gesture, make expressive 
movements; possibly to mime or mimic? 
75/4 etc 
gestus, -us n m 1. movement of the limbs or 
body, expressive action 236/10, et al; 
2. behaviour, hence in idiom bonus gestus 
good behaviour (as condition of peace 
bond and similar bonds) 491/7, et al 
gilda, -e n f see aula 
gladiatorius, -a, -urn adj literally of or 
pertaining to a gladiator or gladiatorial 
shows, here of or pertaining to fighting, 
especially sword fighting 259/23, et al; see 
lusus, schola 
Gloucestria, -e n f Gloucester 23/5, etc 
Gonuillus, -i n m see collegium 
graduatus, -i sbst m graduate; in idiom 
residens graduatus a graduate still resident 
in Cambridge 364/15 
gradus, -us n m 1. step, stair 93/21, etc; 
2. academic rank, university degree 
841/25, 379/3, etc 
grammaticalis, -e adj of or pertaining to 
grammar in its ancient sense, ie, including 
what now is classified as literary criticism; 
here in title of play Bellum Grammaticale, 
'The War of Grammar' 847/37 
grandison ans, -tis adj sounding grand, lofty, 
or noble 239/10 
gratia, -e n fl. favour, graciousness 229/13, 

etc; 2. divine grace or favour, providential 
care 404/2; 3. in idiom gratias agere to 
thank (with dat of person) 510/12, et al 

hexemerus, -a, -um adjof or pertaining to a 
period of six days (from Gk Xfltog)235/ 
Hibernia, -e n f Ireland 404/2, et al 
Hierosolymitanus, -a, -um adj of or 
pertaining to Jerusalem 283/2 
historiographus, -i n m historian 132/30 
histrio, -onis n m entertainer; in CL actor of 
the better sort, in later, eg, patristic, Latin, 
performer in the often obscene farces or 
ritual drama of the later Empire; in ^L 
usage, usually a generic term, synonymous 
with ministrallus and mimus, which often 
refers to a musician. A histrio may often 
be in the employ of a patron or of a town; 
from the mid-fourteenth century, and 
frequently in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, it refers to a town wait; 1. actor 
241/26, 399/13, 543/38; 53/32?, 182/237, 
671/31 ?; 2. entertainers a. with 
specification: io town wait: histriones uiile 
13/15, etc, communis histrio 6/36-7;/i. 
with a named royal, noble, or other 
patron, entertainer, probably a musician, 
under his or her patronage 7/12, etc; 
b. without specification, possibly used 
generically, here the exact sense cannot be 
determined: 4/33, etc; by far the most 
common of the three synonyms, histrio, 
mimus, ministrallus, used in Cambridge; 
histrior 38/14, etc; bistro (declined as an 
i-stem) 70/41, etc; histronius 75/27, etc; 
hystrio 3/28, etc; istrio 6/12, etc; ystrio 
6/19, etc 
Hollandia, -ae n f Holland (name of an 
earldom) 662/12; Hollanda 676/3 
homo, -inis n m 1. literally, human being, 
person (irrespective of sex) 267/18,296/4, 
et al; however, often used indistinguishably 
from uir, qv, hence, man, male human 
being 267/14; it is not possible to say in 


iocus, -i n m jest, joke, in CL usually verbal; 
possibly an amusing entertainment 
istrio, -onis n m see histrio 
iunior, -ius adj the younger of two persons 
having the same name or surname 363/11, 
iuramentum, -i n nt oath 364/41, etc; 
prestacio iuramenti taking of an oath 301/ 
15; iuramentum corporale corporal oath, 
one involving physical contact with a 
gospel book or relic on the part of the oath- 
taker 365/32, 388/34; cf 364/40 
iuridicus, -a, -urn adj see dies 
iusta, -e n f joust 399/8 
iustitiarius, -ii n m judge, justice (eg, of peace 
or of assizes) 279/21; iustitiarius 
primarius possibly the chief justice? 

laicus, -i n m layman, one who is not in orders 
of any kind 14/2 
Lancastria, -e n f Lancaster 16/32, etc 
lanistarius, -a, -um adjofor pertaining to a 
lanista, qv, a trainer of gladiators, here in 
idiom schola lanistaria school for fighting 
or fencing? 259/22 
larua, -e n f a mask, here to be worn in 
unidentified entertainments or pastimes 
619/40, etc; lerua 158/17 
le, lee, les, lez forms of the Romance definite 
article used to signal the beginning of an 
English word or phrase in an otherwise 
Latin passage 5/4, etc; although le and lee 
are formally singular and les and lez 
formally plural, they are not always in 
agreement with the nouns they modify, eg, 
le disgysynges 47/29; les Trumpetor 
lectio, -onis n f 1. act of reading 132/29; 
2. academic lecture 102/15, etc 
lector, -oris n m reader, fellow of a college 
appointed to give lectures on certain topics 
133/12, etc; domesticus lector one 
appointed to give lectures within the 
college only 209/31 ; lector humanitatis or 

humaniorum literarum one appointed to 
lecture in humanities; see humanior, 
lectura, -e n f lecture 205/18 
legalis, -e adj lawful, here in idiom legalis 
monete Anglie, sometimes abbreviated to 
legalis etc, (a sum) of legal English 
currency 250/39, etc 
legatus, -i n m literally, legate, ambassador, 
here probably mock ambassador chosen as 
part of Christmas and Epiphany 
celebrations 157/11 
leno, -onis n m procurer, pimp, here used to 
refer to a stock character of Roman 
comedy 126/19 
Lennoxia, -e n f Lennox (name of a duchy) 
662/29; Lenoxium 558/19 
lerua, -e n f see larua 
lescrinium, leskeneum see E 
leuo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to levy a sum of 
money from someone's goods (used of 
fines or bonds) 133/7, etc 
liberatio, -onis nfdeliverance, here referring 
to the deliverance of the king from the 
Gunpowder Plot (1605) 401/22 
liberatura, -e n f livery, clothing of a set 
pattern provided by a city for some of its 
officers, including the waits 68/7, etc 
libero, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. free, rdease 
241/14; 2. deliver, hand over, give 3/14, etc 
libertas, -atis n f liberty, freedom, hence, 
used of the liberty or liberties of the 
university, ie, its privileged legal and 
administrative status, especially its right to 
stir-government and self-discipline by its 
own officers, courts, and procedures 
296/1, etc 
licentiatus, -a, -um adjliterally, licensed (eg, 
for publication); here also a pun on the 
English 'licentious' may be intended 
licentio, -are, -aui, -atum v tr allow, permit, 
license 399/31 
lignarius, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to 
wood; see faber; nt sg as sbst lumber yard, 
wood shed, or lumber room? 121/37 


maiestas, -atis n f (royal) majesty, a title or 
form of address for the reigning monarch 
236/23, etc 
maior, -oris n m mayor 24/28, etc 
maior, -ius compar adj greater (in size, 
dignity, or worth), elder 147/27, etc; 
maior excommunicacio greater 
excommunication, the most severe form of 
excommunication in which the penalty of 
exclusion from ordinary intercourse with 
other Christians was added to exclusion 
from the reception of the sacraments 
manceps, -cipis n m manciple, a college 
officer responsible for purchasing 
provisions 255/30 
manus,-us nfhand: 1. literally, 95/19, etc; 
2. by extension: in manibus in the care (of) 
308/33-4m; per manum 253/36 or marius 
43/5, etc, by the agency (of); in manus into 
the keeping (of) 566/32; 3. something 
written by hand, especially a signature 
578/25, etc; 4. by synedoche: a person, 
especially in idiom ad purgandum sexta 
manu to undergo compurgation by six 
witnesses (see Introduction p 780) 
363/30-1, et al 
mappale, -is n nt a linen cloth, often a table 
napkin 55/4 
marca, -e n f mark, currency denomination 
equal to 13s 4d 5/5, etc 
Marchia, -e nfMarch (name of an earldom) 
marchio, -onis n m marquess, a peer ranking 
next below a duke 578/12 
marescalcus, -i n m marshall, here comes 
marescalcus earl marshall 23/23-4 
martyr, -tiris n m martyr, one who dies out 
of adherence to religious principles; see 
crastinum, dies, festum 
materia, -e nf 1. material, cloth, stuff 113/3; 
2. subiect-matter 238/30; 3. legal term 
matter, that which is to be tried or proved, 
such as a statement or an allegation 326/22, 
et al 

matutinus, -a, -urn adj of or pertaining to 
morning; hence preces matutine 364/20 or 
fpl as sbst 29/14, etc, morning prayers, 
matins, one of the canonical hours making 
up the divine office of clerics, and one of 
the two such hours which survived the 
Reformation, the other being vespers 
menestrallus, menestrellus, menstrallus see 
Midlesexia, -ae n f Middlesex 403/32 
miles, -itis n m 1. soldier, warrior 240/16, et 
al; 2. miles gloriosus braggart soldier, a 
stock character in Roman comedy 129/4; 
see p 1205; 3. allusion to Plautus' Miles 
Gloriosus or its title character 94/20, 95/14, 
mimus, -i n m in CL, actor of the less savoury 
sort, and often in later Latin a synonym of 
'pantomimus' a performer in pantomime; 
in AL, usually a generic term for an 
entertainer, probably a musician of some 
kind: 1. with specification: a. town wait: 
mimi huius uille 35/12, mimi Cantebrigie 
34/1, etc, mimi Cantebrigienses 125/22, 
etc, mimi uille Cantebrigie 39/22, etc, 
mimi de Hull 112/7, mimi de Calida 
112/9 or Calisie 117/36, mimi 
Norwicensis 217/10; b. with a named 
royal, noble, or other patron, a performer, 
probably a musician, under his or her 
patronage 31 / 18-19, etc; c. in conjunction 
with a specific appositive, a particular kind 
of musician: mimi siue fistulatores, mimi 
seu taboratores, mimi uel tubicine, mimi 
tibicines (see under the appostive); 
2. without specification, possibly used 
generically; here the exact sense cannot be 
determined 10/14, etc; mymus (found in 
abl pl forms mymis and mymys) 41/15, 
minister, -tri n m 1. servant 333/9; 
2. apparently used for its diminutive 
ministrallus minstrel 63/11, et al, 65/9, et 
ministrallus, -i n m minstrel, entertainer, 


musician: 1. with specification: a. 
ministralli uille town waits ! 5/23, etc; b. 
with a named royal, noble, or other 
patron, a performer, probably a musician, 
under his or her patronage 24/21, etc; 2. 
without specification, possibly used 
generically, here the exact sense cannot be 
determined 4/16, etc; minestrailus 4/21, 
etc; menestrallus 3/14, etc; menstrallus 
10/39, etc; minstrailus 10/29, etc; 
minstrellus 328/35 mynstyrellus 31/37; 
mynystrallus 6/12; 
minor, minus compar adj !. lesser (in size, 
dignity, or worth) 241/36; ad minus at 
least 133/9; see also bacchalaureus; 2. 
younger (of two or more persons of the 
same name), Jr (with name) 361/! 5; 3. quo 
minus 399/13, see oL quominus 
missa, -e n f the mass, liturgical celebration 
of the eucharist 29/14, etc 
modius, -i n m bushel (dry measure) 151/9 
molendarius, -i n m miller 41/23 
moneta,-enfmoney, currency 333/4, et al; 
see legalis 
mora, -e n relapse of time, usually with 
negative connotation, delay but here in 
idiom moram facere used of a place of 
residence, to stay, remain, live 327/27 
Mosaicus, -a, -urn adj of or pertaining to 
Moses, the Jewish Law, or Jewish religious 
or cultic practices 239/38 
motus, -us n m !. (bodily) movement 846/8; 
2. instigation, prompting 239/36, etc 
multociens adv for multo totiens qv 
musica,-e nfmusic, primarily instrumental 
368/28, etc 
musicus, -a, -urn adj musical 249/18; m as 
sbst musician, used frequently to refer to 
university waits 201/28, etc; musitus (sbst) 
mynstyrellus, mynystrallus see ministrallus 

natalis, -e adj of or pertaining to birth; by 
extension, of or pertaining to Christmas: 
conuiuium natale banquet held at the 

Christmas season 38/29, etc; iudus natalis 
pastime or entertainment held at Christmas 
time ! 31/19; see dies, festum; nt sg as sbst 
(often with domini) Christmas, the 
Christmas season 36/27-8, etc; see festum 
natalitius, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to 
Christmas 142/! 2; see feria, festum; nt pl 
used as sbst the Christmas season, 
Christmas time 391/12 
natiuitas, -atis n f birth, hence natiuitas 
Christi Christmas 330/12; see dies, festum 
neapolitanus, -a, -urn adj of or pertaining to 
Naples 113/4; see EG fustian 
nobilis, -e adj noble 579/26; m pl as sbst 
noblemen, peers 352/16, etc 
Nordouolgius, -a, -um ad I of or from 
Norfolk 842/21 
Norffolkia, -e n f Norfolk 327/31 ; 
Norfolchia 31/19 
Northumbria, -e nfNorthumberland 75/26, 
Norwicensis, -is n f Norwich 2 ! 7/10 
horatius, -ii n m notary, person authorized 
to draw up and attest to various public and 
legal documents, thereby giving such 
documents an authoritative status at law 
301/11, etc 
notorius, -a, -um adj well-known 333/14 
nox, -ctis nfl. night, night-time 25/14, etc; 
2. (with the name of feast days) the eve of 
a feast day, so called from the liturgical 
convention of beginning the observance of 
a holy day at sunset on the previous day 
37/26, etc, but an expression such as in die 
epiphanie in nocte 59/9 does indicate the 
evening of the day itself rather than its eve 
nuncius, -i n m messenger, servant 296/30 
nundina, -e nffair 267/27, possibly also used, 
as in CL, in pl with sg sense 547/22 

obiector, -oris n m objector, a man who 
comes forward to lay formal objections 
against a witness or compurgator in an 
ecclesiastical court 363/35, et al 
obiectrix, -ricis n f a female objector 365/1 


parochia,-e nfparish, smallest distinct unit 
of ecclesiastical jurisdiction and Christian 
ministry, each parish having its own 
church, priest, wardens, and tithes 7/22, etc 
parochianus, -a, -urn adj of or pertaining to 
a parish, hence m or f used as sbst 
parishioner, resident of a parish 3/6, etc 
particula, -e n f a small piece or section, 
hence, particula uitri, a pane of glass 
Pascha, -e n fEaster, the Easter season 67/13, 
etc; see festum, quindena, terminum 
patens, -ntis adj open; see littera 
patria, -e n f 1. homeland, native country 
842/21; 2. countryside, the rural district 
round about a city, town, or village and 
associated with it 47/12 
paupertas, -atis nfpoverty, here personified 
as the name of a character in Aristophanes' 
Plutus 127/26 
pax, -cis nfpeace; in idioms pacem custodire 
to keep the peace (used with 'erga' and acc) 
385/22-4; securitas pacis peace bond 
385/25; turbacio pacis act of disturbing the 
peace 4/4 
pelliparius, -i n m skinner, member of the 
skinner's guild 5/26 
Pembrokia, -e n f see aula 
peno, -are, -aui, -atum v intr to suffer 
punishment 259/31 
pensio, -onis nfpension, regular payment for 
services 567/31 m 
pensionarius, -i n m pensioner, a fees-paying 
undergraduate living in, but not 
technically a member of the corporation 
of, a college 567/29 
Pentecoste, -es n f Pentecost, Whitsunday, 
the Sunday falling fifty days after Easter 
7/15, etc; see festum, vigilia; Penticoste 
penulus, -i n m (for c/_ poenulus) a little 
Carthaginian, here, title of a play by 
Plautus 157/38, et al 
penus, -a, -urn adj Phoenician, Carthaginian 
127/18, etc 

peractio, -onis n f performance (of a play) 
perendino, -are, -aui, -atum v intr 1. to 
remain (in a place) for a time, visit (cf CL 
'perennare') 25/13; 2. socii perindinantes, 
literally visiting fellows, apparently the 
Queens' College idiom for fellow 
commoners 147/24; see EG fellow 
perquiro, -fete, -siui, -situm v tr to issue a 
summons to appear (used of a judge) 
458/39, et al 
persa, -e n m a Persian, here the title of a 
comedy by Plautus 150/39 
persecutio, -onis n f (religious) persecution 
persona, -e n f 1. literally, dramatic mask, 
hence a role 94/26; 2. person, individual 
238/10, etc, hence in (propria) persona 
sua in his/her (proper) person 385/21, et al 
personalis, -e adjpersonal, in person 388/23, 
etc; in idiom responsio personalis reply 
made in person to charges in an 
ecclesiastical court 326/21, etc 
personaliter adv in person, personally 4/3, 
personatus, -a, -um I adj wearing a mask, 
hence of a play performed by masked 
actors 295/29 
personatus, -a, -um 2 pp filled with noise, 
spoken loudly 241/29 
petaurista, -e n m tumbler, acrobat 399/14 
Petrus, -i n m literally, the name Peter: used 
in gen with personal names to indicate 
affiliation with Peterhouse College (cf 
collegium) 360/1,443/5 
phanum, -i n nt for fanum qv, see also Venus 
piceatus, -a, -um adjofor pertaining to pitch, 
pitchy hence leaving dirty marks (used 
metaphorically) 283/5 
pietancia, -e n f pittance, alms, an offering 
84/38, etc 
pilius, -ii n m literally, a cap, here probably 
a Canterbury cap, a soft-cornered form of 
the mortarboard, the ordinary head gear of 


a bishop, here worn by a boy-bishop or a 
crucifer 44/16, etc; pileus 81/15 
plagiarius, -ii n m plagiarist 283/5 
plaudite n indeclinable the formal ending of 
a Roman comedy, in which the actors 
requested the applause of the audience for 
their efforts, hence the end of any play 
(from the imp pl of plaudo qv) 236/34, etc 
Plautus, -i n m Titus Maccius Plautus, elder 
of the two Roman comic writers whose 
works survive (c 254-184 Bc); many of his 
works were popular in the 16th century 
93/21, etc 
plegius, -ii n m guarantor, one who acts as a 
pledge for another's performance of some 
task or office, guarantor 210/7, etc 
plutus, -i n m wealth, here personified; Latin 
title of Aristophanes' H.o,og 111/21 
poeticus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to 
poetry; de Arre poetica a treatise in verse 
by Horace on poetics, also known as 
Epistola ad Pisones 119/24 
pontifex, -icis n m literally, members of a 
college of priests in Rome which oversaw 
public worship and cultus, here applied to 
priests of the Old Testament 240/5 and in 
phr Romanus pontifex 141/75 to the 
bishop of Rome, the pope 
posicio, -onis nfstatement or claim made as 
part of a suit at law 326/21, etc 
posterior, -ius compar adj 1. later (in time), 
next (in series): conuiuium posteriorum 
banquet held in honour of graduands of the 
later of the two spring commencements, 
held about four weeks after the Ash 
Wednesday convocation 372/40 (see also 
cinis); 2. buttocks (here sgfor more usual 
pl ): use here involves a pun on the 
philosophical term 'a posteriori' (see OED 
a posteriori) 881/38 
potacio, -onis nfdrink, act of drinking 102/8, 
et al 
potus, -us n m drink 61/5, etc; also in idiom 
potus caritatis loving cup, apparently the 
custom of drinking from a common cup 

which circulated among the members of a 
community after a community meal 102/7 
praelector, -oris n m reader 578/24; cf lector 
praesaga, -ae n m prophet 240/15 
praetura, -ae n f extra or special provisions 
allotted beyond what was customary 
698/14; see EG praetor 
prandium, -ii n nt dinner, the second and 
most elaborate of the three main meals of 
the day 8/27, etc 
precinctum, -i n nt precinct, here the area 
lying within a five-mile radius of 
Cambridge under the authority of the 
university and its courts 399/25 
preconfessatus, -a, -um pp having been stated 
or claimed earlier 327/4, etc 
preconizacio, -onis n f formal judicial 
summons to appear in court or before a 
judge 386/1, etc 
preconizo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to summon 
(to court), to require (someone) to appear 
by summons 385/40, etc 
predepositus, -a, -um pp having been 
formally stated or deposed before 328/28, 
prefectus, -i n m prefect: 1. title of various 
senior government officials and military 
commanders in the Roman Republic and 
Empire, here used by extension in idiom 
collegiorum prefecti heads of colleges 
203/5, etc; 2. steward, a person, either a 
member of college or a college servant, 
responsible for overseeing and organizing 
its catering 263/12 
prepositus, -i n m provost, chief 
administrative officer of King's College 
32/25, etc 
presentatio, -onis nfpresentment, the formal 
presentation to an ecclesiastical court of the 
name of an accused person, originally 
made only by parish churchwardens but 
later by others such as vicars and other 
ministers as well 363/26, et al 
presento, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to present, 
used of putting on an entertainment 399/17 


of a single quire used for financial records, 
either the annual record for an entire 
college 38/37, et al, or the more detailed 
accounting kept by individual fellows 
39/16, etc 
queis archaic dat/abl form ofqui qv 
questionista, -e n m questionist, a candidate 
for the nA degree in his final term, so 
called from the degree requirement of 
participating in disputed questions 
quindena, -e nfliterally, fifteen-day period, 
but probably two-week period, a fortnight 
95/36; in idm isto die ad xv " two weeks 
from today 386/14, et al; see dies 

recens, -ntis sbst m freshman, a student in his 
first year of study for the BA 943, etc 
recitacio, -onis n f recitation, act of reading 
aloud in public, hence, by extension, 
performance of a play 158/15, etc 
recito, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to read out, 
repeat aloud, recite before an audience, 
hence, of a play, to perform 151/10, etc 
recognicio, -onis n f recognizance, a pledge 
or bond, usually made by the principal 
party and two guarantors, for the 
performance of a task or condition 
recreatio, -onis n fl. refreshment, relaxation 
4/2; 2. activity tending to provide 
refreshment; by extension, entertainment 
refeccio, -onis n f a meal 90/26, etc 
reformatio, -onis nfreformation, correction 
(of an abuse) 321/14m 
refractarius, -a, -urn adj unruly, 
unrestrained 399/26 
regalis, -e adj royal 229/30; of or pertaining 
to King's College 236/30, et al: see 
collegium, papirus 
regardum, -i n nt reward, gratuity, 
customary payment 29/32, etc; regarda 
69/30m, etc; rewardum 23/4, etc 
regina, -e nfqueen, either a reigning monarch 

229/16, etc, or the wife of the king 30/14, 
reginalis, -e n f of or pertaining to a queen; 
see collegium 
registrarius, -ii n m registrary, university 
official responsible for copying and 
registering official records, correspon- 
dence, and other documents 572/10 
registratus, -a, -urn pp having been 
registered, ie, copied into an official 
register 3/20 
regius, -a, -urn adj of or pertaining to a 
monarch, royal 101/11, etc; of or 
pertaining to King's College 236/16 
regnum, -i n nt 1. kingdom 239/15, etc; in 
idiom ius regni law of the realm, hence, 
common, as opposed to civil or canon, law 
101/35-6; 2. reign 279/18, etc 
relicta, -e n f widow 610/40, etc 
religio, -onis nfreligion: 1. religious practice, 
devotion, Christian worship 296/5, etc; 
2. Jewish worship 239/38,240/2; 3. pagan 
worship 240/26 
religiosus, -a, -urn adj pious, devout 
reliquia, -e n f relic; see festum 
remuneracio, -onis n f reward, customaty 
payment 14/1, etc 
reparacio, -onis nfrepair, mending 74/11, etc 
reparo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to mend, repair, 
fix 174/38, etc; reparere 64/12 
repastum, -i n nt meal 6/19, etc 
reportatio, -orris nfa carrying back, removal 
resartio, -onis n f repair, mending 156/36; 
resercio 93/21 
residens, -ntis pp living, residing 364/14; see 
respectiue adv respectively 385/14, et al 
respectuo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to bind over 
(someone) until another court session used 
with 'in' and acc of time 409/9 
responsio, -orris n f see personalis 
rewardum, -i n nt see regardum 
rex, -gis n m 1. king, current or former 


allocation as well as a form of divination 
321/14: it is unclear what practice is 
referred to here; see Introduction, 
pp 731-2 
sotulare, -is n nt shoe 44/16, etc 
spectaculum, -i n nt spectacle, show, usually 
unspecified but probably dramatic 4/1, etc 
splintra, -e n f lath 158/19 
statutum, -i n nt statute, regulation, law 
259/26, etc 
staurum,-i n nt stock, store, what is on hand 
at a given time 352/17 
stercutius, -a, -urn adj of or pertaining to 
Stercutus, the deity supposed to have 
invented manuring of crops; ultimately 
derived from 'stercus' dung 850/21 
stipendium, -ii n nt wages 214/26, etc 
stipulacio, -onis n f bond, legal obligation 
249/26, etc 
subditus, oi n m subject (of some person or 
authority) 333/11 
subiectus, -a, -urn adj subject to 333/11 
subscripsio, -onis n f act of writing one's 
name below a statement or other document 
to indicate agreement, approval, or 
affirmation 315/17, etc 
Suffolcia, -e n f Suffolk 43/37, etc 
summarius, -a, -urn adj summary, in idiom 
via summaria summary means 332/24 
superuenio, -enire, -eni, -entum v intr to 
enter into, come in from outside, visit 
7/29, etc 
superuisio, -onis n f oversight, supervision 
96/28, etc 
supradictus, -a, -urn pp said earlier, stated 
above 29/22 
supranominatus, -a, -urn lop named above 
suprascriptus, -a, -urn pp written earlier or 
above 363/41 
suprauenio, -enire, -eni, -entum v tr to enter 
into, come into from outside, visit 7/15 
surrogatus, -i n m surrogate, a judge acting 
as a deputy for the vice-chancellor or his 
commissary 326/25, etc 

sutor, -oris n m literally, one who stitches 
something together; unmodified shoe- 
maker, cobbler 81/17; sutor uestiarius 
tailor 408/27 

taberna, -e n f literally, a shop, but usually 
in AL tavern, alehouse, inn 3/24, etc; see 
also alarius 
taborator, ooris n m taboret, one who plays 
upon a small drum called a tabor 44/39 
tactus, -a, -urn pp here in idiom tactis sanctis 
euangeliis (in abbreviated form tactis &c) 
when the holy gospels had been touched, 
referring to the form of a corporal oath 
364/40, etc; see iuramentum 
tapete, -is n m woven hanging, tapestry 
taxator, -oris n m taxer, an officer of the 
university authorized to fix rents for 
student lodging, and regulate the prices of 
goods for sale and weights and measures 
used in the town of Cambridge 516/8, et al 
Technogamia, -e n f Latinized form of 
compound from Gk roots, a marriage of the 
crafts or arts, here the title of a play 882/7 
tenternayles see EG tainterhookes 
templum, -i n nt 1. temple, shrine; it is 
unclear whether these passages refer solely 
to Hezechiah's purifying of the Temple at 
Jerusalem, or also to his destruction of 
pagan hill-shrines in the countryside 
239/37, 240/9; 2. Christian church or 
chapel 236/20, etc 
tempus, -oris n nt 1. time, occasion 5/30, etc; 
2. period of time 4/3 etc, hence, the octave 
or liturgical season associated with a major 
festival 13/15, etc; 3. season of the year; 
tempus autumnale autumn 7/14; 4. in 
idiom pro tempore existenti for the time 
being 279/28, etc 
tenor, -oris n m tenor, tone, slant (of 
meaning, ie, in a document) 363/3 
tentorium, -ii n nt frame for a tent or similar 
structure; scaffold 180/3 
Terentius, -ii n m Publius Terentius Afer, 


Terence, second of the two great extant 
Roman comedy writers (195 or 185-159 
Bc); he was born in Carthage, probably of 
North African descent 84/29, etc; 
Therencius 88/10 
terminum, -i n nt academic term 316/36, etc 
terricidia, -e n m turf-cutter 7/15 
theatralis, -e adj of or pertaining to a 
theatrum, dramatic, theatrical 845/8; 
theatrales ludi stage plays 3/28, etc 
theatrius, -ii n m one connected with the 
theatre, hence, an actor? 158/25 
theatrum, -i n nt 1. theatre, place or structure 
specifically intended for dramatic 
performance 4/1,94/18; 2. stage, platform 
upon which drama is performed 149/34, 
etc; 3. used with a general application to all 
aspects of drama, the theatre, the stage 
95/21,238/25m, 295/30 
thesaurarius, -ii n m treasurer, one of two 
chief financial officers of a town 253/36 
theologia, -e nftheology, theological study, 
divinity 147/25, etc; see bacchalaureus, 
Therencius, -ii see Terentius 
thuricremus, -a, -urn adjfor turicremus qv 
tibia, -e nfpipe, in CL a pipe having holes for 
stops and a reed mouthpiece, a reed-pipe, 
here rendered by English "wayte pypes'; 
see EG wayte n I 180/25, 207/3, et al 
tibicen, -inis n m one who plays a reed-pipe, 
piper; possibly in AL a generic term for one 
playing a wind instrument rather than one 
playing an instrument with a reed 
mouthpiece 38/5, etc; also inform tibicina, 
-e n m 75/6, etc: tybicen 165/2 
Tichofeldensis, -e adj of or from Tichfield, 
Hants, seat of Thomas Wriothesley 95/7 
toga, -e n f 1. robe, here apparently as 
costuming 64/29, etc; 2. the toga 848/10; 
see o.D toga 
tollero, -are, -aui, -atum v tr allow to occur, 
tolerate, permit 399/32 
torneamentum, -i n nt tourney, tournament 

torta, -e n f torch, large candle 43/31 
tragice adv in the manner of a tragedy 238/7 
tragicus, -a, -urn adj of or pertaining to a 
tragedy 237/14, etc 
tragoedia, -ae n f tragedy, a serious drama 
having an unhappy outcome, here 
probably more specifically either an 
ancient tragedy or a modern work 
imitating ancient tragedy at least in form 
842/25, 132/30 etc 
trepidans, -ntis prpfor tripudians; see 
trepidians, -ntis prp for tripudians; see 
tri-harmonia, -e n f a nonce-word made up 
of Greek and Latin elements, apparently 
three-part harmony 849/38 
tri-Harueyus, -i n m a nonce-word coined 
from English and Latin elements three 
Harveys, triple Harvey 849/38 
Trinitarius, -ii n m student of Trinity College 
tripudiator, -oris n m dancer, one who 
dances the tripudium 18/21 
tripudio, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to dance, to 
dance a tripudium 7/21, etc; trepido 
44/29, etc; trepudio 18/12, etc; tripideo 
25/3; tripidio 8/9, etc; tripido 19/25, etc; 
tripudo 25/34 
tripudium, -ii n nt originally ancient Roman 
ritual dance, here probably used more 
generally, formal dance 16/12, etc; 
tripidium 17/10 
Trynitas, -atis n f for Trinitas; see collegium 
tuba, -e n f literally in CL, a trumpet with a 
straight tube (cf cornu in oLo), used for 
military signals, as well as in various 
civilian processions; here probably any 
straight wind instrument not having a reed 
mouthpiece 841/16, 619/40 
tubicen, -inis n m trumpeter, one who plays 
the tuba 330/27, etc; also inform tubicina, 
-e n m 30/28, etc 
tubisonus, -i n m trumpeter, one who plays 
the tuba 78/13, etc 


232/12; 291/20; thaduertisinge art and 
vb n 346/6 
afeard pp afraid 643/23 
affect v 1. be disposed to, be inclined to 
pr3 pl 856/18; affectes pr 3 sg 643/28; 
2. cherish 625/32 
afore tyme adv phr previously, at some 
earlier time 292/18 
after prep 1. according to 140/1 ; 2. at the rate 
of 211/1, etc 
afterclappes n pl unexpected blows or shocks, 
coming after the victim has stopped 
looking out for them 876/37 
against prep 1. in preparation for 464/27, etc; 
agaynst 129/39, etc; ayenst 227/3; 2. (of 
a specific hour) drawing near, close to: 
against 509/33; 3. in preparation for (the 
time that); against 854/3; 4. with respect 
to, in regard to, agaynst 534/33; 5. (of 
location) near to; against 485/18 
agewes n pl agues: acute or malarial fevers 
aile n ale 166/10 
albe n a white sleeved ankle length vestment, 
usually of linen, worn by the clergy and 
their assistants at the mass until 1552 181/3; 
albes p1144/13, 153/18; albis 153/26, 154/4 
alderman n in most English cities and 
boroughs, a member of the governing 
corporation; aldermen pl 163/34, etc; 
aldermens poss pl 166/34 
alehouse n house where ale is retailed 586/11 ; 
alehowse 538/19, 597/26; alehouses pl 
599/6; alehowses 382/11 
alhallos n compposs All Hallows', All Saints' 
(name of a church) 438/9 
a life adv dearly 873/23 [O/D Alife] 
allegacions n iv/charges made before a legal 
tribunal 476/23, 481/3 
allhallowday n comp All Hallows' Day, All 
Saints' Day (1 November) 107/34 
alligted v pa 3 pl alighted from 541/40 
allocated pp (of money) set aside, 
apportioned 183/15, etc; allocate 211/11, 

allowance n acceptance (by auditors) as a 
legitimate expense 282/22 
allowed pp 1. allotted, granted 167/15, etc; 
alowed 345/33; alowede 202/12; alowyd 
108/12; this meaning is sometimes difficult 
to distinguish from 2. accepted (by audi- 
tors) as a legitimate expense 278/37, etc; 
aliowid 272/19; alowed 134/13, 198/10 
All-trades see lohn of All-trades 
allure v tempt, entice 342/1,348/30 
allye n alley: a bordered walk or passage 542/7 
altar clothe n comp frontal, altar cover 
153/32, 153/33; altar clothis pl altar 
hangings 153/36, etc; aulter clothes 
123/27; auter clothes 181/23 
amend v repair; amended pp 390/16; 
amendinge vb n 173/8, etc 
a menns n pl amends, reparation 442/9 
amptman German n Amtmann: in Germany, 
the Netherlands, and Scandinavia, a bailiff, 
steward, magistrate, or other officer in 
charge of a town, district, or post 512/32 
[OED Amtman] 
angel(l) see aungell 
annuary adj annual 561/18 
anoyer pron another 128/19; a noyer 199/35 
answerable adj 1. suitable, fitting 544/25; 
2. corresponding (to), according (with) 
534/39, etc; 3. responsible, liable to be 
called to account; ansurable (asurable 
erroneously in text) 480/29 
answerer n one (usually a degree candidate) 
who defended a thesis in a formal academic 
disputation 508/24, etc; answerers poss 
508/26, etc 
answering prp corresponding to, matching 
692/5, 692/9 
antick adj 1. grotesque, ludicrous 859/23; 
anticke 853/13; antique worke n phr 'antic 
work,' grotesque decoration, here perhaps 
embroidery 123/33 [orb Antic, a and sb] 
antient see auncient 
apertaynynge prp belonging (to something), 
in keeping with 233/18; apperteyninge to 


attendance n 1. being present, especially, in 
certain places at certain times to perform 
prescribed duties 593/27, etc; attendaunce 
272/3; 2. attendance one n and Frep 
service to 532/33 
attiringe vb n used as adj in phr attiringe 
howse tiring house, place or room where 
players dress themselves for the stage 
666/34; attyring chamber 527/32; see also 
acting chamber, tyring chamber 
aucthoritie n authority 270/6, 270/20; 
auctoritie 342/24; thauctorite art and n 
auctorisinge Frp authorizing 342/6 
auctors n poss sg authors 139/2 
auditors n pl hearers, audience 486/33,668/6 
aulter clothes, auter clothes see altar clothe 
auncient adj 1. ancient: former; antient 
536/25; 2. old; auncientest superl 587/32 
aungell n 1. angel: an English gold coin, 
valued by 1611 at 11s 431/21, etc; m p/0r 
an angell in silver or gould the value of an 
angel in silver or gold coin 451 / 13; 2. the 
angel coin used as a mock-heraldic device; 
angels pl 1243/7 
avouch v allege 430/34 
axioma n axiom:logical proposition (whether 
true or false) 854/11 
ayenst see against 

babiste n in phr lohn babtiste St John the 
Baptist: here, a play of that name 221/28 
bachelor n a university graduate holding the 
first or junior degree in a particular faculty, 
whether in the 'inferior' faculty of arts or 
in the 'higher' faculties of divinity, law, 
and medicine 450/25, etc; bacheller 470/1, 
470/2; bachiler 297/40; batchelor 586/23, 
etc; batchelour 502/19; baccalaurs pl 
503/17, 636/29; bacchelors 212/18, etc; 
bachelars 287/36; bachellers 434/34; 
bachellors 455/21,456/39; bachelors 
455/3, etc; bachelours 283/26; bachilers 
183/26, etc; batchelors 519/28, 538/14; 
bachelars pl poss 209/13; bachelor's 

572/16, 572/16m; batchelors 354/29; 
batchilers 269/4 
backehows n bakehouse, building in which 
bread is made 465/28 
backer n baker 485/16 
backside n at Cambridge, the west bank of the 
river 676/39; backe syde n phr 445/17, 
badken see bawdkin 
baggage n trifles; here perhaps small items of 
stage property (?) 161/36 
baite, baited see bayte 
bald adj unadorned, destitute of ornament 
and grace 541/18 
balet n ballad 1. some kind of secular song, 
here distinguished from a carol (see carol) 
76/7, 76/8; balettes p176/7(2); 2. a popular 
song, especially one celebrating or ' 
scurrilously attacking persons or 
institutions; ballad 867/31; ballades pl 
542/30; ballets 541/18; ballade po& n 
comp writer of ballads 857/24; ballet- 
makers n comp pl makers or writers of 
ballads 851/16 
bande n 1. neck-band, collar 366/28, etc; 
band 536/6; 2. in phr fallinge band a 
broad, soft white linen collar, character- 
istically worn by professional men, 
surviving in an attenuated form as the 
'bands' worn by clergy and the 'tabs' worn 
by barristers 1243/8-9 
banding vb n binding or fastening with bands 
of lead 353/35 
banket n banquet 106/15 
barber n barber surgeon, one who does hair- 
dressing, blood letting, and minor surgery 
513/38; barbar 430/34; barbars poss 
430/28; barbers 436/29, etc; barbors 
bare adj bare-headed 505/15 
bare v bear 625/31 
barell see thunder barell 
bargraue n burgrave (from German 
'Burggraf'): the governor of a town or 
castle 512/9 


barr n 1. railing 477/6; barre 666/19, 666/20; 
barrs pl 388/41 ; 2. ornamental strip of 
cloth, usually of contrasting colour, sewn 
on to a garment; barres p/169/24, 169/25; 
3. a wide horizontal band across a shield 
(heraldic term; with pun on the sense 'the 
legal profession') 1243/7 
barrier hose n comp hose worn for the martial 
exercise called fighting at the barriers (?) 
barryd pp ornamented with bars (see barr); 
striped, streaked 170/3 
bases n plin phr a payre of bases a man's skirt, 
worn when riding, with or without armour 
bason n basin, here probably an alms basin 
batchelor(s), batchelour, batchilers see 
batt see bricke batt 
battlement n an indented parapet at the top 
of a wall 437/40, 462/31; batlementes 
477/27; battellmentes 444/23, 446/6; 
battelmentes 468/26; battlementes 446/8, 
etc; battlements 463/22 
baude n procuress, go-between 571/1 ; bawds 
pl 859/24 
bawdkin n baudekin, baldachin: Oriental 
cloth woven of silk, shot through with gold 
(or silver) thread, or brocaded; brocade 
153/3, etc; badken 190/20; baudkyn 
169/34, etc; bauydkin 154/3; bawdkyn 
182/32, etc; bawdkyne 182/27 
bayes n p/bays: laurel sprigs woven into a 
garland to be worn by a conqueror or poet 
baylife n one charged with public 
administrative authority in a certain 
district, especially, the chief officer of a 
hundred; baylifes p1396/28, etc; bayliffes 
bayly n bailiff (see baylife) 99/33; baylys pl 
bayte v set dogs to bite and worry (an animal, 
usually one confined for this purpose) for 

sport 299/21,302/21 ; baite 301/3,303/24; 
bayt 700/14; bayted v pa 3 sg 298/17, 
baited pp 572/28, 572/32; bayted 298/13, 
301/30; see also bearebayting, bull- 
bayters n pl in phr beare or bull bayters 
baiters (see bayte) of bears or bulls 400/1-2 
beadle(s) see bedell 
beare n 1. bear, here presumably a performing 
bear led about by a bearward (see 
beareward) 661/10; 2. a picture of a bear 
as the sign of an inn 378/37; 3. beer 617/20 
bearebayting n form of entertainment in 
which dogs were set on a bear chained to 
a stake 298/8, etc; bearebaightinge 
362/39; bearebaiting 301/29, 304/22; 
beare bayting 294/32; 571/17-18; beare- 
bayting 395/40; beare baytinge 491/9; 
bearbaytings pl 342/35, 357/8; 
bearebaytinges 381/41; see also bayte 
beareward n bearward: keeper of a bear, who 
leads it about 298/23, etc; bearewarde 
299/8; beare ward 298/32; bearward 
298/17, 298/21; bereward 301/34, etc; 
bearwards poss 299/25, etc; berewardes 
302/23, etc; berewardes pl 394/35; 
berwardes 491/10 
beaver n bever; a snack or small repast 
between meals 287/36, 305/22 
Beckettes Day n phr feast of St Thomas 
Becket, 29 December 199/21 
bedell n a university officer employed to carry 
the messages and execute the orders of the 
chief authorities, particularly the vice- 
chancellor and the proctors 232/19, etc; 
beadle 507/29; bedil1301/38, 302/9; bedyll 
298/31, etc; bedelles poss 681/29; beadles 
p1292/29, 507/31 ; bedelles 198/34; bedells 
307/16; bedels 199/8, etc; bedilles 256/27; 
bedles 199/15, etc; bedlis 506/11 ; beedles 
317/35; bedels pl poss 232/29, 663/33; 
bedles 616/1 
bedes n pl beds 609/35 
beesoms n pl besoms, brooms 500/19 
befoyre prep before 175/33 


230/3 ! ; hold...books 23 !/24 [OD Book 
sb 18] 
bolsterd v pa 3 pl padded, stuffed with 
padding 849/22 
bolsters n p/pads, padding used in or under 
garments to produce stiff, distended shapes 
about belly, shoulders, etc 196/17; 
bowlstarres 127/22 
bonne grace n bongrace, a piece of cloth, 
usually dark and with a stiffened lining, 
hanging from the back of a French hood 
(see French hoode); or worn separately, 
with one end forming a straight brim over 
the forehead, as a sunshade 843/14 
booke n a book of music, for learning to play 
an instrument or playing a part 1022/31; 
bookes pl 1021/20 
books see bokes 
boon adj jolly, convivial 851/16 
boorde see board 
boordes n pl boards; in pbr paper burdes 
pasteboard book- or pamphlet-covers; 
sheets of pasteboard ! 80/! 6- ! 7; paper 
boordes median such covers or sheets of 
medium size, ie, suiting paper of medium 
size (the size between royal and demy) 
! 80/! 8; ryall boordes such covers or sheets 
of royal size, ie, suiting paper of royal size 
borde see board 
border n a strip of embroidered or figured 
stuff 843/!; borders pl 123/30 
botes n pl in phr botes full boats-full, 
boatloads (as a measure) 224/16 
botmen n pl boatmen, ferrymen 80/27 
bottleman n cornp a servant or official who 
has charge of bottles 533/22 
bottom n the small object or core around 
which a ball of thread or yarn is wound 
bound, bounde(n) see bynde 
bout prepin phr at bout at about: near to, in 
the vicinity of (?), or error for 'about' (?) 
bowlstarres see bolsters 

bownd, bownden see bynde 
bowser n bursar, treasurer 221/2, etc; bowcer 
122/35; bowcers pl 147/37; bowsers 
218/32, etc 
boye n servant, employee; when used with 
trade names, perhaps an apprentice 213/7, 
407/40, etc; boyes p1328/1, etc; boys 328/8 
bragyed v pa 3 sg bragged, boasted 299/19 
branch pp adj figured, embroidered (of cloth) 
181/23; branched 146/35; branshid 
153/36; branshitte 153/29; branch-sattin 
n phr figured satin 685/3 
braved v pa 3 sg issued a challenge 434/24 
breches n pl !. breeches: short trousers which 
varied in shape and length in the 16th and 
17th centuries, but were nearly always 
worn over stockings and never came much 
below the knee 197/16, 197/18; breaches 
378/39; bretches 219/41 ; 2. fig, with 
allusion to the well-known farce, Gammer 
Gurton's Needle; breeches 846/33; 
breechs 846/36 
breefes n pl abstracts, summaries 341/17 
breste n a garment or piece of armour 
covering the breast, here perhaps one 
designed to suggest a Fury (see Fury) or 
other avenging spirit 172/6 
brestith v pr 3 sg bursts, breaks 135/38 
bretches see breches 
brethren n pl !. fellow members of the town's 
governing corporation 377/29, etc; 
bretheren 277/9; bretherne 339/29; 
brotherne ! 15/8; 2. fellow-students; 
bretheren 387/32 
bricke batt n comp a piece of a brick; here, 
one used as a missile 434/16, 441/27 
bridges, briges see satten of bridges 
brig n the 'Great Bridge' of Cambridge 
brode adj !. broad, wide 169/24, 169/25; 
2. (of sleeves) full: perhaps trunk or 
farthingale sleeves ! 27/23; 3. in phr brode 
hat a broad-brimmed hat (?) 197/19; 
brood...hatt 162/5; 4. in phr broad seale 
of England the Great Seal of State, used for 


the most important official documents 
broken pp 1. damaged 843/26; 2. in the 
inventory of vestments from which these 
examples come, 'broken' and 'broken at 
plays," when used of garments, seem to 
mean 'remade for use in plays,' but perhaps 
in some cases 'damaged, torn at plays' is 
meant; broken 152/38, 153/13; brokene 
153/9; brokin 153/16, 153/19, 153/26 
brokyng pp broken 113/26 
brotherne see brethren 
broyer n brother 536/13 
bruer n brewer 485/4 
bryde cake n comp wedding cake; here, a 
property in a production of Plautus' 
Aulularia 226/5 
bryges see satten of bridges 
buckeram n buckram: a coarse linen or cotton 
textile 161/32, etc; bockram 220/1; 
bokeram 127/28, etc; bokerams 
180/38; bokram 161/9; buckaram 
170/8; buckram 294/11; buckrom 
Buffianisme n (nonce-word) buffoonery 
buffons n p/buffoons: comic actors, clowns 
bull bayters n cornppl bull-baiters: those who 
set dogs on a chained or tied bull 400/2 
buli-bayting n comp a form of entertainment 
in which dogs were set on a chained or tied 
bull 395/40, etc; bulbaytings pl 342/35; 
bulibaytinges 381/41; bull baytings 
357/7-8; see also bayte 
bullion adj in n phr bullion paire a pair of 
trunk-hose 536/10-11 
buiringe n comp bull ring: the place where 
bulls were baited (see bayte) 395/9, etc; 
bullring 409/2; buliringe 407/21,457/6 
bumbard n a low shawm (a musical 
instrument of the woodwind family) 
burdes see boordes 
burges see satten of bridges 

burgesses n pl citizens, freemen of a borough 
382/13, 382/31 
burnt adj in n phr burnt wine mulled or 
scalded wine (?) 633/34, 679/1; burnt 
wyne 489/30 
buskins n p/boots, usually of a soft material 
and reaching no higher than the knee, worn 
especially for riding 501/8 
busthion n bustian: a coarse fustian (see 
fustian) 170/10, etc; buystan 153/15; 
busthions pl 170/12 
buterflies n pl painted or embroidered 
representations of butterflies 153/2; 
butterflys 153/4 
butler n an official who has charge of the wine 
cellar and dispenses drink; in some 
Cambridge colleges, butlers seem to have 
had broader responsibilities, such as book- 
keeping and making payments in 
connection with entertainments 560/3, 
630/3, etc; buttier 446/16m; butlers pl 
buttes see sackbutt 
buttry n buttery: in Cambridge colleges, the 
place where food and drink are kept and 
dispensed 450/26; buttre 128/4, 128/5; 
buttrey 845/28; buttryes pl 218/22 
buystan see busthion 
by adv nearby, close at hand, present 329/9, 
etc; bye 408/6; in phr hard by see hard; by 
prep (of agent) by, by means of (usually, 
with a past participle understood, as in 
'(authorized) by,' '(signed) by') 334/42, 
529/16m, etc 
byliment n biliment: a decorative border 
added to the front of the French hood (see 
French hoode), or worn separately, as a 
head ornament 186/20; biiliment 160/9; 
byilymentes pl 183/1 [see Cunnington, 
16th Century] 
byii n bill: a tool and weapon consisting of a 
blade attached to a long shaft; usually and 
properly, one with a simple curved blade, 
but also applied to halberds and other long- 
handled cutting weapons; byiles pl200/24 


charefully adv carefully 537/8 
chariate n chariot 211/21 
chaunceilor n chancellor: the titular head of 
the university 395/32, etc; chancellor 
231/23, etc; chancellour 356/14, etc; 
chancelor 303/36, etc; chancelour 643/26; 
chauncder139/35, 291/8; chauncdir 
94/1; chauncelor 230/14; chauncelore 
230/29; chauncdour 622/16; chavnder 
291/12; chawncdlor 140/21; chancellors 
poss 602/31, etc; chancellours 606/9; 
chancelores 616/17; chauncelours 632/24 
chaungeable, chawngeable see changeable 
chayer n 1. chair 198/22; 2. as seat of 
authority (with reference to Mt 23.2) 
cheif adv chiefly 868/36 
cheiste see chiste 
cheker adj chequered, of chequered pattern 
113/8, 146/22, 146/23; checker work n phr 
a chequered pattern 161/3; chekker work 
chenes n pl chains: here, the ornamental 
chains worn by the waits as a badge of 
office 210/6 
Childermase Day n phr Childermas, the feast 
of the Holy Innocents (28 December), 
commemorating the slaughter of the 
children by Herod 202/20 
chiste n chest 220/2m; cheiste 222/11, etc; 
chistes pl 154/12 
chlyster n clyster: enema, medicinal liquid 
administered through the rectum 639/31 
Christenmas n Christmas 165/24, etc; 
Chirstenmas 845/28; Christenmasse 
208/40; Christianmesse 188/7, etc; 
Christinmas 202/12, etc; Christynmas 
159/9, etc; Christomas 187/2, etc; 
Christomass 187/36m; Chrystenmas 
116/3; Chrystynmas 117/17, etc; 
Chrystynmes 117/10; Christenmas 
eaven n phr Christmas Eve: the evening, 
and hence the day, before Christmas Day 
citron n cittern: a popular stringed 

instrument of the Middle Ages and 
Renaissance, always played by plucking 
with a quill plectrum; citrons pl 694/8 
clark of ye kitchen n phr household officer 
in charge of the kitchen {.) 513/37 
clergie n attr belonging to the clergy, clerical 
clerum n a Latin sermon, preached on certain 
occasions at the university 561/16; sermon 
ad derum n phr 230/15, 232/34 
dinquant n a glittering, tinselled, or spangkd 
fabric 536/14 
clip v to diminish the weight, and hence the 
value, of coins, by paring the edges; 
clipped pa 3 sg 875/26 
cloaths n pl clothes 695/10 
clobbe n club 191/4; doobs p/462/19 
cloke n 1. cloak: an over-garment of varying 
style and length, hooded or hoodless, 
sometimes having sleeves 126/23, etc; 
cloak 679/15(2), etc; clok 127/10, 294/11; 
clooke 146/26; kloke 197/2; cloaks pl 
510/2; dokes 124/17, etc; clookes 454/29; 
2. Spanish cloak: a full, short cloak having 
a deep, pointed hood, usually ornamental; 
Spanish cloke 147/8, 147/9; docke 
Spanishe fasshion 219/5; clockes 
Spanishe fassion pl 219/1 ; 3. fig as symbols 
of non-academic and non-professional 
wear; cloaks pl 863/34 
close n pl clothes 118/37 
close pp closed 219/26 
close n an enclosed field or yard 505/27 
closet n a small room for privacy or retirement 
cloth n when used without qualification, 
woollen cloth of a kind suitable for wearing 
apparel, usually of a plain weave 160/17, 
171/2, etc; clothe 87/24, etc; clothes pl 
(but sg in sense) 123/15, 196/29; 
2. qualified uses: cloth of gold a cloth 
woven with gold wire or flat strips of the 
metal or both; usually woven of silk and 
gold, but occasionally of gold only 182/29, 
843/13; clothe of gold 169/23, etc; cloth 


149/3, 634/13; comons 531/3, 531/7; 
2. booke of commons n pbr the book in 
which were entered the names of the 
members of a college and the account of 
their rations (now usually called the 
buttery book) 282/23, 282/25-6; 
3. fellowes commons n pbrpl the rations 
served to fellows of a college; in pbr in the 
felowes commens (applied to under- 
graduates) allowed the same rations as the 
fellows, having the status of a fellow 
commoner (see fellow commoner) 271/14; 
vnder the fellowes commons not allowed 
fellows' rations, not ranking as a fellow 
commoner 271/24 
company n a body of persons combined or 
incorporated for some common obiect, 
here especially: !. the fellows of a college 
137/17, etc; companie 278/37, etc; 
companye 134/13, etc; compeny 321/!; 
companyes pl 136/26, etc; 2. a party of 
players or band of musicians; companie 
283/14, etc; company 199/9, etc; 
companye 198/35, etc; compeny 92/23, 
92/29; cumpany 329/8, etc; cumpanye 
328/!1, etc; 3. an assemblage of persons, 
especially one accompanying some person 
of importance as attendants or retainers; 
compaignie ! 77/24, ! 78/20; companie 
463/!, etc; company 233/30, etc; 
companye 232/30, etc; cumpanye 470/30; 
companies pl 342/32; companyes 199/22 
compassionated pp regarded or treated with 
compassion 639/27 
compt n count, as a title, here applied to the 
noblemen in attendance on Prince Charles 
and the count palatine, perhaps as a 
translation of the German title 'Graf' 
51 !/39, etc 
compurgator n in canon law, a witness 
who supports the oath of an accused 
person with his own oath, either swearing 
to the other's credibility when he purges 
himself by oath, or swearing to his 
innocence or orthodoxy, so as to clear him 

of a charge; compurgators pl 364/33 
conceyted pp having wit or intelligence of a 
specified kind; in tp phr conceyted with 
Iestes able to make jokes, witty 412/30 
condicion n !. status, estate, rank 339/34, etc; 
2. in a legal instrument, a provision on 
which its legal force or effect is made to 
depend 404/6, 614/29 
condigne adj fitting, appropriate 666/1 
conduyte n conduit: here, a watercourse in 
a street 425/22 
cone n cony, rabbit 127/37 
confession n creed 682/!1 
confest pp confessed 475/13, etc 
confuter n one who confutes, convicts of 
error 859/33 
congies n pl (sg in senseO a bow, inclination 
congregation n a meeting of the senate of 
Cambridge University to transact 
university business, such as the conferment 
of degrees 356/5, etc; congregacion 
507/21, etc 
connive v in pbrconnive vnto wink at, look 
indulgently at (some offender) 626/6; 
connive at 856/11 
consistorye n court meeting under a bishop 
or his deputy, here applied to a court 
meeting under the vice-chancellor or his 
deputy 379/2, 492/6 
constable n 1. an officer of a parish or 
township appointed to act as keeper of the 
peace 299/8, etc; constables poss 299/19; 
302/19; constablesp1325/30, etc; 2. Highe 
Constable an officer of a hundred or other 
large administrative district, appointed to 
act as keeper of the peace (but .in the 
following instances the term may designate 
the senior of two town constables) 299/6, 
302/7; Hie Constable 304/34-5; Hedd 
Constable 303/2; 3. elliptically, for High 
Constable (see previous definition) 299/37, 
contention n contentation, contentment 


daylie wayter n phr title of an officer of the 
royal household: a gentleman usher of a 
particular kind (opposed to a quarter 
waiter; see quarter waiters) 539/9, 551/22 
dead lift n phr a last resort, a desperate remedy 
deales n pl deal boards: planks or boards of 
pine or fir wood 678/3 
dealt pp in phr dealt withall asked, requested 
(?) 541/4 
dean n a fellow of a college, appointed to 
supervise the studies and conduct of the 
junior members and maintain discipline 
among them; deanes poss 431/29; deans pl 
debarred pp prevented, prohibited 332/4, 
debyte n deputy 130/36 
decaied pp deteriorated, impaired (here with 
reference to morals) 276/18 
decay n arrears 633/38 
decent adj suitable, seemly 507/27, 612/22; 
decently adv suitably 507/38 
decerne v decern: discern, see clearly 366/32, 
decones n pl deacons: members of the third 
order of the ministry in the Church of 
England, ranking below bishops and 
priests, who assist priests at public worship 
and pastoral duties 123/20; decones poss sg 
decones cote see cote 
default n 1. fault, failure 536/19; defaultes pl 
289/35; makeing default vb n phr failing 
to perform (some legal obligation) 664/30; 
2. inphrfor default of for lack of, in the 
absence of 539/40 
deformed pp ugly, unsightly 378/38 
defrayed pp lodged, entertained (at someone 
else's expense) 587/22 
degree n 1. status, rank 271/9, etc; often 
shading into 2. a stage of proficiency in a 
course of study, especially an academic 
rank conferred by a university as a mark of 
proficiency in scholarship 408/9, etc; 

degrees p1244/7, etc; 3. in yer degrees prep 
phr according to their academic standing 
deliuered v pa 3 sg declared, stated 481/17 
delivering prp being delivered, being formally 
pronounced 542/5 
delucie, delusse see floure de lyses 
deponent n one who deposes or gives 
testimony under oath 327/34, etc; 
deponente 365/41 
depose v 1. affirm, testify 136/33; 2. give 
evidence under oath in a court of law 
430/7, etc; depose v pr 3 pl 433/1 i, etc; 
deposeth v pr 3 sg 432/31, etc; deposed pp 
425/15, etc 
deposition n 1. formal statement 137/1; 
2. giving of testimony upon oath in a court 
of law, or the testimony so given 425/38, 
428/4; deposicion 469/29; deposicions pl 
297/37; depositions 324/25 
deriued pp transmitted, conveyed 348/38 
deske n some kind of seat, perhaps with a rail 
and a sloping shelf, like the seats of 
choristers and clergy in churches 508/8 
desolucion n dissolution, destruction, ruin 
despight n in phr in despight of in scorn of, 
in contemptuous defiance of 302/21; in 
dispight of 299/2 i 
det n debt 282/24 
detectid pp accused 289/10 
determinacion n the resolving of a question 
in a scholastic disputation 508/34, 508/35 
determine v resolve a question in a scholastic 
disputation; determined pa 3 sg 508/39 
dethes n poss Death's (ie, of the play character 
Death) 161/15, 220/8 
deuise n 1. invention, ingenuity 850/20; 
2. trick, stratagem; devise 431/9; 
3. conceit, extended figure of speech; 
devise 535/19 
devise v plan, contrive, think out 276/19, 
dialogue n a literary work (here usually a 
play) in the form of a dialogue 193/37; 


dialoge 109/17; diolog 114/27; diologge 
diet see dyet 
differred pp deferred: put off 550/39 
dimidium Latin noun meaning one-half; 
often used in English accounts, usually in 
the abbreviated forms 'di.' and 'dim.' 
149/3, etc 
dinner n the main meal of the day, eaten, in 
the 16th and 17th centuries, about the 
middle of the day 231/39, etc; dyner 
235/23, etc; dynner 511/23; dinners pl 
dinted v pa 3 sg dented 483/15 
diolog, diologge see dialogue 
dirige n the first word of the antiphon at 
matins in the Latin Office of the Dead, 
used as a name for that service 200/37 
disanul v disannul: cancel, do away with; 
disanulled pp 570/34m; disanulling vb n 
discanted v pa 3 pl decanted; poured 
(something to drink from one vessel into 
another) 505/20m 
discharge n in phr for my discharge in 
performance of my duty 134/39; for yowr 
discharge 140/36 
discharging prp releasing (from a charge, etc) 
discoursers n pl talkers, speakers 515/8 
disfaming vb n defaming: bringing into 
reproach or disrepute 321/9 
disguised pp altered, not natural 854/17 
disgysing vb n disguising: masque, 
masquerade 36/27, etc; disgisyng 36/26, 
etc; disgysynge 64/11, 64/29; dysgysyng 
39/10, 46/15; dysgysyngg 39/29; 
disgisynges pl 49/11 ; disgysynges 47/10, 
etc; disgysyns 63/38 
dishonest adj dishonourable, shameful; 
perhaps also with implicatmn lewd, filthy 
dispensatory adjin phr lettres dispensatory 
document dispensing with, overriding 
(specified) laws or rules 507/22 

dispight see despight 
displeasure n 1. offence, injury 137/7, etc; 
2. anger, indignation 599/7; displesure 
disport v amuse, entertain 346/31 
disputacions n pl formal academic exercises 
in which parties sustain, attack, and defend 
a question or thesis 230/4, etc; 
disputations 231/39, etc 
disputants n p/public debaters: those taking 
part in the university disputations (see 
disputacions) 244/16, 515/5 
dispute v take part in disputations (see 
disputacions); disputed v pa 3 sg 244/20; 
disputing vb n 244/30 
disputors disputants (see disputants) 230/16 
disseuered pp severed, divided 139/6 
dissolute adj unrestrained 289/37, 292/21; 
dissolutely adv unrestrainedly 291/31 
dissoluteness n absence of restraint, excess 
distempered pp disordered, out of sorts 
distrain v to seize (some tangible piece of 
property) in order to compel a debtor to 
pay a debt, or a delinquent to pay a fine; 
distrained pa 3 sg 1230/37; distrayned 
distressed pp distrained (see distrain) 271/32 
divers adj (sometimes used as n) various, 
sundry 155/23, etc; diueres 221/35, 
484/21 ; diuers 160/16, etc; diuerse 132/1, 
etc; dyuers 181/20, etc; dyuerse 109/19, 
dobled, doblet see doublett 
docquet n docket: the abstract of the contents 
of a proposed letter-patent, written upon 
- the king's bill which authorized the 
preparation of a such a letter for the Great 
Seal, and also copied into a register or 
docket-book 399/38m 
dodrans Latin for three-quarters; here used 
as a term of contempt meaning small, 
short, like the modern 'half-pint' 850/2 
doe see a doe 


doen pp done 491/36 
Dolphin n Dolphin; here, as the name of an 
inn 505/14 
don adj dun-coloured 170/27, 171/1 
dorce n possibly dorse, dosser: an ornamental 
backcloth, but more likely an error for 
torse, the twisted band by which (in 
heraldry) the crest is joined to the helmet 
and the mantle held in place 1243/8 
dornix n a heavy coarse linen, usually a 
furnishing fabric but sometimes used for 
garments; so called because it was 
originally manufactured at Doornik 
(Tournai) in Flanders 113/5, etc 
[Cunnington, 17th Century and oEo 
dosan n dozen 153/26, 213/37; dosen 498/8, 
500/17; dosyn 104/13, 106/36; dossen 
double adv doubly, twice as much 138/36, etc 
double hayres see haire 
doublett n in the 16th and 17th centuries, 
generally a man's garment for the upper 
body, always close-fitting but varying in 
cut, sometimes having skirts, always 
having sleeves (though these were 
sometimes detachable), worn over the shirt 
(or waistcoat if present); a woman's 
doublet was a padded bodice 685/3; dobled 
161/15; doblet 126/30, 181/22; dubblett 
536/14, 536/24; dublet 129/39; doublettes 
pl 124/19, 842/38 
doubts v pr 3 sg fears 535/17 
dovne adv down 122/15 
dowre n door 172/15 
draggones npldragons'. 1. painted figures of 
dragons 162/9; 2. images of dragons used 
as stage properties; draggones 162/20; 
dragones 127/33; dragons 843/4 
dravevpa 3 sg drove 461/19, 473/16; draue 
482/13; drave v pa 3 pl 463/3 
dressers n pl those who helped to dress the 
actors 679/2 
dressing vb n to furbish, make ready 155/41, 
etc; dressyng 191/9; dressynge 167/5 

droupes v pr 3 sg droops 643/27 
drownslat n drumslade: a drum 161/19 
dubble beere n phr strong beer, stout 226/5-6 
dubblett, dublet see doublett 
ducke n duke 604/16 
duites n pl duties 315/24 
durst v pa 3 sg dared 341/11,470/28; durst 
v pa 3 pl 389/29, etc 
dute n duty 269/27 
dyet n (sometimes used as adl) diet: daily 
provision of food, board 489/30, etc; diet 
698/30; dyett 534/2 
dyner, dynner see dinner 
dysgysyng, dysgysyngg see disgysyng 
dyuers, dyuerse see divers 

ease v refresh, give relief to 243/35 
eaven see even 
educacion n upbringing 276/7, etc 
effectes n pl accomplishments 859/6 
egle see sprede 
egregiously adv remarkably well, excellently 
eight adj eighth 155/14 
either adj each (of two), both 339/16, etc; 
ether 325/31, etc; eyther 505/22 
election n election of fellows (of a college) 
elector n one of the seven German princes 
entitled to take part in the election of the 
emperor; here the count palatine of the 
Rhine 514/28, 515/31; see also Prince 
eles n p/of uncertain meaning: else (?), awls 
(?), eels (?) 116/5 
ellow adj yellow 219/6 
ells adv else 292/36, 682/8; elise 614/36; dies 
adj other 200/22 
embrodery n embroidery 536/12 
embrotheryd pp embroidered 169/25, etc; 
embroderd 536/11; embrothered 170/23; 
imbrodered 220/12; imbroyderde 123/30 
emongest prep amongst 276/31,304/38; 
ernonges 845/21 
empeache v hinder, prevent 140/33 
empechment n hindrance, prevention 290/13 


Fastingham n Shrove Tuesday 178/38; 
Festyngham Twesday 99/33 [OED 
father n 1. in the university, a title given to 
the senior member who sponsored a 
candidate when he presented himself for a 
degree, usually his tutor 508/21, etc; 2. as 
a sub-sense of the academic sense 
connected with the degree ceremony, the 
mock-use of the term in 'saltings' 996/6, 
996/30; fathers pl 997/36, 997/41 ; 
3. applied to the vice-chancellor of 
Cambridge University, as having a fatherly 
authority over its members 873/7 
fawet n fault 304/31 
fawkon see ffalcon 
fayer n fair 106/22, etc; fayere 681/31 
fayndeth v pr 3 sg finds 471/14 
fayne see fain 
fayr see faire 
fayrly see fairly 
feast n a formal banquet, often with 
entertainment, marking some special 
occasion, such as an anniversary, a fair, or 
someone's taking up an office 406/41, 
549/38; particularly, the celebration held 
by a college to commemorate its founding, 
often on the day of its patron saint or other 
dedication 187/21, etc; attr in comp feaste 
daye 253/12; fest day 187/25 
feld v pa 3 pl felled, struck down 462/23; 
felledd pp 432/9 
fell v pa 3 pl in phr fell off withdrew 378/21 
fellow n one of the incorporated members of 
a college or collegiate foundation; one of 
the company or corporation who, with 
their head, constitute a college 155/13, etc; 
ffellow 682/26; fellowes pl 288/32, etc; 
fellows 108/9, etc; felous 136/37, 137/12; 
ffellowes 683/4; fellowes poss 218/21 
fellow commoner n comp an undergraduate 
in the university, of good birth or ample 
means, who had the privilege of dining at 
the fellows' table in his college hall instead 
of with the other junior members 597/38, 

etc; fellow commoners pl 502/14, etc; 
fellow comoners 636/17; fellowe 
commoners 537/12-13, etc; ffellow 
commoners 503/18, etc; ffellow comoners 
fellowes commons, felowes commens see 
ferder adj further 131/36 
lest day see feast 
Festyngham see Fastingham 
fetched pp in phr fetched at brought from 
177/35, 208/28 
fethers n pl in phr lefethers 'the feathers,' 
tufts or bunches of hair 151/38 
ffalcon n Falcon, as the name of an inn 329/7, 
etc; ffalcone 334/14, 334/16; falken 
200/30; fawkon 199/35; ffalcon poss 
328/12, 334/15; ffawlcon 327/36, 
ffayer n fair 349/28, etc 
ffatten in phr drye ffatte dry fat, dry vat: a 
cask or barrel to contain dry things 179/40 
[OrD Fat sb  3] 
ffellow(es) see fellow 
ffellow commoners see fellow commoner 
ffeys n pl fees 89/11m 
ffootemen n pl footmen, servants attending 
a rider on foot 224/30, etc; ffootmen 
533/23; footemen 526/39 
ffreman n a recognized member of a town, 
guild, or other corporate body, entitled to 
its privileges, usually including the right to 
ply a trade; ffremen pl 1009/21 
ffreres see blake ffreres 
filletted pp (in bookbinding) decorated with 
plain lines impressed upon the cover 505/8 
finger n as a general measure: the breadth of 
a finger; sometimes a definite measure, 3/4 
of an inch; fingers p/536/25 
finicaldo adj (nonce-word) finical 849/18 
firking prp dancing, jigging, frisking about 
848/36, 849/18 
flagon n a large vessel containing a supply of 
drink for use at table 214/35 
flange v pa 3 sg flung 386/7 


flatt capp see capp 
flote n flute 203/30 
floure de lyses n phrplfleurs-de-lis: heraldic 
lilies embroidered, figured, etc, on cloth 
196/9; flower de luces 314/27; flowere 
delusse 154/1; flowre de lys 146/21; 
flowres de luces 126/29; flowurs delucie 
flynge prp flinging 446/19; flynge vb n 445/37 
fole see syne 
foole n 1. performing fool, jester, clown 
879/15; fole 202/5; 2. in n comp fooles cote 
fool's coat: the motley coat of a buffoon or 
fool 127/19, 170/34; folys cote 127/8; 
fooles coate 173/35, 681/14; fooles coote 
161/3, 161/23; foules coote 148/32; fooles 
cootes pl #g in sense) 161/29; fooles cotes 
pl 197/19; see also syne 
foore sieves see foresleves 
footemen see ffootemen 
foot pace n comp foot-pace: dais, platform 
for prep with respect to: in phr for bothe 
your iurisdiccion with respect to 
the jurisdictions of you both 
fore prep before 356/36 
fore adj situated in front, often with 
opposition to back expressed or implied 
690/11, etc 
fore gate n comp foregate: front gate 447/8; 
foregate 447/13; foregates pl 429/12 
fore girt n comp front girder (see girt, ieece) 
690/26, etc; foregirts pl 691/9 
fore leader n compforeleader: one who leads 
the advance, a chief leader 462/13 
forell n forel: a case or covering in which a 
book or manuscript is kept, or into which 
it is sewn 76/9; forels pl 76/9 
forenamede pp aforementioned 230/28 
forenoone n comp the portion of the day 

foresleves n comppl a pair of sleeves, usually 
detachable, worn with garments made with 
hanging sleeves; the hanging sleeves were 
often ornamental and not actually worn 
but allowed to hang behind the shoulders 
while the fore-sleeves covered the arms 
146/35, 196/32; foore sieves 160/14 
formall adj exact 643/22 
formall adv formally, ceremoniously 504/20 
formast adj foremost 474/8 
forme n bench; fourme 233/24; formes pl 
198/22, etc 
forthcoming vb n appearance in court 
302/24, etc; forthcomming 300/28; 
forthcommyng 300/25 
forthincke v forthink: regret, repent of 230/5 
fote n foot, as a measure of length: 12 inches 
252/5; fote pl 252/4 
foules coote see foole 
fourme see forme 
fourt adj fourth 154/13 
fourted vpa I sg 'fourthed': sent as fourth in 
a series 536/8 
fourtenight n fortnight, period of two weeks 
445/24; fourtnight 445/14 
lower adj four 519/16, etc 
fowrcornar, fowrcorned see capp 
frales n pl baskets (?) 163/8 [MED fraiel] 
frame n 1. a wooden structure forming part 
of a stage set 174/26; 2. scaffolding 530/29; 
3. wooden structure supporting the stage 
fraye n fray: disturbance, brawl 469/33 
free adjadmitted to the privileges of (a city, 
corporation, etc) 382/13 
fredome n the rights of a member of a town, 
guild, or other corporation, usually 
including the right to ply one's trade 
free-mason n comp stonemason 546/31 
French hoode n comp a woman's head dress, 


shaped curve over the head, and a pleated 
or plain curtain of dark material falls on to 
the shoulders behind 160/10; Frenche 
hode 182/35; Frenche hoode 182/36; 
Frenche whoode 186/20; French hoddes 
pl 160/8; Frenche woddes 843/25 
fretting vb n fitting with frets 1020/1 
frocke n probably a loose gown (see gowne) 
182/30, etc; frock 186/34; frockes pl 
front n frontal: a movable covering for the 
front of an altar, generally of embroidered 
cloth, silk, etc 153/13, 153/14 
fronter n frontal (see front); fronters pl 
frontlett n 1. a strip of material, fringed on 
the lower edge, and hung over the top of 
the altar frontal (see front) to hide its 
suspension 153/38; fronlet 154/1; 
fronletes pl 154/3; 2. an ornamental band 
worn on the forehead; fronlett 171/32 
fryse adjfrieze: a woollen cloth with a heavy 
nap on one side 437/17 
furder ad i further 136/34, etc 
furder more adz. furthermore 235/22 
furderance n furtherance 134/25 
Furies n poss Fury's, of a Fury (or other 
avenging spirit?) 220/17; Furys 172/6 
furniture n hangings, drapery 508/13 
furth, furthe see sett 
fustian n and adj a fabric of cotton and flax, 
or flax mixed with wool, and having a silky 
finish; used as a substitute for velvet, and 
very popular 146/19, 848/36; fustyan 
220/10; fustian of Naples n phr fustian 
from Naples; mock velvet 146/16, 146/18; 
fustan of Naples 146/14; fustian of napes 
146/39; fusthian of Naples 147/10 
fylyd pp soiled, dirtied 118/37 [oEt File v 2] 
fynd v provide, furnish with 535/22 
fynealles n pl finials: slender, upright 
ornaments, here placed on the ridge of the 
front horn, or both horns, of a mitre 80/14 

gaberdine n as a fashionable garment, a 

long, loose coat with wide sleeves; as 
(primarily) a horseman's coat, an overcoat 
of similar cut 196/18, 196/20; gaberdynes 
pl 124/20 
gadered pp 1. gathered in pleats 126/32; 
2. collected gaddert 82/26; gadert 82/29 
gaderer n gatherer, money taker at a 
performance 521 / 18 
gallant ad! and n finely dressed, splendid 
859/28; gallants pl men of fashion, fine 
gentlemen 539/34 
galled pp chafed; hence figuratively vexed 
game n amusement, sport, pastime; gamespl 
269/18, etc; in phr played this game well 
acted cleverly and prudently in this matter 
game pleyars n comp pl presenters of 
amusements, sports, or pastimes 114/6 
gamyng vb n playing of games 269/19, 
gane, gann see be gane 
garde n guard: a band of decorative stuff, 
plain or embroidered, used as a border or 
sewn on parallel with or covering seams 
220/12; gardes pl 123/8; gards 146/27, 
garded pp adj trimmed, fitted with a 'guard' 
(see garde) 126/18, etc; garde 170/20; 
garden 146/15, 147/9; gardid 169/25, 
169/31; gardyd 169/24, etc; gardyt 
127/10, 189/39; guarded 427/19 
gardinge vb n coil the sewing on of 'guards' 
(see garde) 208/9 
gardyng n garden 159/16 
garters n pl bands worn, by both men and 
women, to keep up their stockings 536/7, 
etc; specially ornamented ones were worn 
by the Knights of the Garter as a badge 
gate n gait, way of walking 849/30 
gate v pa 3 sg got, obtained 880/1 
gatehowse n comp the apartment in or over 
the main gate of a city, palace, or college; 
often strongly built and hence used as a 


prison, but also as a gatekeeper's lodging 
303/41; gate howse 446/29 
gatheryng vb n collection (of money at a 
performance or observance) 89/33 
gatt v pa 3 pl got, ie, came 470/36 
geauen see geve 
geder see to geder 
geiue, geiueinge, geiven see geve 
gentle adj !. well bred; gentile 244/20; 
2. polite 291/36; gentlye adv politely 
232/20; 3. gentley adv peaceably, without 
violence 436/5; gently 460/8, etc 
gentle-bloods n comp pl persons of gentle 
birth 856/19 
gentlewemen n comppl gentlewomen, ladies 
234/8, 234/23 
gere n coll equipment 144/12, etc; ghere 
843/26; see also hedd gere and plaing gere 
gerkin, gerkyn see Jerkin 
germentes n pl garments 186/17 
gester see Jester 
getted v pa 3 sg ietted: jutted, protruded; or 
pp made to jut or project 508/9 
geve v give 133/3 !, etc; geiue 56 !/37, 562/9; 
geue 588/6; geauen pp 262/9, etc; geiven 
562/9; geuen 193/15, etc; geven 139/19, 
etc; gevinge 202/13; gevn 337/33; gevne 
268/39, etc; gevyn 107/20; geiueinge prp 
ghere see gere 
gilted pp gilded: covered with gold leaf or 
plating, or worked with gold thread 
127/32, etc; gilden 162/4; gilt 146/17, 
679/16; in phr hole gilt whole-gilt, gilded 
all over ! 75/34; guilded 505/8, 685/5; guilt 
505/22, etc; gylded 172/10; gyidyd 171/38 
girt n a girder, a beam supporting joists (see 
ieece) 689/!, etc; girts p1688/30, etc [OD 
Girt sb 2] 
gither see to geder 
gittern n a stringed instrument first 
mentioned in the 13th century but played 
throughout the Renaissance: the medieval 
ancestor of the guitar; gitterns pl 857/14 
[The gittern should not be confused with 

the cithron or cittern; see citron and 
Munrow on 'cittern', 'gittern'] 
give back v phr step back, make room; gaue 
back pa 453/3; gave backe 434/3; giveing 
back prp 433/33 
given in ellipticalphr for given for (what was) 
given (to someone) 654/20, etc 
glase v to fit (a window or other opening) 
with glass; glased pp 233/18; glasinge vb 
n 21 !/29, 331/25; glaysinge 256/11 
glaser n glazier, glass-fitter ! 13/25; glayser 
glewe n glue 527/3 
goale n (for 'gaole'?) jail, prison 417/40, 
goeth vpr3 g goes (about), is current 378/10 
goldyng adj golden (in colour) 104/13 
gonnes n pl guns 199/23, etc; gownes (but 
perhaps means "gowns" here) 154/22 
goe v in phr goe aboute set about, undertake 
396/4; goe about 646/2 
goodeman n title given to men of 
comparatively humble station 288/15, 
288/! 8; goodman 288/! 2, etc; goodmann 
good-feiloed ppl comp acted like a good 
fellow, ie, a jovial companion, a fellow 
reveller 536/26-7 
good wolle n comp goodwill, cheerful 
acquiescence; in phr le good wolle of 
Thomas Pacoke probably adverbial = 'by 
the goodwill,' etc 83/23 
goodwyfe n title given to women of 
comparatively humble station 425/17, etc; 
goodwife 255/3, 425/24; goodwyf 43 !/25; 
goody 678/41; goodye 468/5 
goody see goodwyfe 
goolde n gold 186/19 
gooune see gowne 
goseled pp guzzled, drunk to excess 536/26 
gould n gold 451/13, etc 
goven pp given 87/31, etc; govyn 98/4, etc 
gowne n !. a garment worn by both sexes, 
hanging from the shoulders but before 
1600 often girt at the waist, and usually 


howse 132/4; mighell howse 132/9; 3. the 
Senate House of Cambridge University, 
considered as either a place or a body; 
house 51 I/4, etc; 4. the town council of 
Cambridge house 176/38; 5. same as 
stagehouse 678/4; 6. wooden structures 
forming part of a stage; howses pl 198/23, 
500/20; the side chapels of King's College 
chapel in Cambridge, put to the same use 
howbeit adv nevertheless 292/37 
howde wyer n comp hoodwire: a wire for 
stiffening a hood or head dress 842/II 
howess n pl bows, ie, small hills or artificial 
mounds; here a site by the Huntingdon 
Road about a mile northwest of the centre 
of Cambridge, whose name is preserved in 
the modern House Lane 292/16; howse 
291/22; in phr howis greene 'Hows Green' 
howhmonday see Hockmunday 
howpes n pl hoops 180/1 
howse see house 
howted pp hooted, driven out 849/12 
hoyse see hose 
huddes see hoode 
humane adj courteous, civilized 701/33 
humanity n civility, good breeding, obliging 
disposition 858/9 
humour n 1. mood, disposition 855/14, etc; 
humor 286/21, 847/6; 2. in pl humors 
whims, propensities 847/32 
hurlie burlie n quasi-comp hurly-burly: 
tumult, affray, commotion 481/27-8; 
hurley burley 1230/36; hurlye burley 
hy(e) see high 
hyme pron him 201/2 
hypotheticke adj involving an hypothesis or 
condition 854/9 
hys see his 
hyt pron it 82/30 
iacke n 1. a jacket, especially one made of 
leather, or strengthened with metal plates, 

to guard the wearer against blows 191/1 
(?), 220/24, etc; iackes p1197/26, etc; iacks 
485/2; 2. a leather jug or tankard full of 
liquor (?) or a joint of mutton or other meat 
(?) 191/1 (?) [o/D Jack sb 2] 
iackettes n iv/jackets: short close-fitting upper 
garments 124/18 
iauelin n javelin: a kind of spear; iauelinslv/ 
501/3, 501/5 
iealous adj solicitous, anxious 644/26 
ieece n joist, supporting timber 689/34, etc; 
ieece pl 691/30, etc; iests 499/9 
ierkin n jerkin: a close-fitting full-skirted 
men's jacket, worn over the doublet 
126/10, etc; gerkin 294/14; gerkyn 
181/I 3, 294/15; ierken 160/28, etc; ierkyn 
123/11,197/I ; iyrkyn 170/2, etc; gerkyns 
pl 181/14; gyrkyns 170/10; ierkenes 
161/28; ierkyns 124/18 
iester n jester: a professional buffoon and 
amusement maker, especially one 
maintained in a royal or noble household 
163/40, 609/15; gester 129/21, 184/23 
iests see ieece 
iette v 'jet': strut, swagger 279/32 
iewelles n pl ornaments; here, as 
appurtenances of office 206/13 
iigge n jig: a song and accompanying dance, 
often semi-dramatic, usually lively and 
comical, and not seldom scurrilous, 
commonly given at the end of a play 880/22 
lie v phr I'11, I will 846/28, 849/16 
ill adj bad 300/34, 638/6; adv badly 286/23, 
ill fac't adj comp ill-faced, ugly 857/18 
imageri n 'imagery': figures woven, 
embroidered, etc, on cloth; here, cloth so 
ornamented 153/14; ymagiri 153/38 
imbassidores n pl ambassadors 583/18 
imbrodered, imbroyderde see embrotheryd 
immiche n image, statue 843/41 
immodest adj rude, indecorous 620/40, etc; 
immodestly adv 409/22 
impotensy n disability 613/27 
imposed pp imputed (falsely?) 874/14 


lewdnes n rudeness, vulgarity, wickedness 
276/24, etc; lewdenesse 139/8 
leysour n leisure 135/32 
lez see le 
lians n pl lions (ornamentally worked in fabric 
or metal) 175/37; liens 153/21 ; lyon sg (but 
pl in sense) 154/1 
liberall see aduantage 
liberties n pl a district exempt from the usual 
authority; particularly, the territory of a 
borough, as exempt from the jurisdiction 
of the sheriff of the surrounding county; 
Cambridge University had jurisdiction 
within its own liberties 297/22, 545/18; 
libertyes 572/4, 647/25 
licke pron like 270/6, 270/35 
lickwyse adv likewise 272/1 
lieger-jests n phrpl'ledger-jests': stock jokes 
liev 1. lie; lieng prp 123/3, etc; lienge 127/14; 
2. lodge, spend the night; laye pa 3 sg 
346/5; lay pa 3 pl 540/12 
liens see lians 
light v alight; lighted pa 3 sg 453/6; lighting 
prp 505/32; see also lyte 
light adj frivolous, of small account 276/14, 
lightlywode n likelihood 135/30 
lightness n carelessness 135/3 
lik adj like 147/11 ; likes (error?) 127/4 
likewaies adv likewise, in the same way 
limmes n pl limbs 859/23 
lincke, linke see lynke 
lithernes n laziness 536/25 
liuelesse adj lifeless 854/21 
livery n a distinctive suit of clothes, given by 
a magnate or corporate body to a retainer 
(such as a town wait) as a mark of office and 
part payment for his services 560/32, etc; 
lefferey 99/37; levery 581/25; liuerie 
602/4; liuery 585/22, 597/4; liuerye 
629/15; iyuere 87/24, etc; lyverie 266/22; 
leveris pl 114/33; leveryes 490/30; 
liuerries 556/22; liuerys 96/11 ; liveres 

184/19; liveries 192/27, etc; liveryes 
308/17, etc; lyueres 103/24, etc; lyuereys 
98/8, 116/11 ; lyveres 154/31, 176/16; 
lyveries 257/18, 259/4; lyveris 89/14; 
lyveryes 119/4, etc; lyvyries 143/37 
Ioen n loin 281/16; lones pl 165/34 
loggattes n pl loggats: a traditional game, in 
which the players vied at throwing wooden 
balls, fitted with handles, as near as 
possible to a fixed stake 571/18; loggetes 
395/42, 645/40 
longinge prp belonging 153/1 
loode n load 433/1 
loolye adv lowly, humbly 233/7 
loose v lose 622/26, 701/3 
ioosers n pl losers 550/28 
lord n one appointed to oversee Christmas 
revels 82/28, etc; lorde 117/10, etc; lordes 
pl 177/29; in phr lord of misrule 321/7; 
lorde of mysrule 117/24; lords of misrule 
486/28; see also emperor and magistrate 
lord of ye tapps, lord tapps see tapps 
lose adj loose 201/40 
lottery n an arrangement for distributing 
prizes by chance among purchasers of 
tickets, usually intended to raise money 
either for the promoters or for some 
worthy cause 321/7; lotterye 436/35 
lowe adj trivial, trifling 139/34 
lumber n disused pieces of furniture, etc, 
taking up room; useless odds and ends 
lute n a stringed musical instrument 
resembling a guitar; attr 369/11, etc 
luter n lute player 125/6; possibly an 
occupational surname 32/3, etc 
ly see le 
lynke n link: a wooden staff or baton, 
intended for use as a torch but apparently 
also used by stage ushers for crowd control 
427/3, etc; linke 453/5, 476/29; lynck 
476/35; lyncke 183/13, 439/26; lynk 
463/14; linkes pl 437/32; links 607/22; 
lynckes 183/11 ; lynkes 115/38, etc; lynks 
426/17, etc 


markes p1693/14; marks 692/I I ; 3. a cross 
or monogram written in lieu of one's name; 
mark 453/30; marke 698/11; 4. a 
monetary unit, equal to 13s 4d; markes pl 
markev I. note 119/I, 139/16; marked pp 
120/4; 2. identify by affixing a visible sign; 
markd pp 688/28, etc; marked 688/40 
marmaled n marmalade 150/30 
marquesse n marquess, a nobleman ranking 
between a duke and an earl 173/1,573/28; 
marquys poss I 1 I/3; see also Patrons and 
Travelling Companies under Marquys 
marshall n I. a high-ranking military officer 
512/10; high marshall n phr 512/3; 2. an 
officer charged with arranging ceremonies; 
knight marshall 533/36; marshalles poss 
226/12; marshalls pl 534/6 
martialled ppl adj marshalled 537/9 
master n I. an employer 334/2, etc; masters 
poss 365/40, 366/15; 2. the head of a 
company or troupe 611/7, 612/29; masters 
pl 376/37; 3. the head of a college or hall 
in the university 133/29, etc; maister 
215/36, etc; masteres poss 127/14, etc; 
masters 123/3, etc; masters pl 135/7, etc; 
4. an organizer or overseer; masters pl 
270/28; 5. a master of arts (see 8. below); 
maister 858/36; masters pl 571/6; 
6. possessor, owner; maister 859/4; 7. title 
of respect given to dignitaries and master 
craftsmen 138/23, etc; maister 110/29, etc; 
mayster 842/10; masteres pl 225/15; 
masters 256/30; 8. in phr master of arte 
a university graduate holding the second or 
senior degree in the faculty of arts, and 
thereby having a vote in the university 
senate 297/37, 297/38-9; mayster of arte 
288/32; Master of Artes 435/35, etc; 
Master of Arts 428/30, etc; maysters of 
Arte p1289/14; masters of Artes 432/32, 
etc; masters of Arts 411/14, etc; 9. inphr 
Master of the Requestes one of the leading 
officers of a court set up to redress petitions 
sent to the sovereign 232/22; I0. in phr 

Masters of the Chancery pl senior officials 
in the lord chancellor's court 286/8 
mastrys see mistris 
matriculated pp registered as a student in the 
university 854/7 
matier n matter 93/40, etc; mattier 134/21, 
137/5; mattyer 134/17; matiers pl 133/36 
mayd v pa 3 pl made 183/27; pp 108/12 
maze see mace 
meanes n p/I. the measures by which a result 
is achieved 139/19, etc; means 573/10, 
848/13; hence 2. stratagems, tricks 139/25, 
396/16, 400/2 
meaning n intention 541/10 
mease n mess, portion of food intended to 
serve four people 169/4, etc 
measure n in phr in any measure to any 
degree, at all 701/26 
meat n food (not necessarily flesh) 202/31, 
etc; meate 225/25, etc; meatt 321/33, 
323/25; mete 167/35 
median adj medium: of paper, of a size 
halfway between demy and royal 180/18 
mediocrity n I. moderate or limited talent 
534/26; 2. moderation; mediocritie 622/16 
meerly adv purely, altogether 536/19 
meery adj merry 338/32 
meete adj fitting, suitable 155/27, etc; meet 
857/20; mete 227/28, etc; merest superl 
227/31; metelye adv appropriately, 
decorously 235/3 
memorie n memorial, record 120/6; in phr in 
our memorye as long as we are 
remembered 270/12 
mend v repair 409/I, 676/32; mende 284/33, 
456/31m; mending prp 318/17; mending 
vb n 99/27, etc; mendinge 172/34, etc; 
mendyng 115/35, etc; mendynge 206/11 
men(n)(e) see man 
menns see a menns 
menyvere n miniver, a kind of fur 80/2 
mercenary adj hired, working for wages 
merelie adv merrily 119/38 
mervelous adj marvellous 139/5, 139/19 


suggestion 426/29; 3. proposal 541/13; 
4. puppet play 487/18 
tootle adj motley, variegated 202/2 
mowe z, pr3 pl make mouths, grimace 876/4 
moyer n mother 536/6, 536/33 
mulct n fine 410/4,410/8; mulctesp1271/25, 
murrey n mulberry colour 294/19; murry 
musicke n a band of musicians 498/26, etc; 
musick 530/3 (?), 530/4, etc; musique 
musitian n musician 352/10, etc; musician 
273/33, etc; musicion 306/21, etc; 
musicon 668/29,669/I 3; musition 254/5, 
etc; mussission 610/29; musicans pl 
595/16, 653/35; musichians 557/37; 
musicianes 307/16; musicians 371/19, etc; 
musiconers 614/19; musicions 278/20, 
etc; musicons 380/35, 384/10; musitians 
287/9, etc; musitioners 406/41, 519/22; 
musitiones 263/4, etc; musitions 273/4, 
etc; muzitions 619/32, etc; musitians pl 
poss 265/22, etc; musitions 647/34; 
musition's 353/11 
musters n pl assemblings of able bodied men 
to show that they had the weapons 
required by law and knew how to use them 
mydl n middle 233/22; mydle 233/15, 
mydsommer see midsomer 
mynde n 1. intention, preference 133/29, etc: 
mind 541/13; minde 573/34; myndes pl 
269/20; 2. memory; mind 516/1; in phr 
time out of minde for longer than anyone 
can remember 545/10; tyme out of mynde 
561/33; tyme owt of mynde 309/30; 
3. opinion, way of thinking 277/13 
mynde v 1. intend;pr I sg 133/35; myndyng 
prp235/22; 2. incline; myndedpp276/19; 
in cornp tyrannous minded inclined to 
tyranny 847/31-2 
mynstrell n minstrel: a professional 
entertainer using music, singing, story 
telling, juggling, etc 110/37, etc; 

minstreles pl 215/32; m instrelles 87/31, 
89/17; minstrels 279/33; mynstralles 
103/28; mynstreles 184/14; mynstrelles 
92/34, etc; mynstrels 104/41 
myslycke see mislike 
mysrule see lord 
myste n mist, light fog 199/3 
myter see miter 

napes, Naples see fustian 
neck n in phr in the neck of this right after 
this 642/12 
neede n in phr for a neede if necessary 334/4 
neght n night 82/31, etc; neghtes p/82/30 
neighbower n neighbour 291/35, 292/1; 
neghtbowre 83/20; neyghbower 291/21 
neiyer adv neither, nor 536/27, 536/28 
neste n set 203/33 
netled v pa 3 sg nettled, vexed 542/26 
newyers day n phr New Year's Day 183/11, 
199/25; new yers day 183/28 
neyghbower see neighbower 
nice adj mincing 849/30 
night n (with the names of church feasts and 
fasts) the night before a holy day: 
Ashwenesdaye night the night between 
Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday 
461/40; candlemas night the night of 
1 February 183/13; Candlemisse night 
548/22; sanct lohns night the night of 
23 June 143/31 
nimiety n excess, intemperance 998/21 
ninehoales n pl a game in which the players 
try to roll small balls into nine holes, each 
with a separate scoring value, made in the 
ground or on a board, or through nine 
arches 571/18; nine-hoals 357/8; 
nyneholes 395/42, 645/40 
noble n an English gold coin, first minted by 
Edward Ill; in 1542, it was worth 10s; 
nobles 134/13 
noche n ouch, brooch 80/4 
noder see nother 
nominated pp named 484/17 
non graduate adj and n comp undergraduate: 
applied to a university student who has not 


yet taken a degree 410/8; non graduat 
411/26; non graduates pl 412/2 
non-regent adjand n applied to a master of 
arts of five years' standing or more, no 
longer obliged to preside over disputations 
in the schools 503/! 4, etc; non regentes pl 
636/30; non regents 504/21, etc; see also 
norture see nurture 
nosell n nozzle, ie, a socket (for a candle or 
other light) 21 !/23 
nother quasi-pron in phr a nother another 
146/23, etc; a noder 83/18; a noyer 
notize n notice, warning 309/34 
nought n figure O, zero 135/31 
nought adv wickedly ! 38/3 ! 
nout adv not 83/19 
nowne adiectiue n phr adjective, word 
standing for the name of an attribute 
850/2 ! 
noyer see nother 
noyse n band of musicians 329/9, etc 
nurture n upbringing, training 348/34; 
norture 276/6 

obscene adj disgusting (but not necessarily 
lewd) 643/24 
occasion n !. cause, incitement 136/3, etc; 
occacion 297/29, 382/15; occasyon 
362/39, 439/35; occacions pl 297/17; 
occasions 140/33, etc; occations 395/28; 
2. occurrence 347/38; 3. time; occasion 
346/14; occasions pl 864/35; 4. piece of 
business 23 !/40 
occasioned v pa 3 pl caused, incited 426/1, etc 
occupied pp employed 163/!, 191/30, etc 
occupiers n pl residents 310/2 
occurrents n pl happenings, events 875/24 
ockystewysday see Hocktewsdaye 
ocupye v use 254/19 
office n !. service 573/30; 2. duty 133/35, 
140/2; 3. place or post 289/9, etc; offyce 
! 76/32,339/35; offyces pl ! 76/3 !, 176/37; 
4. department of the royal household, in 
phr Office of the Roabes branch of the 

household caring for the sovereign's robes 
of state and those of the retinue 355/18; see 
also robes 
Okemonday see Hockmunday 
ondoyng vb n undoing, destruction 
one prep on 373/26, etc 
onlawfull adj unlawful 269/19 
onlawfullnes n unlawfulness 269/25 
ons pron poss one's 464/30 
onspoken ppl adj unspoken 136/36 
onward adv in time, eventually 642/5 
oon pron one, a certain 140/22 
oonles conj unless 139/24 
oonly adv only 135/23, 136/9 
opoynte v appoint 271/27; opoynted pp 
opposite adj hostile 550/30 
orator n !. an officer of the university, 
appointed to make public speeches, write 
official letters, introduce candidates for 
certain degrees, and perform other similar 
duties 356/4, etc; orattor 510/40; 
Publique Oratour 244/2; 2. suppliant; 
oratores pl 341/35 
ordering vb n preparing 527/9 
orderly adj conformable to established order 
or rule 247/22 
ordinarily adv customarily, habitually 
orgins n pl organs 660/17 
or...or conj either...or 471/2 
orphas n iv/orphreys: ornamental bands or 
borders on church vestments, often richly 
embroidered ! 81/20 
ost see host 
ostell see hostle 
ol3er adj other 89/29 
ouer bodi(e) see bodie 
ouerplus see overplus 
ouersight n supervision 373/38, 858/34 
ought times adv phr oft times, often 856/33 
ould adj old, ie, notable, plentiful 445/6 
oure adv over ! 19/15 
out prep used where modern idiom requires 
'out of' 434/6, etc 


overplus n surplus 318/10; ouerplus 550/21 
over watched pp exhausted, worn out 235/20 
owldadj 1. old 127/17, etc; 2. owld madppl 
comp'old-made,'ie, old-fashioned 161/30 
oyer pron andadj other I 11/38, etc; oyers pl 

packthred n packthread, stout thread like that 
used to sew or tie up packs or bundles 
500/18; packthrede 208/31; pacthred 
498/30; pakethreid 122/20; pakthrede 
padd horse n comp 'pad': an easy-paced horse 
for riding roads and tracks 533/26 
page n 1. an attendant on a person of rank 
543/30; pl in phr Gentlemen Pages 513/25; 
2. Pages of Honnor youths of gentle birth 
serving as pages to learn court ways 513/18 
pace n course, way 875/35 
paiar n pair 126/18, etc 
paid home pp phr revenged (the usual 
meaning is 'punished, paid out'; perhaps 
the syntax is confused here) 445/9 
paine n 1. penalty 586/13, 586/28; payne 
233/11, etc; 2. effort, exertion; paines pl 
178/13, etc;pains 173/28, 701/30; paynes 
paines n pl panes (of glass) 252/27, 265/40 
painfull ad/willing to take pains, assiduous, 
diligent 855/34 
pakethreid, pakthrede see packthred 
pale n vertical stripe or band in the middle of 
a shield (heraldic term) 1243/7; see also 
Pal(I)atine see Count Palatine 
Palsgraue n the Count Palatine of the Rhine 
492/30, etc; Palsgrave 507/16; Palsgraues 
poss 501/34 
parted pp made of or decorated with long 
ribbon-like strips of material set close and 
parallel, sometimes slashed to show puffs 
(see puffs) beneath 153/33; panyde 153/22 
panes taking vb n taking pains, doing careful 
work 417/4-5 
Pantaloun n a comic character: the butt of the 

clown's jokes, and sometimes his assistant 
panted pp painted 220/1 
pantoffles n pl overshoes covering the toe 
only; in the second half of the 16th 
century, these often had cork soles and 
high cork heels; they also came to be made 
of rich materials and were worn indoors as 
slippers 849/30 
panyde see paned 
papaly proper n (?) 498/25; see endnote 
paper n a sheet of music (?) 1019/10 
parantes see parrantes 
parasite n a stock character in comedies, a 
toady who attaches himself to a wealthier 
man and lives at his expense 672/37, 
843/38; parasites poss 223/31, etc 
parcell n 1. part, portion 692/15; 2. bundle 
or set; parcels pl 189/36 
parceyuid v pa 1 sg perceived 137/3 
parld v pa 3 pl talked 463/17 
parrantes n pl apparels: pieces of coloured 
cloth, often embroidered, attached to an 
amice and sometimes also to the skirt of an 
alb, and changed to match the church feast 
or season 153/7, 154/4; parantes 154/4 
parrych n parish 82/29 
parte adj 1. party, ie, divided: in p/)r parte 
per pale evenly divided lengthwise 
(heraldic term) 1243/7; 2. 'party': parti- 
coloured, variegated; partie 196/10 
parted pp 'party': parti-coloured 219/8 
partie n 1. part (of a garment) 196/6; 2. role 
(in a play); parties pl 94/2 
parts n pl abilities, talents 543/12, 855/35; in 
phr of parts gifted, talented 855/39 
pasquilles n pl scurrilous writings, squibs 
past n pasteboard 127/36, etc; paste 127/35, 
171/38; a ttr in pt)r past h attes 162/14; see 
also pastbord 
pastbord n pasteboard: a stiff, firm substance 
made by pasting together, compressing, 
and rolling, three or more sheets of paper 
162/11; past boordes pl 158/19 


pastime n diversion, amusement; pastimes pl 
270/23, etc; hence, a diverting or amusing 
performance 298/22, etc 
pastorall n a play portraying idyllic rural life 
509/29, etc; attr 500/20; pasteral1527/12; 
pastoral 514/16, 622/31 ; pastorals pl 
pattents n pl open letters from the sovereign 
or some other authority, ordering 
something to be done, conferring rights 
and privileges, or recording an agreement 
665/7; lettres pattents n phr 665/10, etc 
Paules n poss St Paul's Cathedral, London 
650/9; Pawles 574/6; in phr St Paules 
church 648/7-8m 
paved pp in phr paved out laid out as 
pavement 445/27 
pawle n pall, a rich cloth used as a cover, 
canopy, or hanging 124/4 
payar n pair 126/16; payer 124/21, etc 
paynes n pl panes (of glass) 175/25 
peace n 1. public order 269/24, etc; peaxe 
270/27; 2. in phr hold her peace keep 
silence 642/25-6; see also iustice 
pecked ppl adj peaked ; in phr pecked hattes 
hats with one or more conical points 
pedante n pedant 876/40 [OED Pedant and 
pedanteria n teaching (as a profession) 855/18 
peecedpppieced, ie, made to come apart and 
fit together again 693/8 
peekes n pl points 146/13 
pelting ppl adj paltry, mean 997/18 
penitencie n penitence, repentance 288/39 
pensionary n a residence for pensioners, ie, 
undergraduates of a college who had to pay 
for their room and board 485/19 
pere n pair 104/5 
perfite adj perfect 119/20 
persers n pl piercers, ie, tools for making 
holes 203/32 
person n in phr of person in bodily figure 
155/25, 244/22 
personate v imitate, mimic, especially in a 

theatrical performance; personated pa 3 pl 
849/31; pp 377/34; personating 859/36 
phisick n medicine 868/38 
pickadilly n in the 17th century, an upright 
stiffened frame attached to the back of the 
doublet collar and edged with tabs turned 
out horizontally to support the ruff 673/2, 
673/12 [Cunnington, 17th Century] 
pitch v I. fall heavily; pich't pa 3 sg 639/25; 
2. in phr pitch upon settle on, choose; 
pitched upon pa 3 sg 855/38; pp 543/I 1 
pitt coale n compcoal mined from the ground 
527/21, etc; cf sea coale 
placet n 'placet': assent, consent 511/I0 
plae(s) see play 
plaer(e)s see player 
plage n a deadly epidemic disease, the 
bubonic plague or Black Death 199/4, etc; 
plague 276/25, 340/26; plague-time cornp 
time of the plague 641/39-642/1 
plageary n plagiary, plagiarist 286/14 
plaiar(e)s, plaier see player 
plaid(e), plaie see play and playe 
plaing gere n comp playing gear, costumes 
and properties for acting 99/27, etc; 
playng gere 169/19, 189/36; playenge 
gere 190/11 
plais see play 
plaited pp pleated 160/40 
plaites n pl 1. pleats 126/32, 196/14; see also 
playtes 2. plates, sheets (of metal), or 
plates (for food) 185/7; see also plate 
plasse n place 83/19 
plate n metal beaten out 191/3; platt 121/12; 
see also cote, plaites 
play n 1. performance, usually but not 
necessarily dramatic 92/23, etc; plae 
165/24; plaie 166/4, etc; playe 107/3, etc; 
pley 144/18, etc; pleye 230/36; plaes pl 
165/26; plaies 118/31, etc; plais 132/5, etc; 
playes 109/19; plays 108/13; 2. recreation, 
pastime 514/18; 3. jest, sport; playe 140/28 
playe v 1. perform a dramatic piece 247/17, 
etc; plaie 322/10 (?); play 92/24, etc; plaid 
pa 3 sg 319/28 (?); plaied 134/9; playd 


Portlatin(e), Portlattin, Portlatyn (daye) see 
lohn Port lattin 
poticarie n apothecary, ie, dispensing 
chemist, druggist 177/35; poticary 354/3; 
see also appothocarye 
pot poets n p/verse writers fond of tippling 
(perhaps suggesting that they could 
compose only when drunk) 851/16 
pouled pp polled, ie, clipped, cropped 379/1 
powdred pp powdered, ie, sprinkled, 
decorated with identical small devices at 
frequent and regular intervals 152/36, etc; 
powdrede 153/4, 153/33 
pownced pp in the 16th century, 'pounced' 
garments were those decorated with a 
symmetrical pattern of tiny slits 126/20, 
etc; pownsced out 171/31 ; pownsed 
196/27, 197/18 
practise n practical experience or 
acquaintance 850/18 
practize v practise 291/27; practized pa 3 sg 
291/33; practized pp 270/25, 292/26 
praesenes n presence 622/15 
praye v entreat, beseech 133/32, etc; pray 
227/37, etc; praing prp 304/37; praying 
preasse see press 
precedent adj preceding, previous 92/35, 
94/2; president 98/8; presydent 98/6, 
preferment n 1. advancement 543/22; 2. an 
appointment or post giving advantages 
preferred pp 1. advanced, put forward 544/7; 
2. presented, brought formally to the 
notice of an authority 382/21 
pregnant adj weighty, cogent 587/32 
premisses n iv/aforesaid (statements, etc) 
present v bring (a fact, complaint, or accused 
person) before a court or other authority 
presently adv 1. immediately 379/1, etc; 
presentlye 572/1 ; 2. at present; presentlie 

president n 1. at Queens' College, the head, 
equivalent to the master at other colleges 
(see L praeses); 2. at other colleges, one 
of the fellows, acting as a deputy to the 
master 133/29, etc; presedent 553/30; 
presidente 482/10; presydent 220/36; 
presidents poss 516/35; presidentes pl 
135/7, etc; presidents 666/10; prisidentes 
135/37; 3. a governor of a town; president 
president n precedent 289/37 
press n 1. crowd, packed throng 505/26; 
preasse 644/12; presse 433/18, 439/19; 
2. cupboard 695/1 O; presse 203/23; see also 
press banters 
presse v 1. crowd, stand near, push forward 
460/30, 473/1 O; pressed pa 3 sg 289/13, etc; 
prest 472/32; preste 463/9; pressinge prp 
460/7, etc; pressing 462/1 O; 2. urge, insist; 
pressed pa 3 p13 78/12 ; pressed pp 550/15; 
3. impress, imprint; pressed pp 506/35 
press banters n comp pl press haunters, 
frequenters of printing offices 851/16 
pretence n claim, excuse (usually but not 
necessarily implying falsehood) 137/22, 
etc; pretense 135/28, 137/16 
pretend v claim, maintain, allege (not 
necessarily falsely) pretendes pr 3 sg 
644/22 ; pretendeth 291/27; pretended pp 
464/20; pretending prp 668/26; 
pretendinge refl 342/23 
pretenders n pl claimants (not necessarily 
false) 862/31 
preter n praeter: a payment or allowance 
beyond what is customary or stipulated 
192/14, etc; pretor 516/35, 672/22 
pretermitted pp discontinued 139/22 
pretty adj 1. pleasing, amusing, diverting 
540/18, etc; pretie 848/6; 2. considerable, 
fair; prettie 366/20 
prevent v forestall 395/28; preuent 645/26; 
prevented pp 341/28, 570/34m 
prince n 1. head of state, ruler, monarch 
135/23, etc; 2. (usually Prince) monarch's 
eldest living son, heir to throne; here, 


usually Charles, son of James ,, later King 
Charles  501/25, etc; prynce 119/6; 
princes poss 422/9, etc; prynces 115/7, etc; 
3. (usually Prince) short title for the Prince 
Elector (see 5. below) 663/14, etc; 4. in pl 
the king's son and son-in-law, the Prince 
of Wales and count palatine; princes 
493/9, etc; princes poss p1494/19, 504/32, 
etc; 5. in phr Prince Elector Charles Louis, 
the heir or claimant to the county palatine 
of the Rhine 661/5, etc; Prince Electors 
poss 663/3; Prince Palatine properly the 
prince elector; prince Palatines poss 
661/24; but erroneously used of Frederick 
v, the count palatine (see Count Palatine); 
Prince Palatines poss 511/36; Prince of 
Wales the son and heir of the king of 
England; here Charles, son of Charles , 
later King Charles n 701/3 
prinkum prankum n comp a round dance in 
which women and men alternately knelt on 
a cushion to be kissed, a cushion dance 
prisidentes see president 
priswade v persuade, lead (people) to do 
priuely adv privily, secretly 289/17 
priviledg n privilege: a charter or a patent 
granting privileges 297/24 
priuiledged ppl adj entitled to the privileges 
of a member or servant of the university, 
such as exemption from normal legal 
jurisdiction 409/29 
privy adj private 429/11 ; in phr priuie 
Chamber originally, the sovereign's or 
consort's private apartment; hence, his or 
her household 'above stairs' 345/27-8; 
priuie Councell privy council, the 
sovereign's private council of state 664/39; 
priuie Counsell 347/31,348/13; priuy 
Counsayll 512/5, 512/7; priuy Cownsell 
340/31 ; privie Councell 297/16, 378/2; 
privy Counsayll 512/3; pryvie Counsell 
325/38; pryvie Cownsel1326/2, etc; pryvy 
Cownsel1339/26-7, etc; Lord Privy Seale 

keeper of the smaller seal of state, which 
originally travelled with the king 645/5; 
Privy Seal 643/36; Lorde pryvye seales 
poss 130/24 
proceed v advance to a degree in the 
university 667/39; proceeded pa 3 sg 
procreation n production of offspring by 
sexual intercourse; but apparently with 
pun intended on 'procuration,' provision 
of necessary hospitality and entertainment 
to one entitled to it by right 870/26 
proctor n one of two elected representatives 
of the masters of arts in a university, 
exercising judicial and legislative functions 
and discipline over the junior members 
221/23, etc; proctors pl 232/19, etc 
procure v 1. arrange for 276/33, etc; 2. urge; 
procured pp 400/6 
prodigious adj amazing, monstrous 643/16 
produce v bring forward to give evidence in 
a court of law 426/24, etc; produced pp 
professor n an instructor of the highest rank 
in a university, holding an endowed chair; 
in phr Margaret Professor holder of a 
chair of divinity endowed by Lady 
Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry vn 
progresse n a state journey made by the 
sovereign or some other magnate 227/26 
prologue n speaker of the opening speech of 
a dramatic performance; prologe 186/30, 
186/35; prologes poss 190/14 
proper adj 1. excellent, capital (but often used 
ironically) 552/16, 846/20; 2. characteristic 
propernesse n comeliness, elegance 244/22 
protasis n the opening part of a play, in which 
the characters are introduced and the 
subject entered on 119/34 
provost n title given to the head of King's 
College, Cambridge 243/37, 506/28; 
provos 233/29; provostes poss 507/7 
publique adj pertaining to the whole 


university, as against a particular college 
410/1, etc; public 411/21; publick 543/5; 
publike 620/30; in phr Publique Oratour 
see orator; publique schooles see schooles 
publish v 1. exhibit publicly 396/4, etc; 
publishe 570/33; 2. proclaim or display 
publicly; published pp 511/9, etc; 
publisshed 410/36 
puffs n pl the decorative swellings produced 
by pulling an under-layer of material out 
through slashes or partly open seams in the 
upper layer 440/11; puffes 440/8 
puppett playe n comp a play acted with 
puppets 487/18; puppet playesp1521/19; 
puppett plays 487/9 
puppitt player n comp one who manages or 
stages a puppet play 521/19m; puppit 
players pl 400/2 
pure adj true, genuine 612/5 
purge v clear, exculpate 136/14 
puritan n member of a church party opposed 
to all teaching and practice not clearly 
supported by a strict interpretation of 
scripture, and to all merrymaking that 
might conceivably lead to intemperance or 
immoral conduct 588/13; purytan 589/6; 
puritans pl 641/26, etc 
purple n properly crimson; purpul1202/3; but 
used of the scarlet coiour of university 
doctors' dress robes 857/7 
purvior n purveyor: one who secures a 
supply of a commodity for the royal 
household at a fixed price 533/6 
pusled pp puzzled 587/10 
pynnys n pl pins 842/11 

quallity n 1. rank, social standing 412/12, 
667/4; qualitie 503/38, 637/8; quality 
543/9, 621/3; quallityes pl 542/13; 
2. abilities, attainments; qualities p1140/2; 
3. character, role 515/28 
quarrelles n pl small panes of glass, usually 
diamond-shaped, used in lattice work 
248/16, etc; quarelles 252/6; quarels 
266/2; quarles 353/35; quarrells 545/8 

quarter n 1. one of four fixed divisions of the 
year, for which rents were commonly paid 
and accounts settled 282/23, etc; in phr 
quarter dayes the days beginning the 
quarters 612/19; 2. a fourth part of some 
unit of measurement, eg, yards of cloth 
97/4, etc; quarters pl 226/37 
quartermaster n officer charged with finding 
lodging and provisions for a retinue 513/35 
quarter waiters n comp pl an inferior order 
of gentlemen ushers who attended the 
sovereign for a quarter of a year at a time 
quartridg n quarterage, ie, wages for one 
quarter of the year 1017/14 
quayffes see coif 
queanes n poss queen's 234/21 
Queenes daie n phr 17 November, 
anniversary of the accession of Elizabeth ,, 
kept as a day of public rejoicing 278/20, 
etc; Queenes day 321/27; Queens day 
queer n choir: the chancel of a church or 
chapel, or the part of it where the choir was 
placed 233/19, 233/30; queere 234/20 
questions n pl points to be investigated or 
discussed in a scholastic disputation 
508/30, etc 
questmen n pl parish officers elected to assist 
the churchwardens in both their church 
and their civil duties 363/14 
quibling pp quibbling: resorting to ingenious 
reasoning of doubtful validity 857/9 
qui qua: codshead n phr a dunce ignorant of 
the rudiments of Latin grammar 849/2 
[blend of'qui, quae, quod,' nora sg forms 
of the Latin relative pronoun, and OED 
Cod's-head 2] 
quirister n chorister, professional singing 
boy 490/8, 497/11 
quishions see quoysshen 
quitt v re)q acquit, behave 514/38 
quoygeil see cudgell 
quoysshen n cushion 233/35; quishions pl 


rabble-routs n comppl (members of a) mob, 
vulgar crowd 849/25 
racks n pl part of Queens' College's 
demountable stage, perhaps seating or 
flooring 690/3, etc; rackes 691/4 
raile n railing, fence 221/36, etc; rayle 449/3, 
etc; railes p1504/21, etc; rayles 388/41, etc 
raising n rasen: raising piece, wall plate, a 
timber placed horizontally on a wall (here 
especially a stud wall) to form a support 
for joists or rafters 693/2; raisings p1693/8 
rake n rack: a particular cut of meat (here, of 
mutton) usually the neck or the fore-part 
of the spine; rakes pl 169/6 
rapier n a narrow-bladed sword, used chiefly 
for thrusting 360/22, etc; raper 436/1; 
rapyer 361/21, etc; rapieres pl 482/23; 
rapiers 461/39 
rate n a charge levied by a body upon its 
members (eg, a university on its colleges) 
to defray common expenses, usually 
bearing some relation to their wealth 
529/37, etc 
rate v assess for a rate (see rate n); rated pp 
550/35, 651/21; ratinge vb n 550/36 
rather adv sooner, more quickly 341/25 
read adj red 219/7, etc; reade 219/9, etc 
reader n a holder of a senior endowed 
lectureship in a university or college 155/16 
rebuke v put down by blaming and bringing 
into contempt 137/20 
re-cants vpr3 sg sings again, with pun on the 
sense 'withdraws and disavows a writing or 
speech' 857/27 
recarring vb n re-carrying, carrying back 
recognizaunce n recognizance: a bond by 
which someone engages before a court to 
observe some condition 572/5 
recorder n a borough magistrate, usually 
presiding over the local court 263/38, etc; 
recordor 424/22; recorders poss 505/25 
[ vcu Cambridge m. 58-60] 
reede pp rid 870/40 
reeld v pa 3 pl made to stagger 462/23 

refuce v refuse 176/33 
regalles n pl regals: portable organs 203/34 
regent n a junior master of arts, of less than 
five years' standing, required by statute to 
preside over disputations 503/14, etc; 
regentes pl 507/28, etc; regents 503/17, 
etc; see also non-regent 
regent house n comp the building in which 
the Regent House (one of the two bodies 
comprising the Senate of Cambridge 
University) met to consider and vote on its 
business 509/37, 621/35; Regenthouse 
700/38; regent howse 356/4 
rehearse v 1. relate, tell 857/12; 2. prepare, 
practise (of a performance); reirsyd pp 
Reingraue n Rhinegrave: a count whose 
domain borders on the river Rhine 512/24 
relation n report, account 425/14 
rent adj rent, torn 153/8 
repaire n 1. resort 339/36; 2. restoration; 
repayre 612/33 
repaire v go, betake oneself 290/7, 349/30; 
repayre 227/26; repaired pa 3 pl 511/24; 
repay red pp 339/19, 339/34; repayring prp 
309/29, etc 
repeate v recite (not necessarily for a second 
or later time), hence rehearse 530/6; 
repeated pp 701/24; repeating vb n 
527/22; in comp repeating chamber room 
for rehearsal 519/41 [OED Repeat v 2] 
repetition n recital 682/12; repeticion 506/21 
repliars n p/replyers: those who spoke second 
in formal university disputations, 
endeavouring to refute or cast doubt on the 
arguments of the first speaker 508/24, 
reprehension n reprimand, reproof 304/28 
requeare v require 326/9 
request n vogue, fashion 849/11 
residentiarys see canon residentiary 
rested v pa 3 sg arrested 644/9 
retorted pp flung back, answered in kind 
retrive v retrieve, get back 859/11 


extension to protect the nape of the neck 
saltes pl salt cellars 175/35 
salting vb n the custom of admitting or 
initiating freshmen in a college with mock 
ceremonies 321/7, 997/20, etc; see 
Appendix 12 
sam In'on and adj same 621/17; sambe 83/23 
sanct n saint 126/4, 143/31 
sangwen n sanguine, blood-red 71/7 
saracen n and adj Arab, Muslim 848/35; in 
pbr ye saresins hed the Saracen's Head, 
name of an inn 199/35 
sarcenet, sarsnett, sasenett see sacenet 
sargeant n a minor officer, usually one in 
command of others, eg, of a band of 
musicians 533/17, etc; in phr applied to 
various officers of the royal household; 
sargeant att armes knight of the 
sovereign's bodyguard, with power to 
arrest traitors and other offenders 533/13; 
sargeant of the close cariage officer in 
charge of the sovereign's enclosed carriage 
or travelling coach 533/33 
sath v pr3 sg saith, says 445/10 
satisfaction n reparation, compensation, 
atonement 455/4, etc; satisfaccion 411/37 
satisfie v compensate, repay, make atonement 
456/6; satifyed (error for 'satisfied') pp 
satten of bridges n phr satin of Bruges: a 
fabric made with a warp of silk and a woof 
of thread 220/5; satin of Briges 294/23; 
satin off burges 153/5; satyn of bryges 
satyre n satyr (a character in a play) 872/18 
sauegarde n safeguard: safety 289/32 
sawiers n pl sawyers, workmen employed to 
saw timber 677/6, etc 
sawser n saucer: a dish for holding sauce or 
other food 255/3 
saye see saie 
sayleirs n pl cloth wall hangings; here for the 
stage 527/2 [OED Celure] 
scabberd n scabbard, sword sheath 467/3 

scaffold n 1. a raised platform (here usually 
a temporary str.ucture) used for exhibiting 
persons or acuons to public view, here 
especially for enacting college ceremonies 
and presenting plays 231/11, etc; scaffolde 
145/3, etc; 2. a raised platform or stand for 
holding spectators; a gallery in a church or 
college hall; scaffold 465/37, etc; scaffould 
636/26; scaffoldes pl 542/13, 875/39; 
scaffolds 502/18, etc; scaffollds 666/20, 
scandall n offence 542/31 
scaped v pa 3 sg escaped, got off 467/29 
scayne n skene: a dagger or small sword 
465/38; sceyne 436/2 
scarlet adj made of a fine woollen cloth of a 
bright red colour used, among other 
things, for university doctors' dress robes 
504/32; scarlett 508/4; skarlett 79/39, 
scean n scene 884/25 
scepter n an ornamental wand, carried by the 
sovereign on certain state occasions as an 
emblem of authority; hence, meta- 
phorically, the royal dignity or power 
378/4; scepteres p1127/29; scepters 162/1, 
172/2; septeres 191/7; septerres 190/35 
schalloppe shelles n comppl scallop shells (as 
a decorative pattern or emblem) 219/39 
schedule n piece or roll of paper or 
parchment; short tract written on this 
scholarship n 1. a place as a foundation 
scholar in a college of the university, the 
cost of whose lodging and tuition was met 
from the endowment 573/29 2. the 
attainments proper to one who has studied 
the liberal arts or sciences; schollershipp 
scholasticall adj academic, characteristic of a 
university as a place of learning 155/28, etc; 
scholastical 514/19 
schole see school 
scholler n 1. pupil, disciple 848/11; scoler 
191 / 1 ; 2. junior person being taught in the 


attendant 446/14m, etc; seruant 512/29, 
etc; seruante 200/15, 843/39; servaunt 
309/40, etc; serveant 465/31; seruantes 
poss 219/28, 219/30; servantes 126/16, etc; 
seruantsplSl2/l, etc; servandes 159/26; 
servantes 333/42, etc; servants 365/II, 
653/5; servauntes 646/7; servaunts 508/8; 
2. applied to troupes of players enioying 
the patronage of a magnate or member of 
the royal family; servauntes 290/6; ye 
Lord of Leiceter his servantes 291/3-4; 
hir Maiesties servantes 332/4,338/9; her 
Majesties owne servantes 346/30; the 
Queen of Bohemias servantes 625/39-40 
service n piece of work done to gratify 
another; hence used of an entertainment 
565/29, 544/29; seruices pl 634/7 
set v in phr set forth I. supply, provide 
864/31 ; 2. publish (a book) set forth pa 3 
sg 863/37; 3. declare, announce (a name) 
setforth pp 295/8; 4. mount or produce (a 
show or play) set forthe 269/18; set fourth 
234/29; sett forth 355/15, 844/18; sett 
furthe 343/5; sett furth pa 3 sg 195/39; set 
forth pp 701/26; sett forthe 349/4; 
settinge forth vb n 618/14; setting furth 
167/15, 184/38; settynge fforth 129/10; 
settyng furthe 117/17 
set(t) on heads, vppon heads see head 
sett pp in pier sett oute set off, shown to 
advantage 536/17; in phr sett ruffe here 
probably a standing ruff with tubular pleats 
1243/9 [Cunnington, 17th Century] 
setter forth n phr producer, exhibiter 
settled v pa 3 sg stunned with a blow and 
caused to lie still 450/6 
seuenight n sennight: a space of seven nights, 
a week; mostly used in reckoning 
backwards, as in phr tewsday was 
seuenight a week ago Tuesday SIS/IS; 
thursday was seuenight a week ago 
Thursday 598/15 
sewers n pl in phr sewers of the 
chamber officers of the royal household 

in charge of meals and feasts 533/12 
sey(e) see saie 
shackebuttes see sackbutt 
shaftes n pl shafts (perhaps for making 
woodwinds, but perhaps for some other 
use) 129/41 
shag(ge)butt see sackbutt 
shards n pl cow-pats, patches of cow-dung 
shaving clothes n comp pl shaving-cloths 
shearers n pl sharers 612/31; sherers 613/I 
sherriff n sheriff: the chief royal official for 
a county, mainly concerned with law 
enforcement; or a similar official in a town, 
usually but not always appointed by the 
crown; hye Sherriff phr 496/24-5; 
sheriffes poss 632/17; 649/36; shreeves 
624/I 0; shreues 617/I I ; sherifes p1395/23; 
sheriffes 645/22, 646/26 
shew n show, spectacle, performance, 
display, demonstration (often 
distinguished from a play) 183/27, "etc; 
shewe 206/19, etc; shoaw 273/41; shoe 
223/17; show 212/5, etc; showe 209/2, etc; 
shewes pl 177/29, etc; shews 200/5, 521/5; 
shewys 187/5, etc; showes 187/I, etc 
shew  declare, set forth (legal formula); 
sheweth pr 3 sg 665/1 
shier n shire, county 341/8 
shift n in phr for a shift at a pinch, as a 
makeshift 879/19 
shipman n sailor, mariner; attr 160/37; 
shepemanes poss 126/21 ; shippmanes 
160/38; shyppmen pl attr 124/2; shipmens 
poss pl 197/5, 197/6; shippmens 219/40 
shois n pl shoes 127/33; shooes 197/22; 
shoues 843/14; shoys 201/35 
shomaker n comp shoemaker, cobbler 
225/41; schowe maker 83/II, 83/16; 
showemaker 249/25; show maker 501/8 
shoppes see sioppes 
shreeves, shreues see sherriff 
Shrouesunday n comp Quinquagesima 
Sunday 663/5 


strake see stricke 
strange adj 1. unusual, unaccustomed 
160/18, 515/11 ; 2. extraordinary 411/27; 
strangely adv 348/5; 3. outside, not 
belonging to one's own community; 
strang 681/19 
stranger n someone from outside (a 
community or calling) 499/29, etc; 
straunger 200/22; strangers pl 270/16, 
etc; strangrs 504/5; straungers 426/20 
strawed see strow 
stremer n streamer: a long, narrow flag used 
as a decoration; attr in phr stremer cloth 
a cloth for a streamer 254/18; stremers pl 
stricke v 1. trip; strik 454/26; 2. strike; 
stricke 482/40; stracke pa 3 sg 483/10; 
strake 483/14, 483/26; strock 453/15; 
strocke 441/25, etc; strok 427/33; stroke 
436/10, etc; strook 446/4, etc; strooke 
468/4; stroke pp 430/5, etc; stroken 432/2, 
432/5; strook 439/27; strooke 433/23, etc 
stringes n pl 1. lengths of gut, cord, or wire 
stretched on musical instruments to give 
tones when struck 354/23, etc; strings 
394/21 ; 2. ribbons fixed in the bindings of 
books for use as place-markers 526/15, 
526/23; strings 505/9 
strooke n stroke 442/7 
strow v strew, besprinkle; strawed pp 
233/22; strowed 233/14; strowynge vb n 
stud n a wooden upright, usually of the height 
of a single storey, interposed between the 
principal posts in the framing of a partition 
wall 688/39, etc; studdes p1344/13; studs 
688/27, etc; stud raile n comp a railing or 
fence made of uprights rather than 
horizontals (see board) 690/36, etc 
stuffn 1. equipment, gear, goods 127/38, etc; 
stuffe 154/14; 2. in phr stuff suit worsted 
woollen fabric 672/36, 673/11 ; 3. material; 
stufe 223/31 
sturre see stiff 
stylkes n pl sticks 171/39, 172/13 

submission n a formal act of acknowledging 
the authority of a person or body and 
apologizing for having broken his or its 
injunctions 288/37, etc; submissions pl 
subscribed pp approved 400/5 
subtile adj sly, cunning, fair seeming 288/37; 
subtill 847/12 
sub-tutour n an assistant tutor 543/11, 
543/13; sub-tutours poss 543/30 
suertie n 1. surety, bond or guarantee of 
behaviour or performance 137/27, 
1009/22; suertyes p1486/12; 2. guarantor; 
suerties pl 254/7; suertyes 571/26 
sufferance n discretionary permission, leave, 
toleration 191/25; sufferaunce 135/5 
suffrages n pl votes 574/9 
sugar cheyst n comp sugar chest: a coffer for 
keeping sugar under lock and key 108/I8 
suit(e) see suyte 
suiter n petitioner, suppliant 550/33; suiters 
pl 550/9; suitors 625/26 
sukket n succade: candied fruit 150/30 
sumpterman n comp packhorse driver 
sunne n Sun (name of an inn)430/24, 484/14; 
sone 443/15; sonne 465/9; sune 443/6; 
sunn 430/26m, etc; attr in phr Sunne gate 
the gateway of the Sun inn 467/15; sone 
gates pl 438/8; Sungates 428/13; sunne 
gates 452/13 
supper n a light meal taken late in the evening 
231/10, etc; soper 110/29, 111/13;suppere 
230/27; suppers pl 353/11 
supportacion n support, assistance 135/21 
supporters n pl in heraldry, figures (usually 
real or fabulous beasts, but sometimes 
human) shown holding up a shield 1243/9 
supposed pp reputed, believed 459/15, etc 
surcease v pr 2 sg cease, stop 848/35 
surffetting vb n surfeiting: overeating, 
gluttony 599/6 
surplesses n p/surplices: long, ample 
garments of white linen with full hanging 
sleeves, worn for divine service by clergy, 


209/13,209/14; tragedie 355/15,355/16; 
tragoedy 243/12, 243/17; tragydy 355/35 
trashe nayle n coil 'trash-nails': a kind of nail 
commonly used in putting up scenery or 
fitting up a stage 208/32 
trauayle n travail, labour 288/36 
travayle v travail, labour, toil 133/34, 134/39 
travas n traverse: curtain 233/17 
trayne n escort, retinue 233/4, etc; train 
860/24; traine 862/10; traines 507/31 
treasurer n 1. in phr Lord Treasurer a high 
officer of state controlling the royal 
revenues 346/7, etc; Lorde hy Tresurer 
270/5; Lord Treasurers poss 554/34; 2. the 
controller of a magnate's or town's 
revenues; tresurer 5 ! 3/29; treasures poss 
406/41 ; thresurrerrs pl 89/12m 
trees n pl posts (?) 527/3 
trenchers n pl flat wooden platters that food 
was served on or eaten from 165/40, etc 
trestles n pl supports used in setting up 
collapsible tables or a temporary stage 
275/21,275/26; tressiis 131/32, 131/38; 
tressuiles 159/21 ; tristles 154/22; trystles 
tripos n a bachelor of arts appointed to 
dispute, humorously or satirically, with 
the candidates for degrees at 
commencement 572/16 
trompets see trumpet 
trompeters, trompetter(e)s, troumpetters 
see trumpeter 
trowellers n pl bricklayers 695/26 
trumpet n 1. a kind of wind instrument 
171/40, 496/29; trumpit 577/21, etc; 
trompets pl 508/37; trumpettes 199/31 ; 
2. trumpeter; trumpet 496/26; trompets 
pl 509/23; trumpeites 89/18; trumpets 
632/17, etc; trumpettes 90/33; 
trumppittes 89/11 
trumpeter n trumpet player 496/5, etc; 
trumpetor 212/1, etc; trumpetour 
658/10; trumpetter 488/38, etc; 
trumpettor 523/40; trumpettour 591/30; 
trumplter 533/17; trumpter 562/3; 

trompeters pl 582/13, 623/5; 
trompetteres 605/17; trompetters 
163/35, 514/7; troumpetters 559/10; 
trumpeteres 331/32; trumpeters 226/32, 
etc; trumpetors 416/14; trumpetorz 
103/35; trumpetours 546/8, etc; 
trumpetteres 337/16, 559/3; trumpetters 
226/12, etc; trumpettores 391/34; 
trumpettors 385/3, etc; trumpettorz 
103/25 trumpettours 398/15; trumpiters 
184/31 ; trumpitters 336/! 5, 533/! 6; 
trumpiturs 577/16; trumppetters 600/40; 
trumpters 284/22; trumpyters 337/32 
truncheon n club, cudgel 463/14; trunchion 
trust v thrust 309/17 
trystles see trestles 
tuff adj tough 464/16 
tumuict n tumult 451/22 
tunn n ton, as a measure of weight (the exact 
weight varied according to commodity and 
locality); tunn pl 530/21 
tunne n tun: a measure of capacity for wines 
and other liquids, usually equivalent to 
two pipes or four hogsheads; tunne pl 
tunycle n tunicle: a sleeved church vestment 
of linen or silk, often embroidered; 
properly, the one worn by the subdeacon 
or epistle-reader at the mass until ! 552 
181/6; tunacles pl the subdeacon's tunicle 
and the deacon's dalmatic, considered as a 
pair 152/37, etc 
turkey coat n phr a coat of 'turkey colour,' 
a bright blue obtained from a dye thought 
to come from the Ottoman Empire 679/16 
[OED Turkey blue and Turkey m 3c] 
turkye carpet n phr a carpet woven in the 
Ottoman Empire or some other Middle 
Eastern country where similar designs 
were used 233/25 
turned pp put inside out to show off the lining 
504/24, etc 
turning vb n bend (in a street) 505/14, 


turnamentes n p/mock knightly combats 
organized as pastimes and spectacles 400/1 
tusshes, tusshew, tusshu see tysshewe 
tutor n 1. an instructor in a university who 
supervised particular pupils' studies; at 
Cambridge, usually a fellow of a college 
572/38, etc; tutors poss 451/22, 849/1; 
tutorsp1271/30, etc; 2. a similar instructor 
employed privately to teach and supervise 
one or more young noblemen 513/23 
Twelfetyde n comp Twelfthtide: the evening 
of 5 January and the days immediately 
following, so called because 6 January, the 
feast of the Epiphany, was the twelfth day 
of Christmas 263/39; Twelfe tyde 436/25 
twelfte day n phr the feast of the Epiphany, 
6 January, being the twelfth day of 
Christmas 200/5 
twelft weeke n phr here probably the week 
containing Twelfth Night (5 January), but 
possibly the twelfth week (of a particular 
calendar) 288/17 
Twesday n Tuesday 99/33; twisdaye 1009/21 
twixt prep betwixt, between 587/25, 849/23 
tymekeeper n an attendant on a magnate, 
charged with ensuring that members of the 
retinue performed their duties at 
prescribed times (?) 514/1 
tyringe chamber n cornp dressing room (for 
a performance) 569/32-3; tyring house 
691/19, etc; tyreing house 528/6; tyringe 
house 620/31,636/39; see also tyringe 
chamber, attiringe 
tysshewe n tissue: a variety of cloth of gold, 
made of precious metals and silk in twisted 
threads 186/20, etc; tissew 161/14; tissue 
218/36; tusshes 180/39; tusshew 152/35, 
153/6; tusshu 154/4; tysschew 182/34, 
etc; tyssew 204/4; tyssewe 171/11 ; 
tysshew 190/18; tysshue 181/21 
tyypstafes n pl tipstaffs: staffs tipped with 
metal, carried by certain officers as a mark 
of office, especially by constables, ushers, 
bedells, and the like for controlling crowds 

lat pron that 82/26 

Uice Chancellor see vice-chancellor 
unboning prp pulling the bones from 
(figuratively) 859/23 
undergraduat n a junior pupil at a university 
who has not yet taken a degree 855/33 
unsufferable adj insufferable, unbearable 

vaine n in phr in a vaine in a fit or suitable 
vein, mood, humour (for something) 
vacation n a part of the year in which law 
courts, universities, and schools are closed 
875/12; long vacation n phr the time in late 
summer when lectures were not given in 
the university and members were not 
required to be in residence 860/5 
vardyngale n farthingale: in the mid-16th 
century, an underskirt distended by one or 
more circular hoops; vardyngalis pl 
varlet n knave or jack (at cards) 851/21 
vaunt v boast, brag; vaunts pr 3 g 857/26; 
vaunteth pr 3 sg 270/37 
velim n vellum: hide of a young animal (such 
as a calf, lamb, or kid) prepared as a writing 
or binding material 505/8 
verger n 1. verger: a wand bearer whowalks 
before dignitaries to clear the way and 
direct processions; poss pl in phr vergers 
roddes 172/3; 2. the wand itself; vergerres 
pl 190/3 7 
vellet n used as adj velvet 186/19 
vessell n coil containers for drink (and food ?) 
vestment n 1. a chasuble, a poncho-like 
garment worn by the celebrating priest at 
the mass before 1552 153/1, etc; vestmente 
123/25, 153/4; vestyment 152/37; 
vestmentes pl 153/18, 153/25; 
vestimentes 843/21 (?); 2. in p/cerem0nial 
robes for the mass collectively, including 
those worn by the deacon and subdeacon; 


vestmentes 154/13, 180/34; vestimentes 
843/21 (?); vestymentes 152/31; 3. a 
garment for some special occasion, 
probably an actor's costume; westmentes 
pl 122/17 
vesture n costume, article of clothing 160/18 
vestre n vestry: a section of, or room 
adjoining, a church or chapel, where robes 
are donned and kept 180/38, etc; vestrie 
233/13; vestrye 233/12, 233/16 
vlal(l)(e)(s) see violl 
vicar n a deputy; particularly, a salaried 
clergyman in actual charge of a parish 
church where the nominal rector, who 
received the tithes, was a layman, 
corporation, or disabled cleric 297/40 
vicarage n a vicar's residence 302/31; 
vicaredg 299/35 
vicechamberlein n the deputy or assistant of 
the Lord Chamberlain (see chamberlain) 
346/29; vicechamberline 345/29; 
vicechamberlines poss 346/I 
vicechancellor n the day-to-day chief officer 
of Cambridge University, chosen from 
1586 by rotation from among the heads of 
its constituent colleges; so called because 
he is formally the chancellor's deputy 
199/14, etc; Uice Chancellor 862/13; 
vicchancellor 598/6; vice chanceiler 
434/22; vice-chancellor 572/42; vice 
chancellor 438/12, etc; vicechance|lour 
641/22, 646/30; vice-chancellour 286/8, 
etc; vicechancelor 300/31, etc; vice 
chancelor 403/4, 437/18; vicechancelour 
643/19, 643/23; vicechancler 291/6; 
vicechaunceler 133/28, etc; 
vicechauncellor 276/36, etc; vice 
chauncellor 526/12, 665/27; 
vicechauncellour 428/21 ; vicechauncelor 
232/7; vicechauncelour 299/12; 
visechanseler 660/16: vizchavnselor 
292/34; vicechancellers poss 492/17, 
634/2; vicechancellors 303/18, etc; 
vicechauncelors 271/8, 300/33; 
vicechauncelers pl 291/13 

vicedominus see LG 
vicemaster n an assistant or deputy of the 
master of a college 198/11, etc; vice master 
209/12, etc; vicemaisters poss 42 I/7; 
vicemasters 420/38, etc 
viceprovost n at King's College, Cambridge, 
the deputy or assistant of the head of the 
college, styled the provost; viceprovostes 
poss 362/I 
victualling howse n comp eating house, 
restaurant 409/32 
violins n pl bowed musical instruments with 
four strings, played resting on the shoulder 
694/7; vyolans 203/26 
violl n I. viol: a bowed instrument with six 
strings, played sitting down 394/21, etc; 
viall 354/23, 519/33: vioall 369/11, etc; 
viol 489/16; vyoll 414/33,489/9; vialls p/ 
354/21 ; vioalls 417/7, 420/25; violls 
420/24, etc; vyalles 203/26; vyalls 526/33; 
vyolles 351/11; violls poss pl 394/21 ; 
2. viol-player; viales pl 207/20 
violl-book n comp a book of tunes or exercises 
for learning to play the viol 1018/26, 
I019/34; viol-books pl 1020/20 
virginals n pl a keyboard musical instrument 
resembling a spinet 318/17; virginalles 
visechanseler see vicechancellor 
vitious adj depraved, wicked 348/31 
vizard n mask 673/3, etc; visor 289/12, 
388/40; visoure 389/26; vizarde 460/39; 
risers pl 724/6, 843/3; vizards 859/32; 
vysarnes 171/35; vysaures 171/36 
vizchavnselor see vicechancellor 
vnbridledppladjunbridled, ie, unrestrained 
vncapable adj incapable, ie, not eligible 
410/II, 412/6 
vncased pp undressed, stripped 289/11 
vnder-reader n comp under-reader, ie, 
assistant or deputy to a senior lecturer (see 
reader) 155/15 
vndirchauncelor n vicechancellor (see 
vicechancellor) 396/42 


vnico adj unparalleled, unrivalled, unique 
vnlefull adj unlawful 276/20, etc 
vnlest conj unless 247/20 
vnmeete adj unmeet: unfitting, unsuitable 
347/8; vnmete 133/25 
vnperfyte adj imperfect, defective 203/33; 
vnperfytt 203/34 
vntell conj until 613/5 
vnwordyly adv unworthily 227/28 
vouchsafe v condescend, graciously consent 
or grant; voutsafe 536/37; vouchsafed pa 
3 p1231/24; pa 2 sg 625/39; vowchsafed pa 
3 pl 230/31 
vphouser n upholsterer 499/30 
vre n use; in phrput in vre put into practice 
270/12-13; 342/8 [O/D Ure sb 1] 
vsher n usher: one who admits people to a 
chamber and escorts them to their places; 
in phr Vsher of ye Hall 513/40; gentleman 
vsher officer of good birth in the royal 
household, who escorted persons of high 
rank 539/9, 551/22; gentlemen vshers pl 
533/14; yeoman vsher similar officer of 
lesser birth, escorting those of lower rank 
539/10, 551/24 
vttre adj utter, outer 218/30 
vttremost adj uttermost, outermost 221/17 
vyall(e)s, vyoll(es) see violl 
vychancellerschyppe n vice-chancellorship: 
the office of vice-chancellor 1202/15 
vyolans see violins 
vysarnes, vysaures see vizard 

waferer n waferer, maker or vendor of wafers 
wafted v pa 3 pl waved 426/20 
waggishly adv facetiously 378/7 
wagges n pl wages 268/39; wageis 305/15, etc 
waighte player n comp one who plays a wait's 
instrument (often a wait pipe, a kind of 
shawm) 334/7-8 
waites, waithes, waitis, waittes see wayte n 1 
wale n wall 484/2 
wanskott n wainscot: panelling made of 

wainscot, a superior kind of imported oak 
ward see beareward 
warde adv in combinations from...warde 
from the direction of 441/17, etc; 
into...ward in the direction of 468/27-8; 
redundantly in toward...ward towards 
warde n jail 304/29 
wardrobe n office of the royal household 
looking after garments and other textiles, 
such as bedding 551/25; warderobe 
539/11 ; in phr remooueing wardrobe 
branch of this office looking after the 
goods that travelled with the sovereign 
ware v guard, watch out for 876/40 
ware v pa 3 sg wore 432/3 
washe wensdaie n comp Ash Wednesday (?) 
wasted pp diminished 445/19 
water-man n comp ferryman 848/32 
wates, watyes see wayte n  
wax chaundler n compwax chandler, dealer 
in wax candles and torches 655/9; see also 
waymaker n comp probably the surveyor of 
the ways, a royal official who went ahead 
of the retinue to ensure that the proposed 
route was passable 533/20 
wayt v attend 622/37; waited pa 3 p1701/5; 
waited pp 667/35 
wayte n 1. one of a band of musicians retained 
by a town, university, or other corporation 
75/28, etc; wayght 309/40; wayt 200/15; 
wayth 251/5; waytte 85/28; waites plfor 
sg 334/7; waytes 319/40; weightes 328/21, 
334/29; waites pl 87/40, etc; waithes 
357/22, etc; waits 400/19, etc; waittes 
202/13; wates 86/17, etc; watyes 113/18; 
wayetes 345/11 ; wayets 278/8; wayghtes 
102/33, etc; wayghts 500/10; waytes 
74/12, etc; waythes 329/37; wayts 167/27, 
381 / 10 (?), etc; wayttes 80/29, etc; waytys 
91/25; weates 517/10, 553/36; wegytes 


Venn's list; similarly, 'Robinson, John (16)' means Venn's sixteenth John Robinson. 
Occasionally a name is followed by two numbers, eg, 'Ellis, Edward (1 & 2?); this means that 
Venn has probably or possibly entered the same individual twice. A few reverse cases, where 
Venn seems to have conflated two men of the same name, have been specially noted. No 
number is given where Venn lists only one man with a particular name. 

- Titles and Offices. Principal titles of nobility are supplied in all cases. Offices in church 
and state are given only when referred to in the REED collection or when these have been deemed 
of probable interest to the principal readership of REED volumes. 

- University Career. College affiliations are given where known (abbreviations for colleges 
are explained on p xv). The typical Cambridge student joined a college prior to matriculation 
in the university, and remained in the same college for the whole of his academic career. Some 
individuals, however, migrated from one college to another, either as students or later in their 
academic careers; the sign ',' is used here to mean 'migrated to.' 
The date which normally follows the record of college affiliation designates the earliest 
known formal association with the university, whether by matriculation or by entry on a 
college book. Nearly always this information comes from Venn. Where Venn gives no 
admission date but lists a date for taking a degree, the compilers have counted back the usual 
number of years of study required (3 for the BA, 7 for the MA, and so on); all inferred dates 
are queried. Some recipients of honorary degrees neither joined a college nor matriculated in 
the university; for such individuals only the date of the degree is given. The same practice has 
been followed for a very few early graduates whose date of matriculation cannot be determined 
from the surviving evidence. 
Any known relationship to another person in this or in the main index follows, then any 
designation used in the Records to distinguish the entrant from others with the same surname. 
Any high office held in the university comes next, with dates; this information, too, usually 
derives from Venn, or else from Tanner. 

- Doubtful Identifications. Most doubtful identifications are signalled with a bracketed 
query after the entrant's given name. Cases where two identifications seem equally plausible 
are normally entered in the form 'Richardson, Joseph (!)... ; or Lambert,' but a few cases where 
an individual can be identified confidently in one passage but only doubtfully in another have 
required special treatment (for an example see Thomas Bargar and Isaac Bargrave). A note 
beginning 'See also,' when placed within square brackets at the end of an entry, means that 
the identification of the entrant is reasonably certain but that one or more other candidates, 
as specified, cannot be completely ruled out. 

- Supplemental Authorities. Cross-references to Venn (explained above) are marked 'v.' 
Other references are marked DtB or C; the latter refers to Charles Henry and Thompson 
Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses. In internal cross-references the main index is referred to 
as 'Index.' 


Covell (Covill, Covyle, Covyll), William. CHQU, adm 1580. 363-7, 930, 1229 [DNB] 
Cowell (Cowel), John (2). kC,TC, adm 1570; master ofT8 1598-1611, vc 1603-4. 403, 410, 
Cowley (Cooley), Abraham. xc, adm 1636. 699,701,703,722,858,884, 899, 911-12,976, 
995, 1254, 1258 
Cowper see Cooper 
Cox, William (3). Qu, adm 1601. 650 
Coytmore, Thomas (2). c8, adm 1628. 1000 
Cradock (Craddock), John (3). GC, adm 1612. 526, 530 
Crane, John (2). c,, adm 15337 138, 147, 942 [c] 
- William (2). PB,CL, adm 1606. 531 
Creighton, Robert (1). c, adm 1614; public orator 1627-39. 621 [na] 
Creswell, Robert (2). c, adm 1632. 858 
Crofoot(e) see Crowfoote 
Crofts (v Croft*), William (3). Qu, adm 1629? 960 
Crompton, Thomas (3). c, adm 1598 (fellow commoner). 948 
Cromwell, Oliver (2), Lord Protector. ss, adm 1616. 708, 942, 991-3 [Da] 
-- Thomas (1), earl of Essex, chief minister of Henry vm; high steward of the university 
1534-40 Inca] see Patrons and Travelling Companies under Cromwell 
Crooke, Henry (2). Tc, adm 1597. 388-9 
Cropley, John (2). c, adm 1593-4? 387, 390, 949 
Crosse, Stephen. JEt,c, adm 1630. 634 
Crowfoote (Crofoot, Crofoote), John. cc, adm 1586. 364-5, 1229-30 
See also Index 
Croyden, Thomas. c, adm 1632. 693 
Cruso, Aquila. GC, adm 1610. 895, 975, 1242 
Cumber see Comber 
Cumpton see Compton 
Cunningham .... c, adm (?). 956 [not in Venn or Rouse Ball] 
Curteys (Curtes, v Curtis*), Richard (1). sJ, adm 1549? proctor 1563-4. 220, 232, 1215 
[c, Otn l 
Cutler (Cuttler; wrongly Buttler), Ger'. sJ, adm (?). 427, 434, 449, 457, 470, 479 [not in 

Dadley (Dudley), Richard. CH, adm 1618. 
See also Dudley 
Dalton .... Tc, adm (?). 957 [not in Venn] 


Saunders see Sanders 
Sawnderson see Sanderson 
Scalis (v Scales*), William. Kc, adm 1485. 72, 964 
Scar|ett (Scarlet, Skarlett), John (3). PB, adm 16047 436, 465-6, 472, 481, 1033 
- William (1). Tc, adm 1631. 634 
Scarrack (Scarracke, Sharrack, Sharracke, Sherrocke, v Sharrock*), Henry. sJ, adm 1589. 
436, 460, 472, 481, 1031 
Scattergood, Anthony. Tc, adm 1628. 889 
Scott (Scot, Skot), Cuthbert. CH, adm 1531-2; master of CH 1553-6, visitor 1556-7; vC 
1555--6. 134-6, 138, 199, 1206 [C, DNB] 
- Robert(3). r'BCL, adm 1588;masterofcL 1612-20, vc 1619--20. 508, 550-1,566, 570-3, 
1240, 1242 
Scrogges (v Scroggs*), Edward. TC, adm 1606. 409 
Scrope (v Scroope*), Richard (2). Warden of KH 1457-63, university chancellor 1461-2. 1199 
Sedgwick (Sedgwich, Segeswyke), Edward (1). sJ, adm 1570. 944, 946 
- Thomas (1). PH)TC, adm 1526-7? 199 [c, 
Senhouse (Sinews, Synowes), Richard. 'c,sJ, adm 1592? 435 [orn] 
servant of see Winscall in Index 
Serle (v Searle*), Nicholas. TC, adm 1608. 454, 1030 
Shacklock (Shackelocke, Shaclocke), Richard. TC, adm 1552. 202,206, 221-2,968 [c, 
Sharpe (v Sharp*), William (2). KC, adm 1581. 362 
Sharrack(e) see Scarrack 
Shaw (Shawe), George (2). 'c, adm 1627. 959 
- Robert (3). PH, adm 1544. 199 
Sheffield, Edmund (2), Lord Sheffield, later earl of Mulgrave. M/ 1595. 355 
Shephard (Shepherd, v Sheppard*), Leonard. sJ, adm 1573. 944, 946 
- Richard (5). CH, adm 1609-10? 470, 478, 1032 
Sherrocke see Scarrack 
Shi|borne .... rc, adm 1629. 634 
Shirley, James. sc, adm 1615. 1029 
Shittleworth, Leon (v Shuttleworth*, Lionel). sJ, adm 1610. 432, 453-4, 1032 
Sholls (v Scholes*), Giles. CH, adm 1608. 446 
Shortland, Richard. CH, adm 1623. 1000 
Sibbs, Richard (1). sJ,sc, adm 1594; master of sc 1626-35. 485-6 [DrO] 
Sill, Miles. sJ,sc, adm 1586. 1230 
Simonds (Symmondes, Symondes, Symonds, Symons), John (4). sJ, adm 1606. 430, 442-3, 
450, 456, 466, 468, 474-7, 483, 486, 1235 (See also Index) 


Wendeye see Wendy 
Wendon, Nicholas. MH)TC, adm 1546. 187-8, 967 [c] 
Wendy (Wendeye), Thomas (1). 3H, adm 15157 137-8 
Wenslow, Robert. gc, adm 1467. 55, 963 
Wentworth (Waintwoorth, Wentwarth, Wentwoorth), Edmund (2). GC, adm 1595. 361-2 
[references are possibly to Richard Wainforth] 
- Thomas (6), earl of Stratford, counsellor of Charles L SJ, adm 1609 [DtB] see Patrons and 
Travelling Companies tnder Stratford 
West, John (1). Kc, adm 1498. 84, 964 
- Robert (1). SJTC, adm 1547. 206, 968 
Whaley (Whaly, Whalye, Wheley, v Whalley*), Markham. s, adm 1576. 945 
- William (4). s, adm 1606. 430, 440, 443, 464, 466, 469, 1030 
Wheteley (v Wheatley*), Thomas (1). :c, adm 1467. 58, 963 
Whichcott (v Whichcote*), Thomas. CH, adm 1633. 1001 
Whiniates (v Whinyats*), Robert. Qt, adm 1635. 962 
Whitaker (Whitacres), William (1). TCS, adm 1564; master of s 1586-95. 315, 321, 356, 
715, 1221, 1224, 1226 [c, 
White, Andrew (1). TC, adm 1572. 999 
- Matthew. sJ? adm 1530-1 ? nephew of John Fisher. 999 
Whitehead, Jasper. Qu, adm 1636. 961, 1026 [c] 
Whitgift, John (1), archbishop of Canterbury. QUPBPH PBTC, adm 1550; master of Pn 1567, 
of TC 1567-77; VC 1570-1 & 1573--4. 244, 269-71, 998 [C, 
Whitgrave, Walter (1). TC, adm 1594. 447 
Whitloe (v Whitlowe*), Edward. Qu, adm 1633. 961 
Wiatte (v Wyatt*), Dudley. TC, adm 1627. 959 
Wiburne (Wilburne, v Wyborne*), Nathaniel. s, adm 1589. 909, 947, 973 
Wicherley, Daniel (1). Qu, adm 1622. 685 
Wiersdaile (v Wiersdale*), John. Q, adm 1617. 956 
Wigan (Wygon, v Wiggan*), Edward (1). KH, adm 1505? 137-8 [cJ 
Wigmore, Gilbert (1). QU, adm 1625. 658 
Wilbey (v Wilby*), Matthew (2). rc, adm 1608. 450-1 
Wilburne see Wiburne 
Wild, Robert (3). sJ, adm 1632. 934-5 
Wildbore, Zachary (2). ctl, adm 1623. 1000, 1016 
Wilkes, Thomas. TC, adm 1558. 252-3, 261,971 
Wilkington (v Walkington*), Thomas (2). sJ, adm 1593. 947 [D//] 


The main index combines subjects with places, play titles, and non-university names in a single 
listing. Where the same headword occurs in more than one category the order is persons, 
places, subjects, and titles of books, record collections, or plays; thus 'Ely, bishop of' precedes 
'Ely, Camb,' which in turn precedes 'Ely diocesan records'; and 'Preist, Henry' precedes 
'Preist the Barber.' In alphabetizing play titles the definite and indefinite articles of all languages 
have been ignored, and so has the Latin preposition 'De': hence' Les Abusez" appears under 
A, "The Benefice" under B, and "De Crumena Perdita' under C. College codes and 'St' for 
'Saint' are alphabetized as if spelled out. 
Place-names and given names appear in the modern form where that could be ascertained, 
titles and family names of nobility and other public figures in forms commonly used by modern 
historians. Other surnames are usually cited in the most common form occurring in the text, 
except that capitalization and the use of i/j and u/v have here been assimilated to modern usage. 
Surnames are regularly followed by any variant spellings (in parentheses), but these are given 
for titles and place-names only where clarity requires them. Nobles are entered under their 
family names with cross-references from any titles which occur in the text or apparatus, royalty 
under their regnal or given names. Most play titles follow Annals of English Drama or, for 
classical plays, The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature; the latter has also been followed 
for the names of classical play characters. 
Occupations are usually specified only for entertainers and residents of Cambridge. Apart 
from the Records themselves, the chief sources used for identifying individuals and their cal- 
lings or careers are The Dictionary of National Biography [DNB]; Cooper's Annals of Cam- 
bridge [Cooper]; The New Grove Dictionary of Music [New Grove]; William M. Palmer, 
Cambridge Borough Documents [CBD]; J. Milner Gray, Biographical Notes on the Mayors of 
Cambridge [Gray]; Edwin Nungezer, A DictionaryofActors [Nungezer]; Ian Payne, 'Instru- 
mental Music at Trinity College, Cambridge,' Music & Letters, 68 (1987), 128-40 [Payne]; 
and the list of innkeepers in ctsA: V.C. Ct 1.4 ff 284-5v [1600]. These are cited as authorities 
where appropriate. Sources for royalty, nobility, and other patrons are specified in the head- 
note to Patrons and Travelling Companies, to which the Index refers throughout. 
To aid research, many entries have been collected under such general headings as 'costume, 
articles of,' 'inns,' 'materials for costumes and plays,' 'musical instruments,' 'musicians and 
music," play characters,' and 'stage materials and apparatus.' Particular items are sublisted 
alphabetically there, and usually not cross-referenced in the main listing. In the cross-refer- 
ences which are supplied, bold type is used for main entries, roman type for subentries. Entries 

1438 INDEX 

in which entertainers are referred to by such Latin terms as 'histrio' and 'mimus' are usually 
indexed under the English equivalent used in the Translations, except that an attempt has been 
made to collect all references to the Cambridge waits under 'waits, Cambridge.' 
For explanation of the college codes and other abbreviations employed see Symbols, volume 
1, pp xv-xvi. 

INDEX 1441 

bagpipers, of Nottingham see Patrons and 
Travelling Companies 
Baker, Elizabeth, servant of John Edmunds 
the younger 366 
- Francis, vc's servant 491 
- John, townsman 279 
Ball, Thomas, biographer 544, 855, 1257 
- Thomas, townsman 83 [CBD] 
Ban, Richard, townsman 83 [CBD 'Beene'] 
Band, Cuff, and Ruff 714, 891-2 
band, of loud music 561 
Banester, John, silversmith 74 [CSD] 
banishment 328, 334, 411 
Bankes, ..., blacksmith 158, 175, 180 
Baptistes 981 
Barbarigo, Gregorio, Venetian ambassador 
Barber, Thomas, carpenter (?) 156 
Barker, Thomas, servant of 283 
Barnes, Agnes (Annis), servant of Andrew 
Goodin 425, 430, 432, 440, 478 
- Elizabeth, wife of William Bird 1003 
- William, paver 223, 254 
Barnwell, Camb 466, 504, 987-8 
Barrington, Camb 490, 548 
Barton, Camb (?) 498 
Bartylmew, John 32 
Bassingbourn, Camb 822 
Bastifforde .... 37 
Baxter ..... vintner (?) 354 
bear-baitings 811 
complained of by university 342 
prohibited in and about Cambridge by 
the crown 259, 357, 395-7, 399-400, 
scholars forbidden to watch at GC 267; 
throughout university 357, 381 
suppressed by university 709, 723, 779: at 
Chesterton 294-305; at the Elephant inn, 
Cambridge 362-3; at Gog Magog Hills 
571, 727; at Howes Green 491 
Beaufort, Margaret, countess of Derby and 
Richmond 80, 812, 1201 ; seealso Patrons 
and Travelling Companies 
Beaumont, John, clothier, of Hadleigh, Surf, 

father of Joseph (see University Index) 
Becket's Day see St Thomas the martyr, 
feast of 
Beda, householder at street turning 505 
bedells 228, 232, 503-6, 511, 588 
arrest delinquent lord of taps 681 
at plays 289, 491,616 
attempt to prevent bearbaiting at 
Chesterton 297-304 
attend unauthorized spectacles to detect 
members of the university 272 
books of 794 
feast of (Sunday before Circumcision), 
music at 38-43. 51-9 
payments to or for 11, 41, 44, 57, 66, 
88, 198-9, 256, 307, 312-13, 317, 663; 
for entertainments 494, 532, 566; fines 
for attending unauthorized spectacles 
wages of 616 
Bedford, duke of see Patrons and Travelling 
- earl of see Russell, Francis 
Beeston ..... tailor 530 
Bell ..... tradesman 226 
- Richard, carpenter 221 
- Robert, carpenter 156, 179, 193, 195 
bells 228, 232 
of Great St Mary's Church 504 
of St Benet's Church 560, 566 
See also under costume, articles of 
Bellurn Grarnrnaticale 847, 854 
Belton, Suff, players of see Patrons and 
Travelling Companies 
Tbe Benefice 934-5 
Benet College see Corpus Christi College 
Benne (Bende), Anthony, manservant and 
innkeeper [1600] 297-8 
- mother, innkeeper (?), widow of Anthony 
425, 435 
Bergavenny (Bergeveney), Lady see Patrons 
and Travelling Companies under 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumb 858 

1442 INDEX 

Bettson ..... joiner, master of John Bowles 
445, 458 
Biam (Bian, Byam, Byem, Byham; Brian?), 
Samuel, trumpeter 549, 555-6, 560, 568, 
577, 591,595, 597, 607, 619, 624,627-8, 
632, 635, 649, 652, 654, 656, 658, 662, 
664, 674, 680, 733, 1003; see also Brian 
Bible, Latin 233 
Bikerdike (Bykerdyke), Ralph, brewer, 
mayor (1537-8 & 1545-6) 130 [CBD] 
of complaint 303, 424 
of expense 36, 39, 103, 107-9, 113-15, 
120-2, 126, 130, 149, 154-7, 167-8, 
176-9, 185-8, 192-3, 200, 208-9, 
211-18, 224-5, 245-68, 285, 311, 325, 
331,344, 352, 354, 371-2, 376-7, 490, 
497-501,516, 523, 527, 530-1,559-60, 
565-6, 609, 619, 650, 677-8, 695, 711, 
playbills 340, 342, 725 
See also under weapons 
Birck, Sixt, humanist playwright, play by 
703, 968, 982 
Bird (Birde, Burd, Byrd, Byrde), William, 
university wait, trumpeter, lord of taps 
309-10, 317, 320,322,324-35, 370, 734, 
740-1, 744, 1003, 1225, 1231; see also 
Byrd, Byrde 
The Birth of Hercules 935 
births, royal, celebrated 106, 517, 520, 653- 
4, 664 
bloodshed 308; see also assault and mayhem 
Blount, William, Lord Mountjoy 355 
Blyse ..... workman 500 
Boccaccio, Giovanni, Italian author 901 
Boccas see Baccas 
Boischot (Boschet), Ferdinand, ambassador 
for the Hapsburg Netherlands 583, 
Bokenham ..... minstrel 10, 1198 
Bonarelli della Rovere, Guido, Italian 
playwright, play by 922 
Bonde ..... workman 517 
bonds see fines 

at birth of princess 664, 1251 
on Accession Day 391 
on anniversary of return of Charles  from 
Spain 675 
on Gunpowder Conspiracy Day 583,603, 
606, 623, 655, 675 
books 152, 160, 232, 505, 526, 576, 721 
bedells' 794 
butlers' 257 
household account books 812 
music books 350, 354, 610, 694 
play books 230-1,722 
unbound 162, 174 
See also Cambridge University records 
Boot and Spur 892, 900 
Booth, William, tiler 676-7, 688 
at Gog Magog Hills for games 570-2, 706 
at Sturbridge Fair 309, 516, 561,619, 734 
Boschet see Boischot 
Bosse ..... scrivener 526 
Boston, Linc 822 
Botes ..... workman 261 
Botman ..... carpenter (?) 182 
Boulogne, France, celebrations for capture of 
130, 733 
Bowles, John, joiner, journeyman or 
apprentice of Bettson 445-6, 458, 474 
bowling 572, 683 
students forbidden to frequent bowling 
places 357 
at All Saints' Church 127 
at gc 29, 32-3, 44, 53-6, 61-2, 72, 79-88, 
99-100, 108 
attendants of 29, 54 
chaplain of 80 
cloth for robes of 32, 54-5 
costume of 32, 44, 50-55, 79-84, 105, 731, 
drink for 44, 53, 61 
father of 100 
gloves of, for bedells 44 
pittances for 54, 84, 86, 88, 99-100, 108 

INDEX 1443 

Boyes (Boys, Boyse), Daniel, bookbinder, 
son-in-law of Jarmin Ward 430, 443, 457, 
466, 501, 526, 1031, 1235 
boys (lads) 435 
as actors 88, 219, 668, 711, 721,845, 879 
as attendants of boy-bishop 29, 54 
as musicians' sons or servants 58 
as performers 58 
as servants 213 
as waits 141, 742 (boy trebles) 
dressed as women 543-4, 668, 819 
See also apprentices; children; and youths 
Brackyn (Bracken, Brakhen, Brakin, 
Brakyn), Francis, recorder of 
Cambridge, son of Richard 424, 505, 540, 
- Richard, recorder of Cambridge, mayor 
1549-50, father of Francis 223,299, 302 
- Thomas, mayor (1524-5 & 1543-4) 130 
Bradenham, Bucks 328 
Bradshaw, John, showman 417 
Brakhen (Brakin, Brakyn) see Brackyn 
Brandon (Braunden), Thomas, juggler of 
Henry vm 105-6, 109, 111, 1203 
Brasbrege (Bresbreg), Thomas, esquire 
bedell, Christmas lord 82-3, 736 [CBD] 
Brasy (Brasie), Richard, cooper, town 
treasurer 1539-40 166 [Cooper] 
Braun, Georg, cartographer 703, 846, 1255 
Braunden see Brandon 
Braybrook .... 31 
breakfasts, for entertainers 183, 202, 206, 
209, 215, 222, 256 
Bresbreg see Brasbrege 
Brewer, Matthew, carpenter (?) 222 
Brian ..... messenger 520 [same as Biam?] 
Brice, John 43 
Bright, William, mayor (1571-2) 263 
Bristol, Glouc, waits of see Patrons and 
Travelling Companies 
Bromley, Thomas, lord chancellor 291 [DUB] 
Brooke, William, Lord Cobham 304 
Brookes, John, tailor and clothier, 
journeyman or apprentice of Kenadi 

Browne (Brown) ..... workman 500 
- John, wait 611-15, 672, 678, 698, 738, 
741-2, 744, 1003, 1008, 1010, 1252, 1254 
Bruges, satin of 153, 181,220, 294 
Brussels, Hapsburg Netherlands 845 
Bucer, Martin, theologian 811-12 
Buchanan (Buckananus), George, Scottish 
humanist playwright 119, 703, 852; plays 
by 969, 971,980-1 
Buckhurst, Lord see University Index under 
Sackville, Thomas 
Buckingham College see Magdalene College 
Buckingham, duke or marquess of see 
University Index under Villiers, George 
and Patrons and Travelling Companies 
under Buckingham 
buffoons see jesters 
bull-baiting 811 
butcher prosecuted for killing bull unbaited 
700, 820 
prohibited and suppressed 259, 342,395-7, 
399-400, 645-6, 709, 779; at Gog Magog 
Hills 571-3, 727 
scholars forbidden to watch: at GC 267; 
throughout the university 357, 381 
See also bullring 
Bullock .... , carpenter 275 
bullring, in the market 395, 593, 651, 1244 
as a place for punishment 407, 409, 412, 457 
for bear-baiting 298, 301 
Burd see Bird 
burgesses, of Cambridge, in corporation 797 
in Corpus Christi procession 733 
scholars accused of disparaging 382 
See also townsmen 
Burgh, Thomas, Lord Burgh (Burros) 355 
Burghley, Lord see University Index under 
Cecil, William 
burlesques see praevarications and 
Burton ..... joiner 501, 530 
Burwell, John, apothecary 152, 177, 179 
Bury St Edmunds, Suff 
players of 711 
rope-dancing at 573 

INDEX 1447 

children, hurt by lion 665 
choirs and choristers 
at gc 81, 166, 376, 779 
at TC 376, 779 
children of Chapel Royal 759 
master of 376 
singing-men 274, 581 
See also musicians, chapel under musicians 
Christ Church, Oxford 775, 857, 861 
Christmas (day and tide) 
as beginning of accounting year 771,775-6 
festivities: at gc 157; at ou 683; at sJ 561; 
at TC 165-6, 187 
music on day or eve of 35, 63, 730, 822 
payments to waits and minstrels at 3-13, 
19-21, 32-47, 50-62, 71,165, 174, 202- 
8, 223, 280, 283-4 
playsor shows at 715:at cc 516, 578,751 ; 
at c8 117, 148,251 ; at CL 648? at JE 245, 
280, 287, 372;at gC 50, 58, 64, 68, 72-4, 
80-4, 90, 110-12, 125, 131, 142, 156, 
193, 712,756, 845;at K8 607 62? 67;at 
QU 174-5, 205, 714; at S 116, 129, 
287-8, 572, 712, 769; at TC 165--6, 
186--8, 191--2, 198, 202, 209, 215, 
373, 844; before Elizabeth , proposed 
riot at cc at 582-3 
students forbidden to go guising at 619 
trumpeters at: at cc 330, 368; at CL 370; 
at JE 653;at gC 283,373,391 ;at QU 284, 
331, 595, 627, 672 
Christmas lords, college 729, 731,811 
at c8 117, 146, 199, 201,204 
at cc (dean?) 582, 731, 1205 
at gc (king) 146, 150, 157, 200 
ats 143, 152,159-60, 165, 202,206, 214, 
220, 321,769; election and duties of 
132-3; fellows petition for abolition of 
at To(emperor)150, 155, 157, 183, 186--7, 
190-1, 200, 202 
prohibited by university 164, 619? 
to be approved by vc and heads of colleges 
203, 260, 779 

Christmas lords and ladies, parish 709, 731, 
at Holy Trinity, gatherings of 82-3; visits 
cH 177, 204? 
at St Andrew's 178 
at St Edward's 108 
A Christmas Messe 893, 900 
Christ's College, Cambridge (originally 
God's House) 509, 706, 708, 748-9 
Christmas observances at 117, 148, 731, 
fool's day at, supposed 988-9 
hall of 113, 173, 223, 509, 715 
music at 740, 742 
plays at or by students of 104-8, 113, 117, 
133-44, 148, 167, 173, 177-8, 184-8, 
711-15, 721, 742, 964-71,990; see also 
plays, college 
saitings at 997-1001 
show at 192; see also shows 
See also under waits, Cambridge, gifts and 
payments to 
Christ's College, records of 
accounts 104-20, 124, 128, 142-4, 148-9, 
155, 164-7, 173, 177-8, 184-8, 192-4, 
201-13,245, 251,260-66, 272,277-81, 
286, 305-6, 313,317-22,329, 336,343, 
349-51,357, 367-75, 379, 383, 390-2, 
397-400, 404, 413-21,487, 492, 516, 
521,545,553-6, 562-3,567, 574-7, 582, 
589, 594,599-605, 615,623-9, 647, 652, 
656-60, 670, 674, 683, 816 
audits 223 
ChHstus THumphans 221,969, 979 
church vestments (used or reused as 
costumes) 123, 189, 756 
aibs 144, 153-4, 181 
chalice palls 181 
chasubles (vestments) 152-3 
copes 123, 127, 152-4, 180-1,232-3, 
daimatic (deacon's coat) 123 
high mass sets (suits) 152-3 
maniples (fanons) 153 
mitres 123-4, 162, 220, 843 

INDEX 1449 

coats (cont) 
Leno's 170, 219-20 
long (side) 196, 219-20 
men's 147, 186, 190, 219, 843 
Mercury's 186 
Miles' 219, 843 
of clouds 196 
of scallop shells 219 
painted 196, 219 
parasite's 223, 288 
Phedria's 843 
piper's 127 
Rusticus' 127 
servants' 126, 160, 219 
shepherd's 527 
shipman's 124, 126, 160 
soldiers' 843 
sword bearer's 219 
Theano's (error for Thraso's?) 186 
Thraso's 182, 190 
Thraso's servant's 843 
women's 197, 220 
See also arms and armour; gowns; and 
stage keepers, costumes of 
Cobb, Richard, constable of Chesterton 325, 
339-40, 1224-5 
Cobham, Lord see Brooke, William 
Cochey, Cochy see Cutchey 
cockfights 402-3, 660 
scholars forbidden to watch 259, 381, 
coffers see chests 
Colchester Castle, library of 806 
Cole, Francis, pseudonym of Abraham 
Cowley 884, 995 
- Henry, chapel musician 1003 
Richard, carpenter, journeyman of Peare 
Colebrande, Edward, player 553 [Nungezer] 
Coil, Richard, shoemaker 83 
collectors see gatherers 
college feasts 729-30 
at QU 628 
at TC 253 
end of term feast at cc 260 

founder's feast at Kc 380 
See also Christmas; Corpus Christi Day; 
St Catharine's Day; St John before the 
Latin Gate; St John the Evangelist's 
Day; St Margaret's Day; and St Peter 
ad vincula 
colleges, Cambridge 242,247, 271,354, 505, 
620, 706-7, 717 
halls of 409, 715, 720, 729, 876, 878 
See also names of specific colleges 
Colunna, Don Carlos de, Spanish 
ambassador 583, 587-8 
comedians 852, 859, 874 
comedies, college 230-2, 242-3, 703-4, 
853-4, 860, 964-76; supposed 988 
at Audley End before Elizabeth 1 281,810 
at Newmarket before James I 598, 810; 
satirized 878-80 
at Royston before James  552, 810 
satirized 878-80 
audit 519-20, 548 
by CH 522, 749 
by CL 377--8, 491, 529-32, 551, 566 
by cc 179, 201, 278, 282, 305, 516 
by EM 753-4 
by GC 267, 546 
by E 280, 583 
by gc 230, 236-7, 344, 352, 358, 367-8, 
372, 405, 523, 539, 853 
by KH 84, 711 
by PH 263-4 
byQu 93-5,122, 125, 129, 142-3, 144-7, 
150-2, 164-5, 168, 181-2, 186, 205, 214, 
217-18, 225, 245, 265, 268, 287, 337, 
351, 356-7, 607, 630-51, 655, 6617 
678-9, 682, 810, 881-3 
by sJ 109, 114-15, 120-2, 132-3,307, 311, 
321,371,401, 534-5, 540-4, 573-4, 
712-13, 715, 770 
by TC 187, 192, 200, 209, 211, 225, 311, 
325, 331, 355, 373--4, 417, 489--90, 
497-501, 507, 514--15, 519-20, 526--8, 
538-41, 548, 576, 586-9, 609--10, 
615-26, 630--51,666-8, 693,698-9, 701, 
713-14, 774--5, 810, 847-9, 854, 860, 

1450 INDEX 

comedies, college (cont) 
881-5; riot at 425-86; abolished under 
Commonwealth 844 
Greek 111, 115, 118, 155 
Latin 538, 572, 668, 711, 713, 729, 755, 
759, 855-6, 858-9, 862 
propriety of scholars' playing in 247 
students' behaviour at, university decrees 
on 409-12,502-3, 537-8, 585-6, 597-8, 
620-1,636-7, 666-7 
See also royal visits and performances and 
titles of specific plays 
comedies, professional see plays, 
commencement 1037 
at Oxford 335, 665, 741 
bachelors' (Lent Acts) 354-5, 409, 438-9, 
496, 572, 715 
ceremorties irt presertce of royalty: Prince 
Charles and Frederick v 507-11,515-16; 
Charles Lewis 666-8 
exercises: in arts (philosophy) 244, 515, 
667, 858; in divinity 515; see also 
honorary MA conferred on Prince Charles 
503,509-11,515; on French ambassador 
masters' (great) 291,507-8, 779, 881-2; 
dinner for 372 
payments to musicians and entertainers at 
217, 224, 274, 343, 368, 370, 384, 402, 
524-5, 547, 569, 575-6, 584, 602, 606, 
627-8, 654, 683, 695, 730, 732 
praelector (father), role of 508, 578 
seating for 507-8 
tobacco forbidden during 409 
tripos, role of 572 
commissary, university 561-2, 594, 681, 
Compton, William, Lord Compton, later 
earl of Northampton, father of Spencer 
Compton (see University Index) 355 
Tle Conceited Pedlar 890-1,895, 975 
conducts 58 
Confessor 936 

congregation, university see 
conjurors 124, 710 
constables, resist university's jurisdiction 
over plays and shows at Chesterton 
297-305, 325-9, 339-43; at Howes 
Green 491 ; ordered to cooperate 395-6, 
Conway, Edward, Viscount Conway, 
secretary of state 598, 857, 862 
Cooke, George, victualler 571 
- William, chandler (?) 187-8, 191 
- widow, tenant of Michael Palmer 745 
Corbet (Corbett),...., glazier 546 
- Richard, bishop of Oxford and later of 
Norwich, poet 541,861, 866-7 
Cornelianum Dolium 939 
Cornell, Wysse, townsman 83 
Coronation Day 
of Elizabeth  (15 January), music on, at 
324, 352 
of James  (25 July), music on, at sJ 423 
of Charles ? (2 February), trumpeting on, 
at Qu 628 
corporation of Cambridge 797 
'abused' by Mayor French 533 
entertainment for 47, 115, 619, 711 
feasting of 338; at Twelfthtide 263 
presented to Prince Charles and Frederick 
v 505 
satirized in a play at CL 377-8, 382 
See also burgesses; Cambridge town 
records; and townsmen 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (Benet 
College) 201,706-7, 733, 751-3 
Christmas observances at 41-4, 51,731, 
music at 729-30, 740 
plays ator by students of 115-16, 201,712, 
714, 966-8, 972-5; to be approved by 
president before performance 578; see 
also plays, college 
stage at 994 
See also waits, Cambridge, gifts and 
payments to 

INDEX 1451 

Corpus Christi College, records of 
accounts 10, 16-17, 38-44, 51-9 
audits 167, 179, 201-4, 210, 216, 
245-60, 273-4, 278-82, 287, 293, 305-6, 
310-12,317, 322, 330, 336, 343, 350-2, 
368-75,379, 383, 390-3,397-400, 404, 
413-18, 422, 487, 492, 516-17, 522, 546, 
553, 557, 563, 567, 574, 578, 582, 590, 
594, 599-605, 615,623-6, 630, 648, 652, 
657, 661,670, 675, 683-7, 694-7 
chapter book 563, 567, 578, 582-3 
LiberCommunarum 87-120, 125-31,149, 
185, 189, 193-5, 201-4 
Corpus Christi Day (Thursday after Trinity 
as feast day ofcc 16, 57, 730, 733, 1198 
payments to waits on 4, 57 
plays on 1197 
vizards used on 5 
Corpus Christi Guild 5, 723, 751 
procession of 5, 107? 733 
costume61-4, 99, 107, 112-13, 117-25, 130, 
144-62, 167-9, 172, 177-90, 196-8, 214, 
218, 355, 500, 523, 534, 679, 688, 695, 
711, 719, 748, 750, 756, 766, 770, 774, 
842-3, 853, 859 
for college players 97, 107-8, 117, 127, 
144-6, 148, 153-5, 163, 165, 172-3, 180, 
182, 189-90, 196, 198, 204, 208 
for minstrels 63, 65 
for players 61 
women's 97, 170, 179, 190, 197, 204, 220, 
543-4, 668, 719, 721 
See also dress, articles of; materials for 
costumes and plays 
costume, academic 
caps 504, 510, 620; round 467, 473-4; 
square 467 
gowns 309, 360-1,435,445-8,454, 462-7, 
472-7, 481, 504, 508 
habits 227-8,232, 378,447, 504, 509, 510, 
hoods 227-8, 447, 454, 504-8, 620 
costume, articles of 
bands 536 

beards, false 127-8, 151-2, 162, 171,207, 
220, 226, 314, 719, 843, 859, 988 
bells 225-6, 879, 1026 
bodices, nether 160 
bolsters 127, 196 (on shoulders) 
bongrace 843 
boots 501,673; see also buskins 
breast, fury's 172 
breeches 197, 219; see also slops 
buskins 501 
capes 160, 169, 181, 196, 219 
cassocks 169, 182, 190;woman's 181,186 
cauls 107, 127, 160, 171-2, 181, 843 
chain (?) (carol) 220 
coifs 146-7, 170, 182, 201 
collars 124, 152, 160-1, 182 
copotains 162? 171-2, 294 
crowns 127-8, 161-2, 171-2, 190-1,220, 
cuffs 536 
doublets 124, 126, 181, 536, 685, 842; 
death's 161; see also jackets and jerkins 
farthingales 181 
frocks 169, 182, 186, 190 
fronters 842 
frontlets 153-4, 171 
garters 534,536,673,685 ; for knights of the 
Garter 160 
girdle 294 
hair, false 197; see also beards 
heads 162, 171,314, 843; death's 161; 
Mercury's 162 
headgear 128, 202 see cauls, coifs, 
copotains, and nightcaps 
headpiece 182 
hoods 126, 161,204; Apollo's 190; fool's 
170, 197; French 160, 182, 186, 843 
horns (for devils) 161 
jackets and jerkins 123-4, 160-1,170, 181, 
191, 196-8, 220, 294, 719; Miles' 126; 
with stars 126, 197; see also doublets 
kirtles 161,182, 186, 190, 202; Paupertas' 
mantles, Phoebus' 672-3, 685 (robes) 
masks 158, 162 (black), 171 (gold), 731; 

1452 INDEX 

costume, articles of (cont) 
death's 147; devil's 147; Jupiter's (gold) 
127, 162; see also vizards 
nightcaps 162, 171, 183 
nun's habit 673 
overbody, woman's 170 
pantofles 849 
piccadill 673 
points 294, 678 
roll (of hair) 197 
ruff 879 
sleeves 123, 126-7, 146, 160-1,171,181-2, 
186, 190; half 196, 219; hanging 201; 
women's 170-1,220, 843 
slops 124, 126-7, 146, 161, 170, 181, 
842-3; Miles' 843; shipmen's 160, 219; 
see also breeches 
socks 197, 857; see also stockings 
star, gold, for Mercury's head 162 
stockings 534, 536; see also socks 
townsmen's clothes 377 
vizards 5, 171,673, 723, 843, 
859, 988 
wings, angels' 190 
See also arms and armour; caps; church 
vestments; cloaks; coats; gowns; hats; 
hose; rods, staffs, and wands; shoes; 
suits; trimming for costumes; and wigs 
council, town or common see corporation of 
The Country Court 764, 859, 936 
courtiers, at royal visits to Cambridge 234, 
504-8, 539, 542,620, 638,666, 859, 864 
satirized 869-72 
courts of law 458 
commissary's 780-1 
consistory 379, 492 
King's Bench 542, 873 
piepowder 781 
vc's 780-1 
Coventry, Thomas, Lord Coventry of 
Aylesborough, keeper of the great seal 
643, 645 
Coventry, Warw 527; lottery at 732 
Cox, Sir Richard 498 

Crackyngthorpe (Crakthrope), John, mayor 
(1506-7) 82 [C  D] 
Cranborne, Viscount see University Index 
under Cecil, Robert 
Craner (or Craver) ..... minstrel 12 
Cranmer, Thomas, archbishop of 
Canterbury 982 [Dra] 
Crawford see Crowfoote 
cressets see under lights and lighting 
Croffoot, Crofoote see Crowfoote 
Croft, James, controller of the royal 
household 12 
Cromell, Sir Henry 235 
Cropley, Edward, mayor (1612-13 & 
1638-9) 505, 660, 680, 1251 
Crowfoote (Crawford, Croffoot, Crofoote, 
Crowfoot), Alice 1230 
- Thomas, host of the White Horse [1600], 
father of John (see University Index) 
De Crumena Perdita 191,929, 967 
Crumenaria 248, 929, 971, 1212 
crutches 678 
Cryswell (Karsewell), Harry, townsman 
Curculio 216, 969 
Curryer ..... tailor 102, 104 
cushions 233, 508, 511 
Cutchey (Cochey, Cochy, Cutchie), John, 
carriers, father and son (?) 352, 450, 500, 
The Cutter of Coleman Street 899 
cymbalists 36 

Daintrey, Thomas, constable of Chesterton 
La Dalida 921 
Daltun ..... musician (?) 72, 738, 1004, 1201 
damages, award of 361,387, 390, 409, 411 
Danby, earl of see Danvers 
dancers and dancing 27, 660, 735 
rustic 236 
prinkum-prankum 879, 882, 1026 
dancers, parish 709-10, 734-5, 764 
girls as 20-17 24? 25, 30, 33 

INDEX 1455 

dress, articles of (cont) 
rings 367 
stockings 534 
See also costume, academic and costume, 
articles of 
dressers and dressing 155, 262, 490, 679 
The Drinking Academy 939-40 
Drommond, David, satirized in Ignoramus 
drummers 191,224, 696, 729 
drums 159, 172, 199-200, 220, 619, 683 
heading or mending of 157, 191, 195,206, 
215, 258, 274, 305 
parchment for 255 
sticks 157, 161, 171-2 
drunkenness 409-10, 599 
Dudley, John, earl of Warwick see Patrons 
and Travelling Companies under 
Duke, John, player, of London 403-4, 725, 
986, 1203, 1213, 1233 [Nungezer] 
Duns Furens. Dick Harvey in a Frensie 
764-5, 850, 886, 930, 973 
Durdon (Durden) ..... hardwareman 498, 
Dutton, John or Laurence, player, of the 
queen's men 340, 1225 
Dyccon of Bedlam see Gammer Gurton's 
Dyvall see Divall 

East ..... servant of bishop of Ely 417 
Eccles, John 3 
'The Echo,' poem 884 
Edes, Richard, dean of Christ Church, 
playwright 851 [DNB] 
Edinburgh, Scotland, public celebrations for 
capture of 131, 733 
Edmund, tailor 167, 173 
Edmunds (Edmondes), Brigit, wife of John 
the younger 363-7, 1229 
- John the elder, mayor (1586-7 & 1605-6), 
father of John the younger 254, 
See also University Index 

Edward , king of England, letters patent of 
Edward w, king of England 135, 756, 1211 ; 
see also Patrons and Travelling 
Companies under King 
Edwards, Richard, playwright 852 
Egerton, Sir Thomas, Baron Ellesmere and 
Viscount Brackley, lord chancellor 424, 
863 [DNB] 
Eirene see Peace 
Elarye ..... errand boy (?) 405 
elephant, showing of 594, 727, 780 
Elizabeth , queen of England 106, 703-4, 
entertained at Cambridge or by Cambridge 
students 224-5, 227-44, 345-7, 712-13, 
715-17, 719, 721-2, 740, 756, 778-9, 
810, 1216-17, 1219-20, 1226, 1257 
present to 281 
See also Accession Day and Patrons and 
Travelling Companies under Queen 
Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia 125 
childbirth of, celebrated 517, 520 
marriage of 493, 1237-8 
players of 725, 1248 
See also Patrons and Travelling Companies 
under Queen of Bohemia 
Ellis, John, elephant keeper 594 
Ely, bishop of 235, 417, 780 
Ely, Camb 274, 730 
Ely diocesan records 812 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge 753-4; see 
also waits, Cambridge, gifts and 
payments to 
Emmanuel College, records of 
bursar's accounts 370-2, 393, 397-400, 
405, 413-18, 422, 487, 493, 517, 522, 
546, 553,557, 567, 575,615-16, 623-7, 
630, 648, 653, 661,675, 684, 694 
steward's book 631,661 
entertainers 7-8, 107 
members of pr forbidden to attend public 
performances by 3 
See also waits, Cambridge and Patrons and 
Travelling Companies 

INDEX 1457 

The Fens 705-6 
Fenton, Lord see Patrons and Travelling 
Companies under Fentoun 
Ferrers (Ferris), Edward, playwright 851 
festivals 715, 741 
parochial 107, 812-13; at All Saints' 8, 15? 
17-22, 734; at Great St Mary's 4-27, 
40-4, 51, 734-5; at Little St Mary's 
18-33, 46, 54, 734-5, 764 
See also Appendix 18 
Feuster see Foyster 
fiddlers 654, 688, 857 
Fidus Pastor 853; see also Pastor Fidus 
Filli di Sciro 922 
fines, bail, and bonds 780 
for not performing comedies: at sJ 133; at 
Ol3 205; at GC 267 
of entertainers for playing in or about 
Cambridge 363, 396, 403-4, 571-2, 
of students for attending public spectacles 
259, 271 ; at GC 267; for riotous behaviour 
at plays 361, 385-90, 407-9, 411-12, 
491; for using tobacco 409-10 
Finet, Sir John, king's master of ceremonies 
1248, 1252 
fires (for heat) 530; see also fuel 
Fitzroy, Henry, duke of Richmond see 
Patrons and Travelling Companies 
Handers, regent of see Philip 
Fletcher, Giles, poet 1229 
- John, manservant, of Ware 365-7 
Flower, John 638, 640 
flying apparatus see stage machinery 
food and drink 61, 75, 116, 226, 287, 305, 
349, 354, 409-10, 531,612, 634 
for royal visit 534 
for scene painters 531 
for wait's apprentices 612-13 
for performers 27, 31, 47, 142-3,672,698, 
See also breakfasts; dinners; meals; and 
food and drink, kinds of 

bread 7, 516, 535, 734; diet 489 
butter 192 
cakes 150 
cheese 166, 210 
desserts and sweets: cares 157, 213; comfits 
67; junkets 114-15; suckers 150; wafers 
drink: ale 157, 166; aqua vitae 185; beer 
6-7, 73, 145, 466, 516, 535, 617, 734, 
781 ; double 210, 226; sack 498; wine 44, 
47, 49, 53, 55, 65, 67-70, 74, 90-1, 
103-4, 146, 150, 155, 166, 169, 177,210, 
263, 354, 366, 374, 489, 498, 505? 511, 
540, 568,609, 654,679; burnt 489, 633, 
679; Rhine 493, 509 
fish 533 
fruit: apples 146, 177; strawberries 80 
marmalade 150 
meat 167, 202,206,222,225,321,323,612; 
cold 679; carpenters' 499; mutton 165, 
169, 192, 194, 209, 273, 281, 307, 312; 
veal 192; venison 68-9 
pies 498, 679 
puddings 165-6 
sugar 166, 493 
fools see under play characters 
fool's day (supposed) 988-9 
footbal| 811, 1222 
Fordam (Fordham), William 450, 456-7